William Maxwell (journalist)
He forwarded reports to London from South Africa throughout the Second Boer War (1899–1902). He survived enteric fever and reported the Siege of Ladysmith. He followed Lord Roberts' campaign from the capture of Bloemfontein through battles at Lydenberg and the Komatipoort.
During World War I, he reported the First Battle of the Marne (September 1914) for the London Daily Telegraph. Shortly afterwards, he enlisted with the rank of captain and assignment to the general staff.
As the Chief Field Censor on the staff of General Sir Ian Hamilton in the Gallipoli campaign (April–December 1915), Captain Maxwell played a central and crucial role in the unsuccessful attempt to mitigate reports about events unfolding in the Dardanelles and on the Turkish coast in 1915.
Press correspondents at Gallipoli were required to submit all their writing to Captain William Maxwell, whose approval was necessary under regulations drawn up by and enforced by the British Army. Although many later questioned the level of censorship at Gallipoli, most accepted the censorship as an essential element of wartime reporting. Gallipoli's geographic isolation made Maxwell's task was made easier by the isolation of the area that he oversaw. The Gallipoli campaign was fought on the edge of a virtually uninhabited mountain range. The only way to cable messages from Gallipoli was through the official channels.
After the Great War
Maxwell was knighted by the King in 1919.
- Roth, Mitchel P. and James Stuart Olson. (1997). Historical Dictionary of War Journalism, p. 196.
- Roth, p. 267.
- "Slavs Menace Dual Monarchy; Raising of Prince of Montenegro to Rank of King Is Regarded as Ominous," New York Times. August 28, 1910; Roth, p. 196.
- Knightly, Philip. "Beating the censor – Ashmead-Bartlett's efforts to reveal the real story of Gallipoli," Visit Gallipoli (Information Services Branch of the Board of Studies NSW for the Department of Veterans' Affairs); Knightly, Phillip (2004). The First Casualty, p. 107.
- National Library of Australia: "Despatches from Gallipoli, Censorship.
- Knightly, Phillip. (1975). The First Casualty – From Crimea to Vietnam: The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist, and Myth Maker. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 10-ISBN 0-15-131264-8: 13-ISBN 978-0-15-131264-1 (cloth); 10-ISBN 0-15-631130-5; 13-ISBN 978-0-15-631130-4 (paper) [re-issued by Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004: 10-ISBN 0-8018-8030-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-8018-8030-8 (paper) OCLC 55138599
- Roth, Mitchel P. and James Stuart Olson. (1997). Historical Dictionary of War Journalism. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. 10-ISBN 0-313-29171-3; 13-ISBN 978-0-313-29171-5