William March

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For the American funeral director, see William C. March.
William March
Marchwi.jpg
William March, c. 1933
Born (1893-09-18)September 18, 1893[a]
Mobile, Alabama
Died May 15, 1954(1954-05-15) (aged 60)
New Orleans, Louisiana
Occupation
  • Novelist
  • Short-story writer
Genre Psychological realism
Literary movement The Lost Generation

William March (September 18, 1893[a] – May 15, 1954) was an American writer of psychological fiction and a highly decorated US Marine. The author of six novels and four short-story collections, March was praised by critics but never attained great popularity.

March grew up in rural Alabama in a family so poor that he could not finish high school, and did not get a high school equivalency until he was 20. He later studied law, but was again unable to afford finishing his studies. In 1917, while working in a Manhattan law office, he volunteered for the US Marines and saw action in World War I, for which he was decorated with some of the highest honors—the French Croix de Guerre, the American Distinguished Service Cross and the Navy Cross. After the war he again worked in a law office before embarking on a financially successful business career. He also began writing, first short stories, then in 1933 a novel based on his war experiences, Company K. Literary success eluded him. His last novel, The Bad Seed, was published in 1954, the year March died. It became a bestseller, but he never saw his story adapted first for the stage and then for film.

Early life[edit]

William March was born William Edward Campbell, in Florida, where his father worked as a "timber cruiser", his job to estimate which stands of trees were big enough for lumber companies to invest in a saw mill in the area. He was the eldest son of eleven children (two of whom died in infancy), and grew up in and around Mobile, Alabama.[1] His father was an occasional heavy drinker who had a fondness for reciting poetry (especially Edgar Allan Poe's) at the dinner table.[2] His mother, whose maiden name was Susan March, was probably better educated and taught the children to read and write; in the eyes of her family, she had married beneath herself.[3] Neither of them seemed to have supported young March's literary efforts; he later stated he had composed a 10,000 line poem at the age of 12 but had burned the manuscript. Having 8 other siblings, March was afforded no privileges; by the time he was 14 the family moved to Lockhart, Alabama, preventing him from going to high school (Lockhart would later become the imaginary Hodgetown, Pearl County, in March's 1936 novel The Tallons[4]). Instead, March received occasional schooling, probably in one-room edifices then common in sawmill towns.[5] He found employment in the office of a lumber mill.[6]

Two years later March had returned to Mobile and found employment in a local law office. By 1913, he had saved enough money to take a high school course at Valparaiso University in Indiana, which allowed him to enroll at the University of Alabama to study law. He thrived as a student but lacked the necessary tuition to complete his law degree. In the fall of 1916, he moved to New York. There he lived in a small boarding house in Brooklyn, finding work as a clerk in the Manhattan law firm of Nevins, Brett and Kellog, and attending plays.[7]

World War I[edit]

Military Awards, c. 1918

On June 5, 1917, March registered for military service, a little over a month after the U.S. entered World War I. He volunteered for the U.S. Marines on July 25, and after completing his training on Parris Island was shipped to France in February 1918.[8] Along with two other future World War I literary figures, John W. Thomason (Fix Bayonets) and Laurence Stallings (What Price Glory?),[citation needed] March embarked on USS Von Steuben at Philadelphia. March reached France in March 1918, serving as a sergeant in Co F, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines, 4th Brigade of Marines, Second Division of the U.S. Army Expeditionary Force.[9]

March's company took part in every major engagement in which American troops were involved, incurring heavy casualties. As a member of the 5th Marines, March saw his first action on the old Verdun battlefield near Les Eparges, and shortly afterwards at Belleau Wood, where he was wounded in the head and shoulder.[10] He returned to the front in time for the offensive at Soissons and the Battle of Saint-Mihiel. March was twice promoted and had attained the rank of sergeant when he was assigned to French troops in the Blanc Mont area, on "statistical duties".[11]

During the assault on Blanc Mont, which started on 3 October, March "left a shelter to rescue wounded", and the next day, "during a counterattack, the enemy having advanced to within 300 meters of the first aid station, he immediately entered the engagement and though wounded refused to be evacuated until the Germans were thrown back".[12] As a result of his actions, March received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm and the Army Distinguished Service Cross for valor[11] (the Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest Army decoration, next only to the Medal of Honor). A curious detail emerges from the account of his war experiences that would find its way into his fiction: though it appears he was never gassed badly enough to be hospitalized for it, upon his return from the war he told people that he was and that he only had a short time to live; a number of characters in Company K suffer and die after mustard gas attacks.[13] Roy Simmonds, March's biographer, locates what he calls the "two worlds of William March" (the title of his biography) in this period: throughout his life, March appears to have mixed reality with imagined memory, telling supposedly historical anecdotes that may not have been true. An experience March told a number of times included his jumping into a bomb crater to take shelter and coming face to face with a young German soldier, whom he instantly bayoneted; this anecdote found its way into Company K.[14]

Official citations[edit]

The official citation to the Croix de Guerre reads as follows:

During the operations in Blanc Mont region, October 3–4, 1918, he left a shelter to rescue the wounded. On October 5, during a counter-attack, the enemy having advanced to within 300 meters of the first aid station, he immediately entered the engagement and though wounded refused to be evacuated until the Germans were thrown back.[15]

The citation for March's Distinguished Service Cross (under his birthname William E. Campbell) reads as follows:

The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to William E. Campbell, Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism while serving with the 43d Company, 5th Regiment (Marines), 2d Division, A.E.F. in action near Blanc Mont, France, October 3–5, 1918. On October 3 and 4, while detailed on statistical work, Sergeant Campbell voluntarily assisted in giving first aid to the wounded. On October 5, when the enemy advanced within 300 yards of the dressing station, he took up a position in the lines, helping in defense. Although twice wounded, he remained in action under heavy fire until the enemy had been repulsed.[16]

When the Navy Cross, the United States Navy's second highest award for valor after the Medal of Honor, was established in 1919, March received that award as well (326 Marines who had previously received the Army Distinguished Service Cross in World War I would receive the Navy Cross for the same action). March's citation for the Navy Cross reads similar to that for the Army Distinguished Service Cross.[17]

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Sergeant William E. Campbell (MCSN: 89685), United States Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism while serving with the 43d Company, 5th Regiment (Marines), 2d Division, A.E.F. in action near Blanc Mont, France, October 3–5, 1918. On October 3 and 4, while detailed on statistical work, Sergeant Campbell voluntarily assisted in giving first aid to the wounded. On October 5 when the enemy advanced within 300 yards of the dressing station, he took up a position in the lines, helping in defense. Although twice wounded, he remained in action under heavy fire until the enemy had been repulsed.[18]

Literary aftermath of World War I[edit]

In 1919, March returned to civilian life, but experienced bouts of anxiety and depression, a common occurrence with returning veterans.[19] The aforementioned experience, of having bayoneted a young, blond German soldier, is recounted in Company K, there attributed to Private Manuel Burt; March suffered hysterical attacks at different moments in his life related to the throat and the eyes.[20] He rarely spoke of his own war experiences or awards, though he was later noted to always take his medals with him and to tell war stories on occasion.[21]

March stayed for a few weeks with his family in Tuscaloosa, then found work at a law firm in Mobile. Soon, however, he became the personal secretary of John B. Waterman, of whose newly founded and quickly growing shipping company, the Waterman Steamship Corporation, he eventually became vice-president. In 1924 he was promoted to traffic manager. In 1926, the company opened up an office in Memphis, Tennessee, which March supervised; he spent two years in Memphis and became involved in the local theater scene. All the while he traveled the country on business trips, often accompanied by his friend and business associate J.P. Case. This associate recalls that March's rooms were usually littered with papers and books, many of them on psychology: March was reading Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler intensively. In 1928, March moved again, to New York, where he took creative writing classes at Columbia University and began writing short stories.[22]

March settled on his pseudonym after sending out a number of different stories under different pseudonyms; the one that got published first decided his literary name. "The Holly Wreath" was his first publication; it appeared under the name of William March in The Forum, a literary magazine from New York, in September 1929. The Forum would publish more of his stories, as did Prairie Schooner, Contempo: A Review of Books and Personalities, and other literary magazines. His stories were included in two annual anthologies of short fiction, Edward O'Brien's The Best American Short Stories and the O. Henry Prize Stories, in 1930, 1931, and 1932. In all, he published some twenty stories; four of them were vignettes that were to be included in his first novel.[23]

March finished his first novel, Company K while living in New York; it was published in January 1933 by Harrison Smith & Robert Haas. Encompassing much of his war time experience, it was an instant success and went through three printings. By this time March was already living in Hamburg, Germany; he was now Waterman's senior traffic manager and was sent to Germany to help open up the European market.[23] In Hamburg he finished his second novel, Come in at the Door, his first novel of the "Pearl County" series of novels and short stories, set in the mythical towns of Hodgetown, Baycity, and Reedyville. In Hamburg he witnessed the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime and wrote a prophetic short story, "Personal Letter", which expressed anxiety over the political future of Germany and the world. March was fearful to publish the story, as he was already well-established as an anti-militarist author and was afraid to place his German friends and associates in undue peril.[24] It was later published in Trial Balance: The Collected Short Stories of William March.[23]

Two years later, following a move to London, March finished his third novel, The Tallons, the second in his "Pearl County" series. Reviews in the UK were generally positive, more so than in the United States.[25] Psychological problems that had already bothered him in Germany worsened in London, and he became a patient of Edward Glover, who was able to cure March's throat paralysis, diagnosing it as a hysterical condition.[26] (March dedicated The Tallons to him, "as a slight recompense for the gray hairs I have put in his head".[27]) While in London he became acquainted with a number of literary characters, leaving more of his Waterman work to his subordinates.[28] In 1937, he returned to the US and within two years resigned his position to concentrate more on his writing, which by then was a full-time occupation; he had been paid partly in stock and could live well off the dividends.[29] 1937, Simmonds notes, was an important year—it marked the high point of his productivity as a short-story writer, and the magazine The American Mercury took up Company K for a reprinting.[30] In 1943, he completed his most ambitious and critically acclaimed novel, The Looking-Glass, the final book in his "Pearl County" series;[31] Bert Hitchcock, literature professor at Auburn, called it March's "finest literary achievement."[32]

Later years[edit]

Harcourt published a March collection, Trial Balance: The Collected Short Stories of William March, in 1945, and according to Marjorie Farber, in The Kenyon Review, the stories pack "big ideas...elaborately in tiny anecdotal satires". March, she says, is "the dramatist of ideas, titles, puns--a comedian's Comedian, bearing perhaps the same relation to fiction as Stevens bears to poetry. But all the same it's astonishing what variety of quiet desperation and low misery and high comedy he manages to encompass in this book. Let's skip his defects, shall we? I haven't nearly room enough for all his virtues."[33] This critical acclaim notwithstanding, in 1947, after years of depression from his experiences in the war and a continuing bout of writer's block, March suffered a nervous breakdown. He briefly returned to Mobile to recuperate and made many return visits to New York to settle his affairs. On one such visit in 1949, March happened upon the gallery of New York art dealer Klaus Perls, which proved to be a turning point in his life.[34] Perls, accustomed to dealing with creative personalities, accepted March in a way he had not felt since his days of therapy in London.[35] Through Perls, March was able to talk openly about his creative process, using Perls as a sounding board to his ideas. Perls also introduced March to a world of other artists. In the works of Pablo Picasso and notably Chaim Soutine, March found a kinship and connection, as March and Soutine both displayed paranoid and schizophrenic tendencies. March returned Perls' friendship with a steady acquisition of works by Soutine, Picasso, Georges Rouault, and Joseph Glasco. March continued this friendship with routine visits to New York between 1949 and 1953, until ailing health prevented him from further travels.[36]

In late 1950, March permanently left Mobile and purchased a Creole cottage on Dumaine Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans. It was here that he composed his last two novels, October Island and The Bad Seed. March viewed the latter novel as a meager accomplishment, but it gained the most praise and success of any of his novels,[b] selling more than a million copies in one year,[38] launching a long-running Broadway hit penned by the Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Maxwell Anderson and a 1956 movie directed by Mervyn LeRoy.[39]

Death[edit]

On March 25, 1954, March suffered a mild heart attack and was still recovering when The Bad Seed was published on April 8, and he was able to read many of the book's positive reviews. He was discharged from the hospital on April 24, but after only three weeks, on the night of May 15, 1954, he died in his sleep of a second and more severe heart attack, aged 60.[39]

On the morning of March's death, the following paragraph was discovered in his typewriter. Entitled "Poor Pilgrim, Poor Stranger", it was presumably written after his discharge from the hospital (Simmonds surmises it might have been from a book March was working on), and reads:

The time comes in the life of each of us when we realize that death awaits us as it awaits others, that we will receive at the end neither preference nor exemption. It is then, in that disturbed moment, that we know life is an adventure with an ending, not a succession of bright days that go on forever. Sometimes the knowledge come with the repudiation and quick revolt that such injustice awaits us, sometimes with fear that dries the mouth and closes the eyes for an instant, sometimes with servile weariness, an acquiescence more dreadful than fear. The knowledge that my own end was near came with pain, and afterwards astonishment, with the conventional heart attack, from which, I've been told, I've made an excellent recovery.[39]

Literary works[edit]

March's novels are psychological character studies that intertwine his own personal torment—deriving presumably from childhood trauma as well as from his war experiences—with the conflicts spawned by class, family, sexual, and racial matters.[40] March's characters, through no fault of their own, tend to be victims of chance. He writes that freedom can only be obtained by being true to one's nature and humanity.[15]

Commenting on March's complete body of work, British-American journalist and broadcaster Alistair Cooke wrote that March was "the most underrated of all contemporary American writers of fiction", citing the author's unique style as "classic modern" and stating that March was "the unrecognized genius of our time."[41] Cooke himself championed the anthology A William March Omnibus, which was published two years after March died.[42] As of 2009, only The Bad Seed and Company K are still in print.[c]

Novels[edit]

Company K[edit]

Main article: Company K

Company K, published in 1933, was hailed as a masterpiece by critics and writers alike and has often been compared to Erich Maria Remarque's classic anti-war novel All Quiet on the Western Front for its hopeless view of war. University of Alabama professor of American literature and author Philip Beidler wrote, in his introduction to a republication of the book in 1989, that March's "act of writing Company K, in effect reliving his very painful memories, was itself an act of tremendous courage, equal to or greater than whatever it was that earned him the Distinguished Service Cross, Navy Cross and French Croix de Guerre."[15] Contemporary critics praised the powerful effect of March's novel technique of multiple points of view; already in 1935 (in an essay on new techniques in the novel), John Frederick wrote in The English Journal, "The cumulative effect... is one of the most powerful and memorable to be found in the whole range of writing about the war."[46] In 2004, Alabama filmmaker Robert Clem made a feature adaptation of the novel;[47][48] the movie attracted local interest.[49][50] The novel has garnered attention as a World War I classic in other languages also: in 1967 it was translated into Italian for editor Longanesi as "Fuoco!" ("Fire!") and in 2008, it was translated into Dutch and published in a series called "The Library of the First World War."[51]

The Bad Seed[edit]

Main article: The Bad Seed

The Bad Seed, published in April 1954, was a critical and commercial success, and introduced Rhoda Penmark, an eight-year-old sociopath and burgeoning serial killer. The novel became an instant bestseller and was widely praised by critics for its use of suspense and horror.[52] James Kelley writes, for The New York Times Book Review, "The Bad Seed scores a direct hit, either as exposition of a problem or as a work of art. Venturing a prediction and a glance over the shoulder: no more satisfactory novel will be written in 1954 or has turned up in recent memory."[53] Although March lived long enough to see the critical praise bestowed upon the novel and hear of its commercial success,[54] he died before the novel's full impact became apparent. It went on to sell more than a million copies,[38] was nominated for the 1955 National Book Award,[citation needed] adapted into a successful and long-running Broadway play by Maxwell Anderson,[38] and was adapted for film twice, in 1956 (directed by Mervyn Leroy)[38] and in 1985 (directed by Paul Wendkos).

Short prose[edit]

March was an accomplished short story writer and published four collections of stories. The Filipino poet and critic José García Villa regarded March as "the greatest short story writer America has produced."[55] He won four O. Henry Awards for his short stories, tied for the most wins by any author up until that time. Trial Balance: The Collected Short Stories of William March collects many of March's short stories from his entire career. The book was published in 1987 by the University of Alabama Press, with an introduction by Rosemary Canfield-Reisman. None of March's story collections are currently in print.

A little book with a March story, "The First Sunset", was printed in a limited edition of 150 copies by Cincinnati printer and writer Robert Lowry's Little Man Press.[56]

99 Fables[edit]

Main article: 99 Fables

Six years after March's death, his 99 Fables were published by the University of Alabama Press.[57] March's fables follow those of Aesop: according to a review in The New York Times Book Review, "Mr. March ... has picked up where Aesop and Don Marquis left off."[58] Allen King, however, reviewing the book for the South Atlantic Bulletin, said the fables are "platitudinous" and offer no new insights into the nature of man.[59] The cover won an award at the 1960 Southern Books Competition;[60] the book is not currently in print.

Biographical studies[edit]

The Two Worlds of William March[edit]

Of paramount importance to scholars is Roy S. Simmonds's 1984 "definitive biography of March",[61] The Two Worlds of William March. Simmonds continued the work of his friend Lawrence William Jones, who had been working on a March biography but died in a car accident. Simmonds had only a passing knowledge of March's writing, but became increasingly interested in finishing Jones' work after having read through many of the papers that Jones had left behind, notably the 43-page memoir "Bill March" by New Orleans journalist Clint Bolton.[62]

Although March had intimated that he wished for no biography to be written,[55] the Campbell family, after having read the completed manuscript, gave their approval, though grudgingly, it seems.[63] The biography received positive reviews, with one reviewer calling it "a critical study that is a judicious record of March's life and a fine tribute to his literary achievement",[43] and closes on a note of praise:

The cruel irony of his death, coming at the moment it did, deprived him of the immense satisfaction of the worldwide recognition he would have enjoyed following the success of The Bad Seed. Now March has been almost forgotten. His reputation, however, if little known at present, remains established and secure. Those of us who know, love, and admire his work live in the belief that one day March will be recognized as one of the most remarkable, talented, and shamefully neglected writers that America has produced in this or in any other century.[64]

Complementing the biography, Simmonds also published William March: An Annotated Checklist, an annotated bibliography of primary and secondary documents pertaining to March's life and work.[65]

William March/Company K[edit]

A documentary film on March entitled William March/Company K (2004) was made by Robert Clem; it includes excerpts from Clem's feature adaptation of Company K and focuses on the effects of March's painful war experience on his later life.[66] The documentary was shown at Birmingham, Alabama's Sidewalk Moving Picture Festival[67] and aired on PBS in 2004.[68]

Honors and awards[edit]

Military awards[edit]

Literary awards[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Novels[edit]

Collections[edit]

Films based on March's works[edit]

References[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b There is some doubt about the exact year; the family bible and university records have 1894, but later March insisted that 1893 was the right date. See Simmonds (1984), p. 326.
  2. ^ March had already died by the time Patrick F. Quinn, in a review of the novel in The Hudson Review, published his praise of March as an example of an apparently "relatively tame, almost old-fashioned writer" who nonetheless could "renovate" the novel without resorting to "gimmicks".[37]
  3. ^ When Philip Butcher reviewed Roy Simmonds's biography in 1985, he noted that only Company K was in print;[43] however, The Bad Seed was republished in 1997 by Ecco Press, with an edition by Elaine Showalter,[44] an edition republished in 2005 by Harper Perennial.[45]

Bibliographical notes[edit]

  1. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 3. His tombstone and draft card show birthplace as Mobile, AL.
  2. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 5.
  3. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 2-3.
  4. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 7.
  5. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 3, 7.
  6. ^ Simmonds (1988), p. xii.
  7. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 10-11.
  8. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 12.
  9. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 13-14.
  10. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 14-15.
  11. ^ a b Simmonds (1988), p. xiii.
  12. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 17.
  13. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 23–25.
  14. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 21-23.
  15. ^ a b c Beidler (1989), pp. vii-xxvi.
  16. ^ "WWI US Marine Corps Recipients of the Distinguished Service Cross". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2007. 
  17. ^ "Full Text Citations for Award of the Navy Cross to US Marines in World War I". Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2007. 
  18. ^ "Hall of Valor". William Campbell. Military Times. Retrieved August 5, 2009. 
  19. ^ "National Institute of Mental Health: Alliance for Research Progress" (PDF). January 20, 2006. Archived from the original on August 9, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2007. 
  20. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 23.
  21. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 25–26.
  22. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 27–31.
  23. ^ a b c Simmonds (1988), p. xvi.
  24. ^ Simmonds (1988), p. xvii.
  25. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 132-34.
  26. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 114-15.
  27. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 120.
  28. ^ a b Simmonds (1984), p. 135.
  29. ^ Simmonds (1988), pp. xvii-xviii.
  30. ^ Simmonds (1984), pp. 134-35.
  31. ^ Simmonds (1988), p. xix.
  32. ^ Hitchcock (2002), p. 28.
  33. ^ Farber, Marjorie (1946). "Some Culled Fictions". The Kenyon Review 8 (2): 330–33. 
  34. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 224.
  35. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 226.
  36. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 228.
  37. ^ Quinn, Patrick F. (1954). "Fiction Chronicle". The Hudson Review 7 (3): 460–65. doi:10.2307/3847780. 
  38. ^ a b c d Bronski, Michael (December 20, 2006). "The Rhoda Reaction". The Phoenix. Retrieved August 5, 2009. 
  39. ^ a b c Simmonds (1988), p. xxiii.
  40. ^ Baise, Jennifer (ed.) (2000). "March, William: Introduction". Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism (Thomson Gale) 96. 
  41. ^ Cooke (1956).
  42. ^ The book includes Company K as well as a shortened version of the novel October Island, twelve fables, and 21 short stories. "Books: The Lonely Sickness". Time. March 5, 1956. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  43. ^ a b Butcher, Philip (1985). "Rev. of Simmonds, The Two Worlds of William March". World Literature Today 59 (3): 433. doi:10.2307/40140946. 
  44. ^ Hague, Angela (2005). "A Faithful Anatomy of Our Times: Reassessing Shirley Jackson". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 26 (2): 73–96. doi:10.1353/fro.2005.0025. 
  45. ^ "The Bad Seed (P.S.): William March". Amazon.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  46. ^ Frederick, John T. (May 1935). "New Techniques in the Novel". English Journal 24 (5): 353–63.  p. 359.
  47. ^ "Company K". Waterfront Pictures. Retrieved August 16, 2007. 
  48. ^ "Company K (2004)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  49. ^ Horn, Lisa (November 9, 2006). "Film honors World War I veterans". Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  50. ^ Perry, Claudia (November 10, 2006). "War through eyes of the beholder". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Compagnie K". Dulce et Decorum. Retrieved August 19, 2009. 
  52. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 300; Simmonds (1988), p. 183.
  53. ^ Kelley, James (April 11, 1954). "The Portrait of a Coldly Evil Child". The New York Times Book Review. pp. 4–5. 
  54. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 300.
  55. ^ a b Simmonds (1984), p. xii.
  56. ^ March, William (1940). The First Sunset. Cincinnati: Little Man Press. ISBN 0-16-054019-4. 
  57. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 315.
  58. ^ Flowers, Paul (June 2, 1960). "Where Aesop Left Off". The New York Times Book Review. p. 20. 
  59. ^ King, Allen (1961). "Platitudes: Rev. of March, 99 Fables". South Atlantic Bulletin 27 (1): 11. 
  60. ^ Thornley, Fant H. (March 1961). "Southern Books Competition, 1960". South Atlantic Bulletin 26 (4): 7. ISSN 0038-2868. 
  61. ^ Canfield-Reisman (1945), p. xi.
  62. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. xi.
  63. ^ Braham, J. (1985). "The Two Worlds of William March, and: A Cloak of Light: Writing My Life, and: Selected Notebooks 1960-1967, and: Herman Wouk: The Novelist as Social Historian, and: Saul Bellow's Moral Vision. A Critical Study of the Jewish Experience (review)". MFS Modern Fiction Studies 31 (4): 740–745. doi:10.1353/mfs.0.1298.  edit
  64. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 325.
  65. ^ "Brief Mention". American Literature 60 (4): 696–710. 1988. 
  66. ^ "William March/Company K". Waterfront Pictures. Retrieved August 16, 2007. 
  67. ^ Pelfrey, David (September 23, 2004). "Cinema Celebration: The Sidewalk Moving Picture Festival". Black and White. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  68. ^ Edwards, Bill (October 31, 2004). "Anniston native's documentary on Alabama writer to air on PBS tonight". The Anniston Star. Retrieved August 21, 2009. 
  69. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 33.
  70. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 48.
  71. ^ Walton, Edith H. (November 29, 1936). "O. Henry Prize Stories". The New York Times. p. BR26. 
  72. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 118.
  73. ^ Simmonds (1984), p. 184.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]