|Colonial Governor of New Jersey|
|Preceded by||Josiah Hardy|
|Succeeded by||William Livingston|
|Died||17 November, 1814 (aged 82–83)
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Downes, Mary Johnson d'Evelin|
|Occupation||soldier, colonial administrator|
William Franklin (ca. 1730 - November 1814) was a British American soldier, attorney, and colonial administrator, the acknowledged illegitimate son of Benjamin Franklin. He was appointed as the last Colonial Governor of New Jersey (1763-1776). Franklin was a steadfast Loyalist throughout the American War of Independence. As his father was one of the most prominent Patriots and a Founding Father of the United States, their differences caused an irreconcilable break between them.
Following imprisonment during the war, in 1782 the younger Franklin went into exile in Britain. He lived in London until his death.
Early life 
William Franklin was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, then a colony in British America. His exact date of birth is uncertain, but it was likely in 1730. He was the illegitimate son of Benjamin Franklin, a leading figure in the city. While his mother's identity is unknown, evidence suggests she was a "low woman". Confusion exists about William's birth and parentage because Benjamin was secretive about his son's origins. In 1750 Franklin told his own mother that William was nineteen years old, but this may have been an attempt to make the youth appear legitimate.
William was raised by Benjamin Franklin and Deborah Read, his common-law wife; William always called her his mother. There is some speculation  that Deborah Read was William's mother, and that because of his parents' common-law relationship, the circumstances of his birth were obscured so as not to be politically harmful to him or to their marital arrangement.
Military service 
As William grew older, he accompanied his father on several missions, including trips to England. Although often depicted as a young child when he assisted his father in the famed kite experiment in 1752, William was 21 years old at the time.
Marriage and family 
As a young man, William became engaged to Elizabeth Graeme, daughter of prominent Philadelphia physician Dr. Thomas Graeme and granddaughter of Pennsylvania's 14th Governor, Sir William Keith. Neither family approved of the match, but when William went to London to study law about 1759, he left with the understanding that Elizabeth would wait for him.
Later that year, Franklin married Elizabeth Downes on 4 September 1762 at St George's, Hanover Square in London. She was born in the English colony of Barbadoes to the sugar planter John Downes and his wife Elizabeth (née Parsons). She met Franklin while visiting England with her father in 1760. They moved to the New Jersey colony in 1763.
While Benjamin Franklin was in England a few years later on an extended mission, he learned about Temple and took an interest in the boy. When Franklin returned to Pennsylvania in 1775, he brought Temple, his only patrilineal grandson, with him to live in his household. He used him as an aide when a young man. In the late eighteenth century, Temple Franklin returned to London, living briefly with his father who was in exile there, and later settled in Paris. He died in Paris in 1823 and was buried in the Père-Lachaise Cemetery.
William Franklin's wife Elizabeth died in 1777, while he was imprisoned as a Loyalist during the American Revolutionary War. She was interred beneath the altar of St. Paul's Chapel in lower Manhattan, where she had resided after the British evacuated Perth Amboy. The memorial plaque on the wall at St. Paul's was commissioned by William Franklin from London, where he went into exile following the war. He was a widower for more than ten years.
William Franklin completed his law education in England, and was admitted to the bar. William and Benjamin Franklin became partners and confidantes, working together to pursue land grants in what was then called the Northwest (now Midwest). Before they left England, the senior Franklin lobbied hard to procure his son an appointment, especially working with the Prime Minister Lord Bute. William Franklin was appointed as Royal Governor of New Jersey.
Governor of New Jersey 
In 1763, William Franklin was appointed as the Royal Governor of New Jersey, due to his father's influence with the British Prime Minister. He replaced Josiah Hardy, a merchant and colonial administrator. As governor, Franklin signed the charter for Queen's College, which would develop as Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
American Revolutionary War 
Owing to his father's role as a Founding Father and William's loyalty to Britain, the relationship between father and son became strained past the breaking point. When Benjamin finally decided to take up the patriot cause, he tried to convince William to join him, but the son stayed loyal to the Crown.
William Franklin continued as governor until January of 1776, when colonial militiamen placed him under house arrest, which lasted until the middle of June. After the Declaration of Independence on 4 July, Franklin was formally taken into custody by order of the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, an entity which he refused to recognize, regarding it as an "illegal assembly". He was incarcerated in Connecticut for two years, in Wallingford and Middletown. He surreptitiously engaged Americans in supporting the Loyalist cause. Discovered, he was held in Litchfield, Connecticut for eight months. When finally released in a prisoner exchange in 1778, he moved to New York City, which was still occupied by the British. Active in the Loyalist community of New York, Franklin became President of the Board of Associated Loyalists.
Asgill Affair 
While in New York, Franklin tried to encourage a guerrilla war and active reprisals against the rebels but was frustrated by British Commander-in-Chief General Clinton, who did not support this. In 1782 Franklin was implicated in the Loyalist officer Richard Lippincott's hanging of Joshua Huddy. During a raid, Loyalist troops under Franklin's general oversight captured Joshua Huddy, an officer of the New Jersey militia. The Loyalist soldiers hanged Huddy in revenge for similar killings of Loyalists, particularly Phillip White. Huddy was a member of the Association of Retaliation, a vigilante body with a history of attacking and killing Loyalists and Neutrals in New Jersey. At the time, some alleged that Franklin had sanctioned the killing of Huddy.
When he heard of Huddy's death, General George Washington threatened to execute Captain Charles Asgill, a British officer who had been captured at Yorktown, unless Lippincott were handed over to the American military. The British refused, but tried Lippincott. The British acquitted him of charges in the hanging. Due to the intervention of the French King Louis XVI, who interceded with his American allies to prevent Asgill's execution, the British officer was eventually exchanged by the Americans.
In 1782, William Franklin departed for Britain, never to return. In London, he became a leading spokesman for the Loyalist community. Because of the continued strength of British forces in North America, in spite of the disaster at Yorktown, many expected Britain to continue fighting the war. The British naval victory against the French at the Battle of the Saintes and the successful defence of Gibraltar also raised their hopes. In summer 1782 a new British government came to power, who still hoped to achieve a reconciliation with the American colonies.
Treaty of Paris 
Benjamin Franklin became known for his uncompromising position related to not providing compensation or amnesty for the Loyalists who left the colonies, during the negotiations in Paris for a peace treaty. His son's reputation as a Loyalist may have contributed to his position. In 1783 the Peace of Paris was concluded, bringing the war to an end. Parliament agreed to the independence of the Thirteen Colonies and to generous borders.
Later years 
William Franklin sent a letter to his father, dated 22 July 1784, in an attempt at reconciliation but the latter did not respond. William saw his father one last time in 1785, when Benjamin stopped in Britain on his return journey to the United States after his time in France. The meeting was brief and involved tying up outstanding legal matters. On 14 August 1788, the widower William married Mary Johnson d'Evelin, a widow with children, as his second wife.
In his 1788 will, Benjamin Franklin left William virtually none of his wealth, except some territory in Nova Scotia. He said that, had Britain won the war, he would have had no wealth to leave his son.
Benjamin left a manuscript for his autobiography, which he dedicated to his son. But he did not mention him further, except indirectly by the inclusion of a newspaper article in which Franklin noted that his son was authorized to make contracts to purchase carts for the British army.
After a failed career in business in the United States, William's son Temple went to England, where he lived with his father for a time. While in England, he had an illegitimate daughter, Ellen (1798-1875) with a daughter of his stepmother, Mary d'Evelin Franklin. Temple moved to Paris, where he lived the remainder of his life. William died in 1813, and is buried in St Pancras Old Church churchyard.
Designated as Benjamin Franklin's literary heir, Temple later edited and published his grandfather's notable Autobiography in both London and New York, 1817-1819, as well as three volumes of his writings in 1819.
Legacy and honors 
- Franklin Township in Bergen County, New Jersey, was named in William's honor, as was the borough of Franklin Lakes.
See also 
- Franklin, Benjamin, Britannica Online, accessed 16 November 2006
- Randall, p. 43
- Hart, "Who Was the Mother of Franklin's Son"
- "William Temple Franklin Papers, 1775-1819", American Philosophical Society, accessed 4 November 2012
- Joan N. Burstyn, Past and Promise: Lives of New Jersey Women, pp. 20-21: Syracuse Univ Pr (1997) ISBN 0-8156-0418-1
- Sheila Skemp, William Franklin: Son of a Patriot, Servant of a King (1990), p. 211
- Fleming, pp. 188-189
- Last Will and Testament of Benjamin Franklin, accessed 5 July 2006
- Benjamin Franklin's autobiography is dedicated to his son William, and begins with the heading: "Dear Son:..."
- Benjamin Franklin. (1706–1790). His Autobiography, accessed 5 July 2006
- Sheila Skemp, William Franklin: Son of a Patriot, Servant of a King (Oxford University Press, 1990).
- Willard Sterne Randall, A Little Revenge: Benjamin Franklin & His Son (Little, Brown & Co, 1984).
- Charles Henry Hart, “Who Was the Mother of Franklin's Son: An Inquiry demonstrating that she was Deborah Read, wife of Benjamin Franklin,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 35, no 3, (1911) p. 308-314.
- Paul Leicester Ford, Who Was the Mother of Franklin's Son?: An Historical Conundrum, Hitherto given up—Now Partly Answered (Brooklyn, 1889)
- Biography of William Franklin
- Franklin Institute Biography of William Franklin
- William Franklin at Find a Grave
- Hart, “Who Was the Mother of Franklin's Son"
|Governor of New Jersey
Last Colonial Governor
Last Royal Governor
First Revolutionary Governor