William Dale Phillips

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
William Dale Phillips
Born (1925-10-10)October 10, 1925
Elgin, Illinois
Died December 15, 1993(1993-12-15) (aged 68)
St. Louis Missouri
Residence United States
Citizenship United States
Fields Physical chemistry
Institutions U. S. Navy,
DuPont Central Research,
Washington University,
Mallinckrodt,
Advisors on Science and Technology.
Alma mater University of Kansas,
MIT
Doctoral advisor Richard C. Lord
Known for NMR Spectroscopy
Notable awards National Academy of Sciences

William Dale Phillips was a chemist, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopist, federal science policy advisor and member of the National Academy of Sciences. He was born October 10, 1925, in Kansas City, Missouri and died in St. Louis, Missouri, on December 15, 1993.

Training[edit]

Phillips graduated from public high school and immediately entered the U.S. Navy V-12 program in 1943. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Texas, was commissioned, and left active duty in 1946. Phillips completed a Bachelors Degree in chemistry in 1948 at the University of Kansas and obtained a PhD in physical chemistry at MIT under the direction of Richard C. Lord studying the vibrational spectra of organic molecules.

Career[edit]

In 1951, Phillips joined DuPont Central Research. He held positions starting with research chemist, rising to research supervisor, manager and assistant and associate director. Phillips began to explore the nascent field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). His initial interest was in molecular motion in organic systems.[1][2][3][4][5] Together with Earl Muetterties, he also explored molecular dynamics in inorganic systems.[6][7][8][9][10][11] DuPont's strength in organofluorine chemistry[12][13][14] and cyanocarbon chemistry[15][16][17][18][19] led to investigation of those systems. His work on paramagnetic molecules[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] was the foundation of modern paramagnetic shift reagents and MRI imaging.

Phillips' interests then turned toward the biological. His particular interests were ferredoxins,[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] and lysozyme.[40][41][42][43] He also had a strong interest in the NMR and ESR of nucleic acids and other biological macromlecules.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]

To further his understanding of biochemistry, he took a DuPont Industrial Postdoctoral in 1962 to go to MIT in biochemistry. In 1973 he was on assignment from DuPont to ICI as liaison to their program to produce protein for animal feed from methane through fermentation microbiology. Retiring from DuPont Central Research in 1978, Phillips assumed the positions of chair and Charles Allen Thomas professor of chemistry at Washington University.

In 1984 he joined Mallinckrodt, Inc. as senior vice-president for research and development. He accepted a role on the Bush administration’s Science Advisory Board. He chaired the National Critical Technologies Panel through the National Academy of Sciences. He served on the editorial boards of several scientific journals and on the boards of directors of Mallinckrodt, Sigma-Aldrich, the Missouri Corporation for Science and Technology, the St. Louis Science Center, the St. Louis Technology Center, and Celgene Corporation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phillips, W. D.; Looney, C. E. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of rotational isomerism in alkyl nitrites. Mol. Spectroscopy (1957), 1 35-42.
  2. ^ Phillips, W. D.. Restricted rotation in amides as evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of Chemical Physics (1955), 23 1363-4.
  3. ^ Phillips, W. D.. Studies of hindered internal rotation in organic molecules by nuclear magnetic resonance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1958), 70 817-32.
  4. ^ Looney, Catharine E.; Phillips, W. D.; Reilly, E. L. Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared study of hindered rotation in nitrosamines. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1957), 79 6136-42.
  5. ^ Drysdale, J. J.; Philips, W. D.. Restricted rotation in substituted ethanes as evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1957), 79 319-22.
  6. ^ Muetterties, E. L.; Phillips, W. D.. Structure of ClF3 and exchange studies on some halogen fluorides by nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.). Journal of the American Chemical Society (1957), 79 322-6.
  7. ^ Muetterties, E. L.; Phillips, W. D.. Fluoroarsenites. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1957), 79 3686-7.
  8. ^ Muetterties, E. L.; Phillips, W. D.. Lewis character of tellurium hexafluoride. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1957), 79 2975.
  9. ^ Phillips, W. D.; Miller, H. C.; Muetterties, E. L. B11 magnetic resonance study of boron compounds. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1959), 81 4496-500.
  10. ^ Muetterties, E. L.; Phillips, W. D.. Structure of exchange processes in some inorganic fluorides by nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1959), 81 1084-8.
  11. ^ Muetterties, Earl L.; Phillips, William Dale. Fluorine exchange in sulfur tetrafluoride. Journal of Chemical Physics (1967), 46(7), 2861-2.
  12. ^ Phillips, W. D.. Fluorine magnetic resonance spectra of some mono- and disubstituted tetrafluorocyclobutanes. J. Chem. Phys. (1956), 25 949-55.
  13. ^ Eaton, D. R.; Josey, A. D.; Phillips, W. D.; Benson, R. E. F19 contact interaction shifts: effects on fluorine conjugation. Molecular Physics (1962), 5 407-16.
  14. ^ Phillips, W. D.. High-resolution H1 and F19 magnetic resonance spectra of organic molecules. Detn. Org. Struct. Phys. Methods (1961), 2 401-63.
  15. ^ Merriefield, R. E.; Phillips, W. D.. Cyanocarbon chemistry. II. Spectroscopic studies of the molecular complexes of tetracyanoethylene. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1958), 80 2778-82.
  16. ^ Chesnut, D. B.; Foster, H.; Phillips, W. D.. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) studies of spin correlation in some ion radical salts. Journal of Chemical Physics (1961), 34 684-5.
  17. ^ Phillips, W. D.; Rowell, J. C. Electron spin paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the tetracyanoethylene anion radical. Journal of Chemical Physics (1960), 33 626-7.
  18. ^ Goll, R. J.; Phillips, W. D.. Pressure dependence of the methyltriphenylphosphonium (TCNQ)2 phase change. Journal of Chemical Physics (1965), 43(3), 1076.
  19. ^ Boyd, Richard H.; Phillips, William D.. Solution dimerization of the tetracyanoquinodimethan ion radical. Journal of Chemical Physics (1965), 43(9), 2927-9.
  20. ^ LaLancette, E. A.; Eaton, D. R.; Benson, R. E.; Phillips, W. D.. N.M.R. (nuclear magnetic resonance) contact shifts in paramagnetic Ni(II) salicylaldimines. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1962), 84 3968-70.
  21. ^ Eaton, D. R.; Josey, A. D.; Benson, R. E.; Phillips, W. D.; Cairns, T. L. Unpaired electron distribution in π-systems. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1962), 84 4100-6.
  22. ^ Eaton, D. R.; Phillips, W. D.; Caldwell, D. J. Configurations and magnetic properties of the nickel(II) aminotroponeimineates. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1963), 85 397-406.
  23. ^ Eaton, D. R.; Josey, A. D.; Phillips, W. D.; Benson, R. E. Hyperfine contact shifts and spin density distributions in some Ni(II) chelates. Discussions of the Faraday Society (1962), No. 34 77-87.
  24. ^ Eaton, D. R.; Josey, A. D.; Phillips, W. D.; Benson, R. E. Spin-density distributions in conjugated ligands of paramagnetic chelates from nuclear magnetic resonance contact interaction shifts. Journal of Chemical Physics (1962), 37 347-60.
  25. ^ McDonald, C. C.; Phillips, W. D.; Mower, H. F. An electron spin resonance study of some complexes of iron, nitric oxide, and anionic ligands. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1965), 87(15), 3319-26.
  26. ^ Eaton, D. R.; Phillips, W. D.. Spin delocalization in mixed tetrahedral Ni (II) complexes. Journal of Chemical Physics (1965), 43(2), 392-8.
  27. ^ McDonald, C. C.; Phillips, W. D.. A nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.) study of structures of cobalt(II)-histidine complexes. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1963), 85(23), 3736-42.
  28. ^ Eaton, D. R.; Phillips, W. D.. Nuclear magnetic resonance of paramagnetic molecules. Advan. Magn. Resonance (1966), 1 103-48.
  29. ^ McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William Dale; Vinogradov, Serge N. Proton magnetic resonance evidence for methionine-iron coordination in mammalian-type ferrocytochrome c. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1969), 36(3), 442-9.
  30. ^ Blomstrom, D. C.; Knight, E. Jr.; Phillips, W. D.; Weiher, J. F. The nature of Fe in ferredoxin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1964), 51(6), 1085-92.
  31. ^ Poe, Martin; Phillips, William Dale; McDonald, Charles C.; Lovenberg, Walter. Proton magnetic resonance study of ferredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1970), 65(4), 797-804.
  32. ^ Poe, Martin; Phillips, William Dale; McDonald, Charles C.; Orme-Johnson, William H. PMR and magnetic susceptibility studies on Clostridium acidi-urici ferredoxin. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1971), 42(4), 705-13.
  33. ^ Glickson, J. D.; Phillips, William Dale; McDonald, Charles C.; Poe, M. PMR characterization of alfalfa and soybean ferredoxins: the existence of two ferredoxins in soybean. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication (1971), 42(2), 271-9.
  34. ^ Poe, Martin; Phillips, William Dale; Glickson, J. D.; McDonald, Charles C.; San Pietro, Anthony. Proton magnetic resonance studies of the ferredoxins from spinach and parsley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1971), 68(1), 68-71.
  35. ^ Phillips, W. D.; Poe, Martin. NMR spectroscopy of the iron-sulfur proteins. Iron-Sulfur Proteins (1973), 2 255-84.
  36. ^ Phillips, William Dale; Poe, M.; Weiher, J. F.; McDonald, Charles C.; Lovenberg, W. Proton magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and Moessbauer studies of Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin. Nature (London, United Kingdom) (1970), 227(5258), 574-7.
  37. ^ Phillips, W. D.; Poe, Martin. Contact shifts and magnetic susceptibilities in iron-sulfur proteins as determined from nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Methods Enzymol. (1972), 24(Pt. B), 304-17.
  38. ^ McDonald, C. C.; Phillips, W. D.; Lovenberg, W.; Holm, R. H. PMR studies on Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin. Origins of contact-shifted resonances and denaturation by dimethyl sulfoxide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1973), 222 789-99.
  39. ^ Phillips, William D.; McDonald, C. C.; Stombaugh, N. A.; Orme-Johnson, W. H. Proton magnetic resonance and magnetic susceptibility characterization of ferredoxin I from Bacillus polymyxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1974), 71(1), 140-3.
  40. ^ Glickson, J. D.; McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William Dale. Assignment of tryptophan indole NH Proton resonances of lysozyme. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1969), 35(4), 492-8.
  41. ^ McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William Dale. Perturbation of the PMR [proton magnetic resonance] spectrum of lysozyme by cobaltous ions. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1969), 35(1), 43-51.
  42. ^ Phillips, W. D.; Glickson, J. D.; Rupley, J. A. Proton magnetic resonance study of the indole NH resonances of lysozyme. Assignment, deuterium exchange kinetics, and inhibitor binding. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1971), 93(16), 4031-8.
  43. ^ McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William Dale; Glickson, J. D. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the mechanism of reversible denaturation of lysozyme. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1971), 93(1), 235-46.
  44. ^ McDonald, C. C.; Phillips, W. D.; Penman, Sheldon. Nucleic acids; a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study. Science (Washington, DC, United States) (1964), 144(3623), 1234-7.
  45. ^ McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William Dale; Lazar, Joseph. Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of thymine nearest neighbor base requency ratios in deoxyribonucleic acid. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1967), 89(16), 4166-70.
  46. ^ McDonald, C. C.; Phillips, W. D.; Penswick, John. N.M.R study of the secondary structure of sRNA. Biopolymers (1965), 3(6), 609-16.
  47. ^ McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William D.. Proton magnetic resonance spectra of proteins in random-coil configurations. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1969), 91(6), 1513-21.
  48. ^ McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William Dale. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological macromolecules. Magn. Resonance Biol. Syst., Proc. Int. Conf., 2nd, Stockholm (1967), Volume Date 1966, 3-23.
  49. ^ McDonald, Charles C.; Phillips, William Dale. Manifestations of the tertiary structures of proteins in high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1967), 89(24), 6332-41.
  50. ^ Panar, M.; Phillips, W. D.. Magnetic ordering of poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) solutions. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1968), 90(14), 3880-2.
  51. ^ Phillips, W. D.. Biological applications of NMR. NMR Paramagn. Mol. (1973), 421-78.

External links[edit]