He was born in Newton on September 2, 1783. He attended the district school. He served as a member of the board of selectmen and served on the school board committee in town. He was chief founder of the Newton Temperance Society, engaged in the manufacture of soap and candles, and became interested in railroads. From 1829 to 1832, he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, and he was secretary of the Newton Female Academy. He also served as president of Newton Savings Bank.
Jackson was elected as an Anti-Masonic candidate to the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Congresses (March 4, 1833 – March 3, 1837). He declined to be a candidate for renomination to the Twenty-fifth Congress and resumed his manufacturing pursuits. He was also one of the founders of the Liberty Party and opposed slavery. Jackson served as president of the American Missionary Society from 1846 to 1854, and he was publisher of a newspaper. He died in Newton on February 27, 1855. Interment was in the Old Burial Ground, East Parish Burying Ground.