William Brackenridge

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William Dunlop Brackenridge
William Dunlop Brackenridge (young).jpg
Born 1810
Ayr, Scotland
Died 1893
Baltimore, United States
Residence Edinburgh
Berlin
Philadelphia
Washington, DC
Fields botany
Institutions Gardener to Patrick Neill, Secretary of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, Edinburgh
Student under Christoph Friedrich Otto, Director of the Botanical Garden in Berlin
United States Exploring Expedition
Known for Darlingtonia californica
Influences Asa Gray
Author abbreviation (botany) Brackenr. or Brack.
Brackenridge in 1880

William Dunlop Brackenridge (1810–1893) was a Scottish nurseryman and botanist.

Brackenridge emigrated to Philadelphia in 1837, where he was employed by Robert Buist, nurseryman. He was appointed horticulturalist, then assistant botanist, for the United States Exploring Expedition from 1838-1842. Originally, the well-known botanist Asa Gray was to be the chief botanist, and William Rich, a Washington, DC socialite and son of an ambassador, was politically appointed as his assistant. However, Gray never went on the expedition due to taking an academic job, and Rich was appointed botanist, so they needed a new assistant. Rich was reportedly of little use on the trip, and Brackenridge did almost all the collecting and serious botany work.

Brackenridge was assigned to the U.S. Ship Vincennes. In 1839, he collected plants in the Sydney and Hunter River districts of New South Wales, Australia. From 1841-1842, the ships explored the Oregon and California coasts, with trips inland. After returning, he continued working with the collected plants and wrote the fern report for the expedition, included in the overall botanical report written by Asa Gray. After 1855, he lived in Baltimore and worked as a nurseryman and landscape architect. Near Mount Shasta, he discovered the California Pitcher Plant, Darlingtonia californica, one of the noted successes of the expedition. He chose the genus name to honor his friend, Pennsylvania botanist William Darlington.

Brackenridge Passage in Puget Sound is named for him.

Reports of the day indicate that Brackenridge was a hardy, strapping six-footer. He and his wife Isobel were Presbyterians. They had at least four children: Agnes (1846), Robert Buist (1847), William D. (1850), and Jane Henderson Brackenridge (1854).

Plants named for W. D. Brackenridge[edit]

Plants named by W. D. Brackenridge[edit]

(list not inclusive)

  • Diocidopteris Brackenr. (genus)
  • Diellia Brackenr. (genus; now included in Asplenium L.)
  • Darlingtonia californica Brackenr.
  • Onychium densum Brackenr.: now Aspidotis densa (Brackenr.) Lellinger
  • Antrophyum subfalcatum Brackenr.
  • Cyrtogonium palustre Brackenr.: now Bolbitis palustris (Brackenr.) Hennipman
  • Sitolobium samoense Brackenr.: now Dennstaedtia samoensis ( Brackenr.) T.Moore
  • Gymnogramme pilosa Brackenr.: now Coniogramme pilosa (Brackenr.) Hieron.
  • Blechnum coriaceum (Brackenr.) Brownlie
  • Blechnum vittatum Brackenr.
  • Polypodium sarmentosum Brackenr.: now Adenophorus sarmentosus ( Brackenr. ) K.Wilson
  • Goniopteris costata Brackenr.: now Pneumatopteris costata (Brackenr.) Holtt.
  • Lastrea attenuata Brackenr.: now Plesioneuron attenuatum (Brackenr.) Holtt.
  • Goniopteris glandulifera Brackenr.: now Pneumatopteris glandulifera (Brackenr.) Holtt.
  • Elaphoglossum inlermedium Brackenr.
  • Pteris sinuata Brackenr.
  • Oleandra hirta Brackenr.

Works by W. D. Brackenridge[edit]

  • Brackenridge, William Dunlop. United States Exploring Edition Report, Volume XVI - Botany - Filices. 1854.
  • Brackenridge, William Dunlop. United States Exploring Edition Report, Volume XVI - Botany - Filices: Atlas. 1856.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Engraving of W. D. Brackenridge: Frontispiece, The Gardener’s Monthly and Horticulturist: Devoted to Horticulture, Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 26:312. December 1894.
  • William Dunlop Brackenridge Papers, circa 1838-1875 in Smithsonian Institution Archives: http://siarchives.si.edu/findingaids/FARU7189.htm
  • Bornholdt, Mariana D. "Botanizing Western Oregon In 1841 – The Wilkes Inland Expedition": http://www.npsoregon.org/kalmiopsis/kalmiopsis12/wilkes.pdf
  • Journal of William Dunlop Brackenridge for October, 1841: California Historical Society Quarterly, 24(4):326-336. December, 1945.