William Hodges RA (28 October 1744 – 6 March 1797) was an English painter. He was a member of James Cook's second voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and is best known for the sketches and paintings of locations he visited on that voyage, including Table Bay, Tahiti, Easter Island, and the Antarctic.
During his early career, he made a living by painting theatrical scenery.
Between 1772 and 1775 Hodges accompanied James Cook to the Pacific as the expedition's artist. Many of his sketches and wash paintings were adapted as engravings in the original published edition of Cook's journals from the voyage.
Most of the large-scale landscape oil paintings from his Pacific travels for which Hodges is best known were finished after his return to London; he received a salary from the Admiralty for the purposes of completing them. These paintings depicted a stronger light and shadow than had been usual in European landscape tradition. Contemporary art critics complained that his use of light and colour contrasts gave his paintings a rough and unfinished appearance.
Hodges also produced many valuable portrait sketches of Pacific islanders and scenes from the voyage involving members of the expedition.
In 1778, under the patronage of Warren Hastings, Hodges travelled to India, one of the first British professional landscape painter to visit that country. He remained there for 6 years, staying in Lucknow with Claude Martin in 1783.
In 1793 Hodges published an illustrated book about his travels in India.
In late 1794 Hodges opened an exhibition of his own works in London that included two large paintings called The Effects of Peace and The Effects of War. In late January, 1795, with Britain engaged in the War of the First Coalition against Revolutionary France and feelings running high, the exhibition was visited by Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, the second son of King George III. The Duke took offence at the political nature of Hodges' paintings and ordered the exhibition closed; this royal censure effectively ended Hodges' career as a painter.
Hodges retired to Devon and became involved with a bank, which failed during the banking crisis of March, 1797. On 6 March of that year, he died from what was officially recorded as "gout in the stomach", but which was also rumored to be suicide from an overdose of laudanum.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1891). "Hodges, William (1744-1797)". Dictionary of National Biography 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Rosie Llewellyn-Jones A Man of the Enlightenment in Eighteenth-century India: The Letters of Claude Martin, 1766-1800 page 96 accessed July 2007
- Hodges, W. (1794). Travels in India, during the years 1780, 1781, 1782, and 1783. London.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Hodges.|
- Hodges exhibition at the National Maritime Museum
- Indian landscapes by Hodges
- Adorning the world: art of the Marquesas Islands, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on William Hodges (nos. 17 & 18)
- Smith, B., European Vision and the South Pacific. ISBN 0-300-04479-8.
- B. Smith, 'William Hodges and English Plein-Air Painting', in Art History; 6:2 (1983)
- I. C. Stuebe, The Life and Works of William Hodges (1979)
- Beaglehole, J.C., The Life of Captain James Cook. ISBN 0-8047-0848-7.