William Juxon

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The Most Revd and Rt Hon
William Juxon
Archbishop of Canterbury
William Juxon from NPG.jpg
Church Church of England
Province Province of Canterbury
Diocese Diocese of Canterbury
Elected 13 September 1660 (elected);
20 September 1660 (election confirmed), Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey
Installed 25 September 1660
Term ended 4 June 1663 (death)
Predecessor William Laud
Successor Gilbert Sheldon
Other posts President of St John's College, Oxford (1621–1633)
Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1626–1628)
Dean of Worcester (1628–1632)
Clerk of the Closet (1632–1633)
Bishop-elect of Hereford (1633)
Bishop of London (1633–1660)
Lord High Treasurer (1636–1641)
First Lord of the Admiralty (1636–1638)
Personal details
Born 1582
Chichester, Sussex, England
Died 4 June 1663(1663-06-04) (aged c. 81 years)
Lambeth, Surrey, England
Buried 9 July 1663, Chapel of St John's College, Oxford
Nationality English
Denomination Anglican
Parents Richard Juxon
Occupation also a minister of the Crown
Profession Lawyer; academic
Alma mater St John's College, Oxford

William Juxon (1582–4 June 1663) was an English churchman, Bishop of London from 1633 to 1649 and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1660 until his death.[2] As Lord High Treasurer and First Lord of the Admiralty, Juxon was the last English clergyman to hold both secular and clerical offices in the medieval tradition of clerical state service.[3]

Life[edit]

Education[edit]

Juxon was the son of Robert Juxon and was born probably in Chichester, and educated at the local grammar school, The Prebendal School. He then went on to Merchant Taylors' School, London, and St John's College, Oxford, where he was elected to a scholarship in 1598.

Ecclesiastical offices[edit]

Juxon studied law at Oxford, but afterwards took holy orders, and in 1609 became vicar of St Giles' Church, Oxford, where he stayed until he became rector of Somerton, Oxfordshire in 1615. In December 1621, he succeeded his friend, William Laud, as President (i.e.. head) of St John's College, and in 1626 and 1627 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Juxon soon obtained other important positions, including that of chaplain-in-ordinary to King Charles I.

In 1627, he was made Dean of Worcester and in 1632 he was nominated to the bishopric of Hereford and resigned the presidency of St John's in January 1633. However, he never took up duties at Hereford, as in October 1633 he was consecrated Bishop of London in succession to Laud.

Secular offices[edit]

In March 1636 Charles I entrusted Juxon with important secular duties by making him Lord High Treasurer of England as well as First Lord of the Admiralty; for the next five years he had to deal with many financial and other difficulties. He resigned the treasurership in May 1641. During the Civil War, the bishop, against whom no charges were brought in parliament, lived undisturbed at Fulham Palace. His advice was often sought by the king, who had a very high opinion of him. The king selected Juxon to be with him on the scaffold and to offer him the last rites before his execution.

Retirement and archbishopric[edit]

Juxon was deprived of his bishopric in 1649 and retired to Little Compton in Gloucestershire, where he had bought an estate, and became famous as the owner of a pack of hounds. At the restoration of Charles II, letters missive were issued (on 2 September 1660) naming Juxon (Bishop of London) Archbishop of Canterbury.

The congé d'élire was issued the next day and the chapter of Canterbury duly elected him on 13 September. The king's assent to the election was given on 15 September and the confirmation of Juxon's election (the legal ceremony by which he took office) was held in the Henry VII Chapel of Westminster Abbey on 20 September 1660.[N 1][4] He received the temporalities on 22 September and was enthroned at Canterbury on 25 September.[5] Juxon, as Archbishop of Canterbury, then took part in the new king's coronation, but his health soon began to fail and he died at Lambeth. By his will the archbishop was a benefactor to St John's College, where he was buried; he also aided the work of restoring St Paul's Cathedral and rebuilt the great hall at Lambeth Palace.

Memorials[edit]

Juxon House, which stands north-west of St Paul's Cathedral at the top of Ludgate Hill in London and forms part of the Paternoster Square development, is named after him. Juxon Street on land at Walton Manor formerly owned by St John's College in the inner-city suburb of Jericho, Oxford, is also named after him.[6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The bishops present to confirm Juxon's election were: Accepted Frewen, Archbishop-designate of York and Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry; Brian Duppa, Bishop-elect of Winchester and Bishop of Salisbury; William Piers, Bishop of Bath and Wells; Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely; Robert Skinner, Bishop of Oxford; William Roberts, Bishop of Bangor; John Warner, Bishop of Rochester; and Henry King, Bishop of Chichester.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perceval, A.P. An Apology for the Doctrine of Apostolical Succession: with an Appendix on the English Orders p. 204 (Google Books)
  2. ^ Mason, Thomas. Serving God and Mammon: William Juxon, 1582–1663. ISBN 0-87413-251-7. 
  3. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannia, 1911. See Sources.
  4. ^ Lambeth Palace Library Research Guide – Places of Confirmation of Election of Archbishops of Canterbury (Accessed 31 July 2013)
  5. ^ Horn, Joyce M., Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857 3, pp. 8–12  (Accessed 31 July 2013)
  6. ^ "Juxon Street". Jericho Echo Online. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 

Sources[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Lindsey
First Lord of the Admiralty
1636–1638
Succeeded by
The Earl of Northumberland
as Lord High Admiral
In commission
William Laud
First Lord of the Treasury
Lord High Treasurer
1636–1641
In commission
The Lord Littelton
First Lord of the Treasury
Church of England titles
Preceded by
Francis Godwin
Bishop-elect of Hereford
1633
Succeeded by
Godfrey Goodman
Preceded by
William Laud
Bishop of London
1633–1649
Vacant
Title next held by
Gilbert Sheldon
Vacant
Title last held by
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury
1660–1663
Succeeded by
Gilbert Sheldon
Academic offices
Preceded by
William Laud
President of St John's College, Oxford
1621–1633
Succeeded by
Richard Baylie