|The Right Honourable
William Ferguson Massey
|William Massey in 1919|
|19th Prime Minister of New Zealand|
10 July 1912 – 10 May 1925
|Governor General||John Dickson-Poynder
|Preceded by||Thomas MacKenzie|
|Succeeded by||Francis Bell|
|5th Leader of the Opposition|
11 September 1903 – 10 July 1912
|Preceded by||William Russell|
|Succeeded by||Joseph Ward|
26 March 1856|
Limavady, County Londonderry, Ireland
|Died||10 May 1925
Wellington, New Zealand
|Political party||Reform (None until February 1909)|
|Spouse(s)||Dame Christina Massey GBE (née Christina Allan Paul)|
William Ferguson Massey, often known as Bill Massey or "Farmer Bill" (26 March 1856 – 10 May 1925) served as the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1912 to 1925, and was the founder of the Reform Party. He is widely considered to have been one of the more skilled politicians of his time, and was known for the particular support he showed towards rural interests. After Richard Seddon, he is to date the second longest serving Prime Minister in New Zealand's history.
Massey was born in 1856 into a farming family, and grew up in Limavady, County Londonderry in Ireland. His father John Massey and his mother Marianne (or Mary Anne) née Ferguson were tenant farmers who also owned a small property. His family arrived in New Zealand on 21 October 1862 on board the Indian Empire and were part of the Nonconformist settlers of 1862, although William Ferguson Massey himself remained in Ireland for a further 8 years to complete his education. After arriving in New Zealand on 10 December 1870 on board the City of Auckland, Massey worked as a farmhand for some years before acquiring his own farm in Mangere, Sth Auckland in 1876. In 1882 Massey married his neighbour's daughter, Christina Allan Paul. The couple had seven children.
Early political career
Massey gradually became more prominent in his community. This was partly due to his civic involvement in the school board, the debating society,and farming associations. Because of his prominence in these circles, he became involved in political debate, working on behalf of rural conservatives against the Liberal Party government of John Ballance.
In 1893, Massey stood as a candidate in the general election in the Franklin electorate, but was unsuccessful, losing to the Liberal candidate, Benjamin Harris. In early 1894, however, Massey was invited to contest a by-election in the neighbouring electorate of Waitemata, and was victorious. But in the 1896 election he stood for the Franklin electorate, which he represented until he died in 1925.
|Parliament of New Zealand|
|1909–1911||Changed allegiance to:||Reform|
Massey joined the ranks of the (mostly conservative) independent MPs opposing the Liberal Party (which was by then led by Richard Seddon). These opposition MPs, however, were poorly organised and dispirited, and had little chance of unseating the Liberals. William Russell, official Leader of the Opposition, was able to command only fifteen votes. Massey brought increased vigour to the conservative faction.
While the conservatives did rally for a time, support for the Liberals increased markedly during the Second Boer War, leaving the conservatives devastated. Massey's political career, however, survived the period. Despite a challenge by William Herries, Massey remained the most prominent opponent to the Liberal Party.
After Seddon's death, the Liberals came to be led by Joseph Ward, who proved more vulnerable to Massey's attacks. In particular, Massey made gains by claiming that alleged corruption and cronyism within the civil service was ignored or abetted by the Liberal government. His conservative politics also benefited him when voters grew concerned about militant unionism and the supposed threat of socialism.
In 1909, Massey announced the creation of the Reform Party from his New Zealand Political Reform League. The party was to be led by himself and backed by his conservative colleagues.
In the 1911 elections, the Reform Party managed to gain more seats than the Liberal Party, but did not gain an absolute majority. The Liberals, relying on support from independents who had not joined Reform, were able to stay in power until the following year, when they lost a vote of no confidence.
Massey was sworn in as Prime Minister on 10 July 1912. Two days later it was reported in the press on 12 July that he had accepted the appointment of Honorary Commandant of the Auckland District of the Legion of Frontiersmen . As time passed, however, some members of the Reform party grew increasingly frustrated at Massey's dominance of the party. He also earned the enmity of many workers with his harsh response to miners' and waterfront workers' strikes in 1912 and 1913. The use of force to deal with the strikers made Massey an object of hatred for the emerging left-wing. However, conservatives (many of whom believed that the unions were controlled by socialists and communists) generally supported Massey, saying that his methods were necessary. His association with the Legion of Frontiersmen assisted him greatly during this period as a number of mounted units, including Levin Troop rode to Wellington in mufti and assisted as Special Constables. Amongst the men of Levin Troop was a young Bernhard Freyberg who would shortly earn the Victoria Cross near Beaumont Hamel.
Amongst the first Acts enacted by Massey's government was one which "enabled some 13,000 Crown tenants to purchase their own farms."
World War I
|“||All we are and all we have is at the disposal of the British Government.||”|
—Cable from William Massey to the British Government, 1914
The outbreak of the First World War, however, diverted attention from these matters. The 1914 election left Massey and his political opponents stalemated in parliament, with neither side possessing enough support to govern effectively. As such, Massey reluctantly invited Joseph Ward of the Liberals to form a war-time coalition (created in 1915). While Massey remained Prime Minister, Ward gained de facto status as joint leader. Massey and Ward travelled to the United Kingdom several times, both during and after the war, to discuss military co-operation and peace settlements. During his first visit, Massey visited New Zealand troops, listening to their complaints sympathetically. This angered some officials, who believed that Massey undermined the military leadership by conceding (in contrast to the official line) that conditions for the troops were indeed unsatisfactory. The war did, however, reinforce Massey's strong belief in the British Empire and New Zealand's links with it. Massey attended the Peace Conference in 1919 and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of the dominion of New Zealand. Although turning down knighthoods and a peerage Massey accepted appointment as a Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown (Belgium) from King of Belgium in March 1921 and a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour by the President of France in October 1921.
Coalition with the Liberals
The coalition government, partly because of the difficulty in obtaining enough consensus to implement meaningful policies, had grown increasingly unpopular by the end of the war. Massey was particularly worried by the rise of the Labour Party, which was growing increasingly influential. Massey also found himself fighting off criticism from within his own party, including charges that he was ignoring rural concerns. He dissolved the coalition in 1919, and fought both the Liberals and Labour on a platform of patriotism, stability, support for farmers, and a public works program. He successfully gained a working majority.
The Red Scare
According to New Zealand historian Tony Wilson, he was also known for his anti-Bolshevik and anti-Soviet sentiments. He also disliked domestic socialist elements like the "Red Feds", the predecessor to the New Zealand Federation of Labour, and the New Zealand Labour Party. As Prime Minister, Massey was opposed to any Communist influence within New Zealand. Massey also regarded the Red Terror (1919–20) in the Soviet Union as proof of the "inherently oppressive orientation" of socialism. In response to the Red Scare which followed the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, the Reform Government passed the War Regulations Continuance Act, which continued the wartime emergency regulations including censorship. This led to a ban on Communist-oriented literature which continued up to 1935.
Economic problems, however, lessened support for Reform. In the 1922 elections, Massey lost his majority, and was forced to negotiate with independents to keep his government alive. He was also alarmed by the success of Labour, which was now only five seats behind the Liberals. He began to believe that the Liberals would eventually disappear, with their supporters being split between Reform and Labour – the socially liberal wing to Labour and the economically liberal wing to Reform. Massey set about trying to ensure that Reform's gain would be the greater.
In 1924, however, illness forced Massey to relinquish many of his official duties. The following year, he died of his illness. The Massey Memorial was erected as his mausoleum in Wellington, paid for mostly by public subscription. Massey University is also named after him – the name was chosen because the university initially had a focus on agricultural science, matching Massey's own farming background.
List of honours
- Massey's widow, Christina, was awarded the GBE in 1926, one year after the death of her husband.
- Massey was New Zealand's second longest-serving Prime Minister, after Richard Seddon. (See List of New Zealand Prime Ministers by term)
- Two of Massey's sons became Reform MPs: Jack Massey (1885–1964) who represented his father's Franklin electorate from 1928 to 1935 and from 1938 to 1957 (for National); and Walter William Massey (1882–1959) who represented the Hauraki electorate from 1931 to 1935.
- In 2012 the William F. Massey Foundation was formed in Limavady, Northern Ireland.
- Constable, H.J. (1925), From ploughboy to premier: a new life of the Right Hon. William Ferguson Massey, P.C, London, [England]: John Marlowe Savage & Co.
- Farland, Bruce (2009), Farmer Bill: William Ferguson Massey & the Reform Party, Wellington: First Edition Publishers.
- Gardner, William James (1966), "MASSEY, William Ferguson", An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, retrieved 24 April 2008
- Gardner, William J. "The Rise of W. F. Massey, 1891–1912", Political Science (March 1961) 13: 3–30; and "W. F. Massey in Power", Political Science (Sept. 1961), 3–30.
- Gustafson, Barry, "Massey, William Ferguson 1856–1925", Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, retrieved 24 April 2008
- Massey, D. Christine (1996), The life of Rt. Hon. W.F. Massey P.C., L.L.D. : Prime Minister of New Zealand, 1912–1925, Auckland, [N.Z.]: D.C. Massey
- Scholefield, Guy H. (1925), The Right Honourable William Ferguson Massey, M.P., P.C., Prime Minister of New Zealand, 1912–1925: a personal biography, Wellington, [N.Z.]: Harry H. Tombs
- Watson, James, and Lachy Paterson, eds. A Great New Zealand Prime Minister? Reappraising William Ferguson Massey (2010), essays by scholars
- Watson, James. W.F. Massey: New Zealand: The Paris Peace Conferences of 1919–1923 and their Aftermath (2011)
- Daily Southern Cross, Volume XVIII, Issue 1638, 21 October 1862, Page 2
- 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
- Gustafson, Barry. "Massey, William Ferguson – Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Scholefield, Guy Hardy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand parliamentary record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer. p. 126.
- Allen, Sam (1985), To Ulster's Credit, Killinchy, UK, p. 116
- M. Brewer, 'New Zealand and the Legion d'honneur: Officiers, Commandeurs and Dignites', The Volunteers: The Journal of the New Zealand Military Historical Society, 35(3), March 2010, p.136.
- Wilson, Tony (2004). "Chapter 6: Defining the Red Menace". In Trapeznik, Alexander. Lenin's Legacy Down Under. Otago University Press. pp. 101–02. ISBN 1-877276-90-1.
- New Zealand honours history
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|Prime Minister of New Zealand
|Minister of Railways
|New Zealand Parliament|
|Member of Parliament for Waitemata
|Member of Parliament for Franklin