William Parker (abolitionist)
William Parker (1821 - 1891) was a former slave who escaped to Pennsylvania, where he became an abolitionist and anti-slavery activist in Christiana, where he was a farmer and led a black self-defense organization. He was notable as a principal figure in the Christiana incident (or riot), 1851, also known as the Christiana Resistance. Edward Gorsuch, a Maryland slaveowner who owned four slaves who had fled over the state border to Parker's farm, was killed and other white men were wounded in the party to capture the slaves. The events brought national attention to the challenges of enforcing the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.
Upon Gorsuch's death, Parker fled the area traveling by the Underground Railroad to Rochester, New York, where he met up with Frederick Douglass. He helped Parker get across the river to Canada. Settling in Buxton, Parker learned to read and write, and became a correspondent for Douglass' North Star newspaper.
Thirty-eight men were indicted in the Christiana case, but only Hanway, a white man, was tried in the US District Court in Philadelphia, Judge John K. Kane presiding. He was acquitted by the jury in 15 minutes.
Frederick Douglass in his autobiography discusses several incidents of resistance to the Fugitive Slave Law that contributed to the law's demise. He ranked the events at Christiana that, "more than all else, destroyed the fugitive slave law". Ten years before the Civil War, the events in Christiana generated the following headlines, "Civil War, The First Blow Struck", foreshadowing events to come and highlighting the historical significance of the event.
William Parker was renowned in the area for his activism against slavery, and his bravery in the protection of his and other blacks' civil and political rights. He assisted many runaway slaves and was one of many people in the area involved in the Underground Railroad. It was his boldness and leadership in the resistance at his house in Christiana that sparked the events that day. The "riot" had been largely attributed to the leadership of white Quakers. Accounts report they were there in support of their black neighbors and not openly engaged in the resistance.
William Parker was born into slavery on Roedown Plantation in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, to Louisa Simms, an enslaved woman. His father may have been a white man, as he was of mixed race. His mother died when Parker was very young. In his memoir and slave narrative, The Freedman's Story, Parker later wrote that he learned how to fight as a young boy to gain a spot by the warmth of the fire. He dreamed of being free, especially to avoid the regular sale and separation of family members and loved ones. Parker likened the experience of such sales to death and a funeral, as loved ones were usually never seen again. He was approximately seventeen when he ran away to seek his freedom.
Abolitionist and self defense
After being inspired by speeches by William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass, Parker encouraged the formation of a mutual protection society of members from the black community. Christiana was not far from the Maryland border. Slave catchers, including the infamous Gap Gang (see Gap, Pennsylvania), came into the area looking for fugitive slaves to return to their slaveholders. They were paid lucrative bounties for their services; they also often kidnapped free blacks to sell into slavery, as demand was so high for slaves in the Deep South that they were willing to take the risk.
Parker and other members of the mutual protection society used force to prevent the recapture of blacks in the area. They developed an intelligence network to send alerts so that their neighbors would know when slave catchers were about; they would quickly spring into action to retrieve any captives before they could be taken back across state lines. If the laws of the country would not protect them, their family, friends and neighbors, then they would protect themselves.
Christiana Resistance (earlier known as the Christiana Riot)
On September 11, 1851, a slaveholder from Maryland (Edward Gorsuch) came bearing a warrant to recover his slaves. Gorsuch had information that his slaves were at Parker's farmhouse. Parker had received intelligence that Gorsuch, a federal marshal and others were on their way to his farmhouse. So when Gorsuch arrived, Parker and his cohorts were prepared. Eliza, Parker's wife, sounded a horn alerting neighbors that slave catchers were out and that help was needed. Both sides were resolute in their determination to prevail: Parker convinced of the immorality of slavery, and Gorsuch confident in the law and his right to own slaves. There are conflicting stories of why and how the shooting started but in the end Gorsuch was dead and his son (Dickinson) severely wounded.
U.S. Marines were brought in to stabilize the situation. There was significant pressure from the South to obtain justice for Gorsuch, the slain white slaveowner. Following an extensive search and inquisition of the locals, a group of 38 men (including four white Quakers) were accused of treason for their defiance of the federal order. Four of the men, including William Parker, had already fled the area. One of the Quakers, Castner Hanway, was erroneously thought to be the leader of the resistance and so he was the first to be tried for treason as a test case. Authorities felt that a good first win would make wins on the remaining cases of treason a certainty. Abolitionist Congressman Thaddeus Stevens led the defense and a jury acquitted Hanway, and charges against others were not pursued. All of the accused were eventually released, signalling a major win in the fight against slavery and strengthening the resolve of anti-slavery forces across the country. The 38 men accused of treason were as follows:
- John Berry
- William Berry
- William Brown
- William Brown, 2nd
- Thomas Butler
- Nelson Carter
- Daniel Caulsberry
- Elijah Clark
- Isaiah Clarkson
- Lewis Clarkson
- Henry Curtis
- Nelson Ford
- Lewis Gates
- Henry Green
- Josh Hammond
- Castner Hanway
- John Holliday
- Charles Hunter
- James Jackson
- John Jackson
- Benjamin Johnson
- Elijah Lewis
- Jacob Moore
- John Morgan
- William Parker
- Alson Pernsley
- William Thomas
- Benjamin Pindergast
- George Reed
- Joseph Scarlet
- Henry Simms
- Ezekiel Thompson
- George Williams
- Samuel Williams
- Washington Williams
- William Williams
- Collister Wilson
- Peter Woods
William Parker went into hiding that evening. Using connections on the Underground Railroad to evade federal arrest, he made his way to Rochester, New York. Frederick Douglass assisted his passage into Canada. He, his wife Eliza and their three children eventually settled in a black community in Buxton, Ontario, where they purchased a 50-acre (200,000 m2) lot of land. They had more children in Canada.
Life in Canada
Parker continued his activism against slavery from his new home in Canada. He turned his attention to acquiring new skills in the fight to gain freedom and improve the race. Not able to read or write, he attended school in Buxton to become literate. Shortly thereafter he became the Kent County correspondent for the North Star, Frederick Douglass' newspaper published in Rochester, New York. It promoted freedom, and the intellectual and moral improvement of blacks.
Parker was also elected to and wrote many communications for the Court of Arbitration (the governing body of the Buxton settlement, a self-governed community). He was elected to the Raleigh Township Council from Buxton, and was repeatedly re-elected by both white and black voters.
Legacy and honors
- The Christiana Historical Society installed a plaque in Parker's honor at the memorial to the riot in Christiana.
- Buried with Masonic honors following his death on April 14, 1891 at the age of 70 (Kenton, OH)
In popular culture
- 2009, Warren Oree's jazz opera, Never Back Down, is based on the Christiana Resistance; it premiered at Cliveden House in Philadelphia. It was supported by a grant from the Quest for Freedom program, which promoted the city's Underground Railroad history.
- Frederick Douglass, The Essential Frederick Douglass, Wilder Publications, 2008, p. 434.
- Thomas P. Slaughter, Bloody Dawn - The Christiana Riot and Racial Violence in the Antebellum North, Oxford University Press, 1991, p. ix.
- William Parker, "The Freedman's Story - Parts I and II", Atlantic Monthly, Vol. XVII, February/March 1866, p. 153.
- The Freedman's Story
- "Eliza Ann Elizabeth Howard".
- William Parker, "The Freedman's Story - Part I", Atlantic Monthly, Vol. XVII, February 1866, p. 161.
- William Uhler Hensel, The Christian Riot and The Treason Trials of 1851 - An Historical Sketch, Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1911, pp. 58-59.
- Russell, Hilary (1998). Frederick Douglass in Toronto (PDF). Cultural Resource Management Online - Slavery and Resistance. 21 No4, p.25.
- Victor Ullman, Look to the North Star - A Life of William King, Toronto: Umbrella Press, 1969, pp. 170-173.
- Shaun Brady, "Oree's 'Never Back Down' jazz opera explores 1851 Christiana riot", The Inquirer, 28 April 2011, accessed 2 March 2014
- W. U. Hensel, "The Christian Riot and The Treason Trials of 1851, An Historical Sketch" (tarlton.law.utexas.edu)]
- William Parker, "The Freedman's Story - Parts I & II", Atlantic Monthly, Vol. XVII, March/February 1866
- Jonathan Katz, Resistance at Christiana: The Fugitive Slave Rebellion, Cromwell, 1974
- Thomas P. Slaughter, Bloody Dawn - The Christiana Riot and Racial Violence in the Antebellum North, Oxford University Press, 1991
- William Parker and His Impact on the Christiana Resistance (millersville.edu)
- John Gartrell, "Roedown Plantation and the Christiana Resistance" (msa.md.gov/msa/mdslavery)
- Victor Ullman, Look to the North Star - A Life of William King, Toronto: Umbrella Press, 1969
- Frederick Douglass, The Essential Frederick Douglass, Wilder Publications, 2008
- Forbes, David, A True Story of the Christiana Riot, The Sun Printing House, 1898
- Whitson, Thomas, "William Parker, The Hero of the Christiana Riot", Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society, Vol. 1, No. 1
- Gwendolyn Robinson and John W. Robinson, Seek the Truth - A Story of Chatham's Black Community, 1989
- Bryan Prince, I Came as a Stranger - The Underground Railroad, Tundra Books, 2004
- Eliza Parker - Fighting for Freedom, Mother Tongue Africa (mothertongue.ca)
- A. C. Robbins, "Eliza Ann Elizabeth Howard Parker".
- Patricia Lorraine Neely, The Houses of Buxton, P Designs Publishing, 2003
- D. F., The Christiana Riot : Its Causes and Effects, from a Southern Standpoint, 1911
- Roderick W. Nash, The Christiana Riot: An Evaluation of Its National Significance
- Christiana Underground Railroad Center at Historic Zercher's Hotel
- Buxton National Historic Site and Museum
- The Freedman's Story. In Two Parts: Electronic Edition, William Parker