William Orpen

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Sir William Orpen
William Orpen - Self-Portrait.jpg
William Orpen, Self-Portrait painting Sowing New Seed (1913) (Saint Louis Art Museum)
Born William Newenham Montague Orpen
(1878-11-27)27 November 1878
Stillorgan, County Dublin, Ireland
Died 29 September 1931(1931-09-29) (aged 52)
London, England
Nationality Irish
Education Dublin Metropolitan School of Art; Slade School of Fine Art
Known for Portrait painter, War artist
Awards Knighted 1918; RA 1921.

Major Sir William Newenham Montague Orpen, KBE, RA, RHA (27 November 1878 – 29 September 1931) was an Irish artist who worked mainly in London. William Orpen was a fine draughtsman and a popular, commercially successful, painter of portraits for the well-to-do in Edwardian society. During World War I, he was the most prolific of the official artists sent by Britain to the Western Front. There he produced drawings and paintings of privates, dead soldiers and German prisoners of war along with portraits of generals and politicians. Most of these works, 138 in all, he donated to the British government and they are now in the collection of the Imperial War Museum. His connections to the senior ranks of the British Army allowed him to stay in France longer than any of the other official artists and although he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, KBE, in the 1918 King's birthday honours list and elected a member of the Royal Academy of Arts, his determination to serve as a war artist cost him both his health and social standing.[1] After his early death a number of critics, and other artists, were loudly dismissive of his work and for many years his paintings were rarely exhibited, a situation that only began to change in the 1980s.[2]

Early life[edit]

The Mirror (1900) (Tate)

Born in Stillorgan, County Dublin, William Orpen was the fourth and youngest son of Arthur Herbert Orpen (1830-1926), a solicitor, and his wife, Anne St.George (1834-1912), the eldest daughter of the Right Rev. Charles Caulfield (1804-1862), the Bishop of Nassau. Both his parents were amateur painters, and his eldest brother, Richard Caulfeild Orpen, became a notable architect. The historian Goddard Henry Orpen was a second cousin of his.[3] The family lived at Oriel, a large house with extensive grounds containing stables and a tennis court.[4] Orpen appears to have had a happy childhood there. He was a naturally talented painter and was enrolled at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art at the age of thirteen before studying at the Slade School of Art from 1897 to 1899. At the Slade Orpen mastered oil painting and began to experiment with different painting techniques and effects. He would include mirrors in his pictures to create images within images, add false frames and collages around his subjects and often make pictorial references to works by other artists in his own paintings. His two metre wide painting, The Play Scene from Hamlet won the Slade composition prize in 1899.[5] Orpen's teachers at the Slade included Henry Tonks, Philip Wilson Steer and Frederick Brown all of whom were members of the New English Art Club and they ensured he exhibited there in 1899, and that he became a member in 1900.[6] Orpen's The Mirror, shown at the NEAC in 1900, references both Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait of 1434 and also elements of seventeenth century Dutch interiors.[6]

Whilst at the Slade, Orpen became engaged to Emily Scobel, a model and the subject of the The Mirror. In 1901, she ended their relationship and Orpen married Grace Knewstub, the sister-in-law of Sir William Rothenstein.[7][8] Orpen and Knewstub had three daughters together but the marriage was not a happy one and, by 1908, Orpen had began a long running affair with Mrs Evelyn Saint-George, a well-connected American millionairess based in London.[5]

Early career[edit]

After he left the Slade, Orpen briefly ran a private teaching studio with his fellow Slade graduate Augustus John.[5] Between 1902 and 1915, Orpen divided his time between London and Dublin. He taught at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art, where his pupils included Sean Keating, Grace Gifford, Patrick Tuohy and Leo Whelan.[4][6] This was the period of the Celtic revival in Ireland and responding to the growth of new literary and other cultural developments, Orpen painted three large allegorical paintings,Sowing New Seed, The Western Wedding and The Holy Well.[9] A key figure in the Celtic revival was Hugh Lane, who was a friend and mentor to Orpen, and who begin collecting contemporary art works with Orpen's guidance. Between 1911 and 1913, in London, Orpen painted a series of, mostly, three-quarter length portraits of Vera Brewster, the wife of the writer Joe Horne, which included the paintings The Roscommon Dragoon, The Irish Volunteer and The Angler.[10][11] John Singer Sargent promoted Orpen's work and he soon built a lucrative reputation, in both London and Dublin, for painting society portraits. Mrs St. George, (1912), and Lady Rocksavage, (1913), both demonstrate Orpen's ability to produce the swagger portraits that Edwardian high society greatly valued.[12] Group portraits of a type known as conversation pieces were also hugely popular and Orpen painted several, most notably The Cafe Royal in London,(1912), and Homage to Manet,(1909), which showed Walter Sickert and several other artists and critics seated in front of Edouard Manet's Portrait of Eva Gonzalies.[13] By the start of World War One, Orpen was the most famous and most commercially successful artist working in Britain.

World War One[edit]

Ready to Start (1917) (Art.IWM ART 2380)

In December 1915 Orpen was commissioned into the Army Service Corps and reported for clerical duty at London's Kensington Barracks in March 1916. Throughout 1916 Orpen continued painting portraits, most notably one of Winston Churchill, but soon started using both his own contacts, and those of Evelyn Saint-George, to secure a war artist posting.[14] Orpen knew both Philip Sassoon, the private secretary to Douglas Haig, and also Sir John Cowans, the Quartermaster General of the British Army. In January 1917, the Daily Mirror reported that Haig himself had "conferred" on Orpen the title of an official artist with the British Army in France. The Department of Information, which was actually running the British war artist scheme, were given little choice but to accept the situation. While the other artists on the Department scheme were given an honorary rank of second lieutenant and restricted to three weeks visiting the Western Front, Orpen was made a major and given indefinite leave to be at the Front. An officer from Kensington Barracks was appointed as his military aide, a car and driver were made available in France and Orpen paid for a batman and assistant to accompany him.[2]

In April 1917 Orpen travelled to the Somme and based himself in Amiens. Orpen had arrived on the Somme three weeks after the German forces had pulled back to the Hindenburg Line. Each day Orpen would be driven to locations such as Thiepval, Beaumont-Hamel or Ovillers-la-Boisselle to sketch Allied troops or German prisoners and record the devastation left by the Battle of the Somme amid the frozen and desolate landscape.[15] However he didn't submit any work to the Department of Information nor to the military censor. When he was reprimanded for that, he had Haig's office move the officer who had issued the reprimand to other duties. In May 1917, he painted portraits of both Haig and Sir Hugh Trenchard, the commander of the Royal Flying Corps, and both of these images were widely reproduced in British newspapers and magazines. In June Orpen moved to the Ypres Salient and stayed at Cassel in the Hotel Sauvage where he painted the self-portrait known as Ready to Start.[15]

The Somme battlefield[edit]

The Schwaben Redoubt (1917) (Art.IWM ART 3000)
Dead Germans in a Trench (1918) (Art.IWM ART 2955)

Orpen returned to the Somme in August 1917 and found the landscape transformed. Writing in 1921, Orpen described the scene,

"I had left it mud, nothing but water, shell-holes and mud - the most gloomy dreary abomination of desolation the mind could imagine; and now, in the summer of 1917, no words could express the beauty of it. The dreary, dismal mud was baked white and pure - dazzling white. White daisies, red poppies and a blue flower, great masses of them, stretched for miles and miles. The sky a pure dark blue, and the whole air, up to a height of about forty feet, thick with white butterflies: your clothes were covered with butterflies. It was like an enchanted land: but in the place of faires there were thousands of little white crosses, marked 'Unknown British Soldier', for the most part."[16]

Orpen was well aware that this landscape was a vast graveyard. Throughout the summer of 1917, other than Orpen and his driver and assistant, the only people on the empty battlefield around Thiepval were the British and Allied burial parties working to identify and inter the thousands of bodies left in the open or in abandoned trenches and dugouts. As he travelled across this landscape Orpen frequently encountered dead bodies and human remains, often little more, he wrote, than "skulls, bones, garments". Orpen had rarely painted outside the studio before going to France and on the Somme he pushed himself to find artistic and pictorial strategies adequate to the situation. He stopped using half-tones and half-shades and adopted a new palette of colours. Orpen's painting's from that summer are characterised by the extensive use of weak purples, mauves and bright green, with large white spaces representing the effect of bright sunlight on the chalk soil, all under a strong cobalt blue sky.[5][2]

Following the success of his Haig and Trenchard portraits, Orpen was asked to paint portraits of several pilots in the Royal Flying Corps. He spent part of September 1917 visiting airfields and during October 1917 he was based with a squadron near Cassel. His portrait of Lieutenant RTC Hoidge, MC and Bar, was painted a few hours after the young pilot had been in a dogfight and Orpen was greatly impressed by him. Orpen's portrait of Arthur Rhys-Davids, DSO MC, is crisply drawn with rich colours and lush shadows.[2] Rhys-Davids was killed in combat within a week of sitting for Orpen and Orpen's portrait of him was used as the cover illustration of the next edition of War Pictorial magazine and widely reproduced elsewhere after that.[15]

The Refugee[edit]

The Refugee (B) (1917) (Art.IWM ART 3005)

Late in 1917 Orpen spent two weeks in hospital with blood poisoning. There he met a young volunteer Red Cross worker from Lille named Yvonne Aubicq. The two began a relationship that was to last ten years and Orpen painted several portraits of her. Two of these he submitted to the official censor early in 1918. Orpen named both paintings A Spy and in March 1918 was interviewed by the military censor responsible for the war artists, Lieutenant-Colonel A.N Lee. Lee made it clear that if the title was intended as a joke it was in very bad taste coming so soon after the execution of Mata Hari but if the subject really was a spy then Orpen could be facing a court-martial.[17] Orpen gave Lee a fantastical story that the women in the picture was a German spy who had been executed by the French but who, in an attempt to save herself, had at the last moment revealed herself naked in front of the firing squad. Lee knew the story was nonsense and had Orpen recalled to London to be reprimanded at the War Office. There, Orpen retracted the firing squad story but was ordered to remain in London. Orpen ignored this and, quite illegally, made his way back to France. There he contrived to receive a phone call from Haig's private office, within earshot of several of Lee's collagues from Army Intelligence, inviting him to dinner with Haig to discuss what he would like to paint next. Lee dropped his objections to Orpen working in France and Orpen agreed to rename the two pictures The Refugee.[15][18]

As the war progressed Orpen and Lee became good friends;- Orpen painted two portraits of him, they went drinking together in London and maintained a lively correspondance until Orpen's death.[19] It is not clear how well known this friendship was during their lives but if it was known of in Dublin it would have caused consternation and real pain in several quarters. Not only had Lee been the Brigade Major sent to Dublin to put down 1916 Easter Rising, he had been the oficer in charge of arranging several of the executions that followed the fighting, including that of Joseph Plunkett, the husband of Grace Gifford, Orpen's star pupil from his teaching days.[5] In fact, between enlisting in the British Army in 1915 and his death in 1931, Orpen spent only a single day, in 1918, in Ireland.[5]

In May 2010, a third version of The Refugee surfaced on the Antiques Roadshow television programme. The Imperial War Museum had assured its owner that it was a copy by someone other then Orpen but the programme's art expert, Rupert Maas, determined it was painted by Orpen himself as a 'thank-you' present to Lord Beaverbrook for helping him avoid being court-martialled in March 1918. The picture was estimated to be worth £250,000.[20][21]

Recognition[edit]

Zonnebeke (1918) (Tate)

In May 1918, 125 of Orpen's war paintings and drawings were displayed at Agnew's Galleries in Old Bond Street in London. The exhibition was a great success with 9000 paying visitors in it's four weeks. Highlights of the exhibition included nine of Orpen's 'khaki portraits' and several of his works from the Somme such as Highlander Passing a Grave and Thinker on the Butte de Warlencourt. There was much press discussion as to why the censor had passed Orpen's Dead Germans in a Trench as suitable for display, after his refusal to allow Christopher Nevinson's Paths of Glory to be displayed two months previously.[22] In fact Arthur Lee had refused to pass nearly all of the paintings shown at Agnew's but Orpen appealed to the Director of Military Intelligence, General George Macdonogh, and had him overruled.[16] After Agnew's, several museums and galleries wanted to host the exhibition and it was taken to the Manchester City Art Gallery and then the United States.[23] Whilst the exhibition was in London, it was announced that Orpen was donating all the works on display to the British government on the understanding that they should remain in their white frames and be kept together as a single body of work. They are now in the collection of the Imperial War Museum in London. In the King's birthday honours list that summer he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[1]

1918[edit]

The Mad Woman of Douai (1918) (Art.IWM ART 4671)

Orpen returned to France in July and spent a second summer painting on the old Somme battlefield and making frequent trips to Paris to complete a series of portraits of Canadian commanders. Later he painted the immediate aftermath of the fighting at Zonnebeke that took place during the Fifth Battle of Ypres.[24] Orpen made it clear he wished to remain in France and was keen to work in the newly liberated towns.[25] By the end of the summer of 1918, Orpen was mentally exhausted and his works became increasingly theatrical, less realistic and more allegorical. In Harvest (1918), which shows women tending a grave covered in barbed wire, he used a garish palette of colours to empharisize the unreal nature of the scene.[26] Whilst Bombing: Night and Adam and Eve at Peronne seem somewhat flawed compositions, other paintings were far more succesfull. Most notably The Mad Women of Douai is a harrowing depiction of the aftermath of a rape. When Orpen met the women some time afterwards she was 'silent and motionless, except for one thumb which constantly twitched'.[2] The two soldiers in the picture are both figures borrowed from other paintings of his, as is the grave in the foreground.[27] As the war entered its final stages Orpen witnessed scenes which he found increasingly macabre. One day, even the broad minded Orpen was shocked to encounter three young French prostitutes offering their services next to a burial party. Towards the end of the war he painted a handfull of 'parable paintings', such as Armistice Night, Amiens and The Official Entry of the Kaiser, that used black humour to re-imagine the coming victory. Most of these paintings were never displayed in public after the war.[2] In November 1918, Orpen collapsed and became seriously ill. Yvonne Aubicq spent two months nursing him before he moved to Paris in January 1919 to begin work on his next commission.[2]

The Peace Conference[edit]

To the Unknown British Soldier in France (1921-28) (Art.IWM ART4438)

When the war ended the Imperial War Museum commissioned Orpen to stay in France and paint three large group portraits of the delegates to Paris Peace Conference. Throughout 1919 he painted individual portraits of the delegates to the Conference and these formed the basis of his two large paintings, A Peace Conference at the Quai d'Orsay and The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors. In both pictures the architecture overwhelms the gathered politicians and statesmen whose political wranglings and vainglory had diminished them in Orpen's eyes.[28][29] Orpen considered that the whole conference was being conducted with a lack of respect or regard to the suffering of the soldiers who fought in the war and he attempted to address this in the third painting of the commission. This picture was to show the delegates and military leaders as they entered the Hall of Mirrors to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Orpen sent Evelyn Saint-George a letter detailing the original layout and composition of the work. Haig and Marshal Foch were at the centre with the other delegates either side of them. Among the delegates Orpen included two additional figures, a Grenadier Guards sergeant and Arthur Rhys-Davids, the young fighter pilot he had painted the week before he was killed in 1917.[5][30] After working on this composition for nine months, Orpen painted over all the figures and replaced them with a coffin covered by the Union Jack and flanked by a pair of ghostly and wretched soldiers clothed in rags, actually the figure from the painting Blown Up, Mad, with two cherubs above them supporting garlands of flowers. This painting, now known as To the Unknown British Soldier in France, was first exhibited in 1923 at the Royal Academy. The public voted it picture of the year, but almost all of the critics who reviewed the picture condemned it and, from a handfull of critics and newspapers, Orpen received sustained abuse and was accused of bad taste, technical inepitude and, for the two figures either side of the coffin, sacrilege. Orpen did receive some letters of appreciation from ex-servicemen and from family members of soldiers who had died in the war, but he still felt the need to issue a statement explaining the picture and his intentions.[31] However, it was clearly not the group portrait the Imperial War Museum had commissioned and they refused to accept it. The picture remained in Orpen's studio until 1928 when, on his own initiative, he offered to paint out the cherubs and the soldiers if that would make it acceptable to the Museum. The then Director of the IWM replied that he would be happy to accept the picture as it was, or however Orpen wished to present it. Orpen painted out the soldiers and the painting was accepted by the Museum in 1928.[2][32][33]

Later life[edit]

After the war Orpen returned to painting society portraits and, commercially, enjoyed great success. Throughout the 1920s he maintained homes and studios in both Paris and London and exhibited at the Royal Academy each year.[34] His 1921 RA submission was a portrait of the head chef at the Hotel Chatham in Paris. The Tate Gallery were keen to acquire the painting using funds from the Chantrey Bequest. After Orpen assured the Tate that picture met the conditions required by the Bequest and that he had painted the picture entirely in Britain, the Tate announced the purchase. Several people then came forward to say that they had seen Orpen paint the picture in Paris. Orpen withdrew from the purchase and gave the Tate a portrait of Sir William Symington McCormick instead. Orpen subsequently submitted Le Chef de l'Hotel Chatham, Paris to the Royal Academy as his diploma painting.[5] Orpen's wartime memoir, An Onlooker in France, 1917-1919 was published in 1921 and all the proceeds donated to war charities.[16] In 1925 Orpen painted Sunlight, a brilliant depiction, in dappled sunlight, of a model behind whom hangs The Seine at Marly, the 1874 painting by Monet which Orpen owned.[12] In 1923 Arthur Lee introduced Orpen to Edward, the Prince of Wales and secured Orpen a commission to paint the Prince for the Royal and Ancient golf club at St. Andrews. A long series of disagreements followed between the Prince's advisors, who wanted a formal portrait, and Orpen who wanted to paint Edward in his golf cloths. Orpen got his way but it was not until 1928 that the R&A put the painting on display.[5] In 1928 Orpen stood for election as President of the Royal Academy but lost to Sir William Llewellyn.[34]

Self-portraits[edit]

Self-portrait with glasses, (1907), Laing Art Gallery
The Man from Aran, (1909)
Leading the Life in the West, (c. 1910), Metropolitan Museum of Art
Self-Portrait, (1917) (Art.IWM ART 2382)

Orpen created many self-portraits during his lifetime. He often portrayed himself in the act of painting and often created multiple images of himself. Whilst at the Slade he painted a double portrait of himself and Augustus John in the Nell Gwynne Tavern in London. In 1913 Orpen painted himself with a golden version of his painting Sowing New Seed as a background. Self-portrait as Chardin, from 1908, shows Orpen as the painter Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin at an easil painting the same image. A year earlier he had painted a head-and-shoulders self-portrait after Chardin's 1776 work Self-Portrait with Pince-nez.[35]

Orpen's 1910 self-portrait Leading the Life in the West has been read as a reference to the 1907 play The Playboy of the Western World, by John Millington Synge, who Orpen knew and greatly liked.[5] During World War One, Orpen painted at least three self-portraits, that ranged from the optimistic tones of Ready to Start, in June 1917, to more sombre depictions painted a only few months later.[26][14] Bruce Arnold noted Orpen's interest in self-portraiture: his self-portraits are often searching and dramatic. He once painted himself as a jockey and in his The Dead Ptarmigan - a self-portrait in the National Gallery of Ireland, he scowls from the frame while holding a dead ptarmigan at head height.

Death[edit]

Orpen died aged 53 in London, and was buried at Putney Vale Cemetery. A stone tablet in the Island of Ireland Peace Park Memorial, Messines, Belgium, commemorates him.

Legacy[edit]

Blown Up, Mad (1917) (Art.IWM ART 2376)

A memorial exhibition of Orpen's work was held in New York in 1932[36] and the Royal Academy also held a memorial exhibition in 1933, part of which travelled to the Birmingham City Art Gallery.[5] Orpen's former friend Augustus John vilified him after his death and an account in Wyndham Lewis's 1937 autobiography of an encounter between the two in Cassel during the war further tarnished Orpen's reputation.[2] In 1952 the then Director of the Tate Gallery, John Rothenstein, who was related to Orpen by marriage, published Modern English Painters which, despite its title, included a chapter on Orpen that comprehensively criticised every aspect of his work and personality.[35] This had a huge influence and for many years Orpen was largely forgotten about. Other than the collection of his war paintings in the 'Orpen Gallery' of the Imperial War Museum, only two of Orpen's works were regularly on display in Britain, The Mirror in the Tate and A Women in Leeds City Art Gallery. A major retrospective of his work was held at the National Gallery of Ireland in 1978 but was not shown in Britain.[5] Bruce Arnold's 1981 biography revised interest in Orpen among scholars and in 2005 a major retrospective, which also included his peace-time work, was held at the Imperial War Museum and led to a reappraisal of his place in British and Irish culture.[32]

Bruce Arnold, writing in Irish Art a Concise History in 1969 stated:

... while at times his portraits are rather shallow, he was capable of excellent and sympathetic work, particularly in family and group portraits."

As noted by his biographer, H. L. Wellington,

Orpen was fond of painting women sitters against a black background, lighting the figure from two sides, an arrangement which gave luminosity and a certain ethereal appearance to his unfaltering but matter of fact statement…[37]

In a review of the 2005 exhibition, Kenneth McConkey attributes this shallowness of Orpen's later portraits to emotional exhaustion, resulting from his experience as a painter of war. He writes of Orpen's post-war activity:

Now the portraits were done with mechanical efficiency, and without pause for reflection, save when he scrutinised himself and found a face he could no longer understand. his face... grimaces, it squints, it scowls; in the 1920s it papers over the inner turmoil left by the long pathetic queues of gas-blinded tommies.

Memberships[edit]

Orpen was a member or affiliated with the following organisations:[38]

Bibliography[edit]

  • An Onlooker in France, 1917–1919. (1921)
  • Stories of Old Ireland and Myself. (1924)
  • The Outline of Art. (1924)

Works[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Tate. "Artist biography, William Orpen". Tate. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul Gough (2010). A Terrible Beauty: British Artists in the First World War. Sansom and Company. ISBN 978-1-906593-00-1. 
  3. ^ Irish Architectural Archive. "Richard Francis Caulfield Orpen". Dictionary of Irish Architects. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  4. ^ a b John Turpin (Autumn 1979). "William Orpen as Student and Teacher" (PDF). Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol 68, No 271. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Robert Upstone (2005). William Orpen: Politics Sex & Death. Imperial War Museum & Philip Wilson Publishers. ISBN 0 85667 596 2. 
  6. ^ a b c Penelope Curtis (Editor) (2013). Tate Britain Companion, A Guide to British Art. Tate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84976-033-1. 
  7. ^ Tate. "Display caption,The Mirror,1900". Tate. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Tate. "Catalogue entry,Lady Orpen,1907". Tate. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Kenneth McConkey (15 January 2005). "Killing Fields". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  10. ^ "Orpen's penchant for painting pretty girls". Irish Independent. 5 May 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  11. ^ The Tate. "Catalogue entry: The Angler". Tate. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Christopher Lloyd (2011). In Search of a Masterpiece, An Art Lover's Guide to Great Britain & Ireland. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-23884-4. 
  13. ^ Various (1994). The Art Book. Phaidon. ISBN 978 07148 44879. 
  14. ^ a b Paul Moorhouse & Sebastian Faulks (2005). The Great War in Portraits. National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 978-1-85514-468-2. 
  15. ^ a b c d Merion Harries & Susie Harries (1983). The War Artists, British Official War Art of the Twentieth Century. Michael Joseph, Imperial War Museum & the Tate Gallery. ISBN 0 7181 2314 X. 
  16. ^ a b c William Orpen with additional material by Robert Upstone & Angelia Weight (2008). An Onlooker in France: A Critical Edition of the Artist's Memoirs. Paul Holberton Publishing. ISBN 978-1-903470-67-1. 
  17. ^ Imperial War Museum. "The Refugee (A)". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  18. ^ Brain Foss (2007). War paint: Art, War, State and Identity in Britain, 1939-1945. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10890-3. 
  19. ^ Imperial War Museum. "Lieut-Col AN Lee, DSO,OBE,TD,Censor in France of Paintings and Drawings by Artists at the Front 1919". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  20. ^ Stephen Adams (8 May 2010). "The WWI 'copy' that's worth £250,000". Daily Telegraph. 
  21. ^ Imperial War Museum. "First World War Art Archive: Sir William Orpen 1930". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  22. ^ Richard Slocombe (4 April 2014). "William Orpen: Dead Germans in a trench (1918)". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  23. ^ Imperial War Museum. "Orpen Exhibition/ Requests for the Pictures". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 12 November 2014. 
  24. ^ Robert Upstone (February 2002). "Summary, Zonnebeke,(1918)". Tate. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  25. ^ Imperial War Museum. "War artists archive, William Orpen 1918". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  26. ^ a b Art from the First World War. Imperial War Museum. 2008. ISBN 978-1-904897-98-9. 
  27. ^ Michele Barrett (19 April 2003). "Shell-shocked". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  28. ^ Imperial War Museum. "A Peace Conference at the Quai d'Orsay". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  29. ^ Imperial War Museum. "The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28th June 1919". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  30. ^ Imperial War Museum. "To the Unknown British Soldier in France". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  31. ^ Richard Cork (1994). A Bitter Truth - Avant Garde Art and the Great War. Yale University Press & The Barbican Art Gallery. 
  32. ^ a b Helena Stride (15 April 2005). "War & Peace". TES Newspaper. Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  33. ^ Richard Slocombe (30 July 2014). "William Orpen: To the Unknown Soldier in France". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  34. ^ a b Mary Anne Stevens (1988). The Edwardians And After, The Royal Academy 1900-1950. Weidenfield & Nicolson. 
  35. ^ a b Lucy Cotter (2012). "William Orpen: Towards a Minor Self-Portraiture, published in Visual Culture in Britain Vol 13, Issue 1, 2012". Taylor Francis Online. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  36. ^ M Digital Collections. "William Orpen: Exhibition Catalogues". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 12 November 2014. 
  37. ^ Wellington, H.L. (1940). "Orpen, Sir William Newenham Montague (1878 - 1931)". Dictionary of National Biography, 1931-40 suppl.. London: Oxford University Press. 
  38. ^ John House & MaryAnne Stevens (Editors) (1979). Post-Impressionism. The Royal Academy of Arts/Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0 297 77713 0. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Arnold, Bruce (1977). Irish Art, a concise history. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20148-X. 
  • Upstone, Robert (2009). William Orpen: Teaching the Body. London: Tate Britain. ISBN 978-1-85437-910-8. 

External links[edit]