William Morris Agency
|Industry||Talent and Literary Agencies|
|Successor(s)||William Morris Endeavor|
|Founded||1898 (in New York City)|
The William Morris Agency (also known as WMA) held the record of being the longest-running entertainment talent agency, spanning 109 years. It represented some of the most well-known entertainers of the 20th century across mediums like television, music and film. In April 2009, WMA merged with the Endeavor Agency to form William Morris Endeavor.
In 1898, William Morris (born Zelman Moses), a German Jewish immigrant to the US, posted a cross-hatch trademark above an office door in New York City – four "X's", representing a W superimposed on an M – and went into business as William Morris, Vaudeville Agent. By the time WMA formally incorporated in New York State on January 31, 1918, Morris' son William, Jr. and an office boy named Abraham Lastfogel, who, after becoming a talent agent in his own right, entered into a business partnership with Morris Sr.
As silent film grew into widely viewed entertainment, Morris encouraged his clients to experiment in the new medium. Stars such as Charlie Chaplin, Al Jolson, the Marx Brothers, and Mae West were all represented by the company.
By 1930, Morris had turned over leadership of the agency to his son and Lastfogel. In 1932, five years after his retirement, William Morris, Sr. died from heart failure. By that time, the Agency had begun the process of relocating from Hollywood and Vine to Canon Drive in Beverly Hills.
1945 to 2000
The William Morris Agency attained further industry dominance with the December 1949 acquisition of the Berg-Allenberg Agency. The senior agent in the motion picture department during the 1950s was Mike Zimring. New clients included Frank Capra, Clark Gable and Judy Garland, joining a roster that already included Sammy Davis, Jr., Milton Berle and Rita Hayworth.
With the arrival of television, WMA recognized a new business paradigm that would eventually make it possible to package stars, producers, writers, and show concepts for sale to corporate sponsors, which controlled television's early days. The following decades brought success to scores of WMA clients, including Bill Cosby, Andy Griffith, Katharine Hepburn, Jack Lemmon, Walter Matthau, Steve McQueen, Marilyn Monroe, Kim Novak, Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, and Dick Van Dyke.
By 1965, WMA's Music Department had emerged as an industry powerhouse, representing, among others, the Rolling Stones, Sonny & Cher, the Beach Boys, and the Byrds. Less than 10 years later, in 1973, the Agency's newly established Nashville office provided another significant boost to the operations of William Morris, extending the Agency's reach into country music and beyond.
In the early 1980s, WMA built the William Morris Plaza located at 150 El Camino Drive, directly across the street from its main building at 151 El Camino. In 1989, WMA acquired the Jim Halsey Company, adding performers such as Waylon Jennings, The Oak Ridge Boys, and Tammy Wynette.
In 1992, the agency acquired Triad Artists, marking the largest acquisition of a talent agency in show business history. Some fifty Triad agents joined WMA's corps of talent and literary agents worldwide.
A year after the Triad acquisition, WMA created a Corporate Advisory/New Media Department which evolved into William Morris Consulting (WMC). WMC operated in a broad spectrum of industry segments, including consumer products, gaming, lodging, publishing, retail, technology, and telecommunications.
In the early 1990s, WMA's Literary Department announced the largest book-to-screen deal ever inked when it sold the television rights for Scarlett, the sequel to Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind. In 2000, WMA acquired The Writers Shop, which was owned by Jennifer Rudolph Walsh.
WMA's Miami Beach office opened in 2003, and WMA's Shanghai office opened in 2004. In 2007, the Agency expanded its London music operation, underscoring WMA's continued commitment to the international marketplace. Along with the addition of new personnel, the London office moved into the iconic Centre Point Tower.
In 2003, a seismic shift occurred in the agency landscape when WMA's SVP and Theatre topper, George Lane, and fellow agent in charge of foreign rights, Michael Cardonick, ankled WMA to open Creative Artists Agency's Gotham office and Theatrical Department.
2009 Merger With Endeavor
On April 27, 2009, WMA and the Endeavor Talent Agency announced that they were merging to form William Morris Endeavor. Endeavor executives Ari Emanuel and Patrick Whitesell were widely recognized as the architects of the deal and ultimately took the roles of WME Co-CEOs. Following the official announcement of the merger, nearly 100 WMA employees and former board members were let go. One of those leaving was Jim Wiatt, who came to WMA in 1999 from International Creative Management, where he was Vice-Chairman, in 1999. He had joined WMA as President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, and had risen to Board Chairman.
The WMA Agent Training Program
The WMA Agent Training Program, often referred to as the "mailroom", was established in the 1940s and is well known for its roster of successful alumni. Since the 1970s the program has been replicated at other talent agencies and studios, many of which were headed by former mailroom trainees. Once accepted, trainees rotate through different departments, starting with the mailroom, before becoming a full-time assistant or coordinator.
WMA's longtime competitor, Creative Artists Agency, was founded in 1975 by Michael Ovitz, Ron Meyer, William Haber, Michael Rosenfeld, and Rowland Perkins, all former WMA agent trainees. David Geffen once called the WMA Agent Training Program "The Harvard School of Show Business - only better: no grades, no exams, a small stipend and great placement opportunities." Graduates from the Training Program were perceived at a high level of prestige within the entertainment industry, because of the caliber of notable alums that have graduated from the program.:464
Former Chairman Norman Brokaw became the first mailboy in the Beverly Hills Mailroom at age 15. The Agent Training program still exists today at William Morris Endeavor. It was famously documented in David Rensin's 2003 book, The Mailroom: Hollywood History from the Bottom Up.
- "Company Overview of William Morris Endeavor Entertainment, LLC". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
- Littleton, Cynthia (2009-04-27). "WMA, Endeavor approve merger". Variety.
- "A Charmed Life, or a Thirty-Six Short Makes It Big". The Brokaw Company. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Weisbord, Merrily (1991). Our future selves : love, life, sex, and aging. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. p. 157. ISBN 978-1556431456.
- "Women in Entertainment 2010 - Power 100 List". Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Robert Hofler (2003-05-09). "CAA opening Gotham digs". Variety.com. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- Finke, Nikki (2009-04-27). "Latest WMA-Endeavor Merger Update: Hollywood History In The Making Today: Endeavor And William Morris Vote Yes". Deadline.
- "It's A Takeover, Not A Merger". LA Weekly. May 28, 2009.
- Michael Cieply (December 26, 2009). "Layoffs in the William Morris-Endeavor Merger". The New York Times.
- Finke, Nikki (2009-10-09). "WME Will Stay In Endeavor Headquarters Instead Of Moving To New Morris Building". Deadline.
- Rose, Frank (1996). "The Agency". (First ed.). New York: Harper Business. ISBN 0887308074.
- Rensin, David (2003). "The Mailroom". (First ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345442350.
- Haskell, Sam. Promises I Made My Mother. ISBN 978-0345506559.
- Rensin, David. The Mailroom: Hollywood History from the Bottom Up. ISBN 978-0345442345.
- Rose, Frank. The Agency: William Morris and the Hidden History of Show Business. ISBN 978-0887307492.