William Peyton

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Sir William Peyton
William Eliot Peyton - Delhi Herald.jpg
William Peyton as Delhi Herald Extraordinary in 1911
Born 7 May 1866
Died 14 November 1931
Army and Navy Club, London
Allegiance United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Rank General
Commands held 15th Hussars
Meerut Cavalry Brigade
2nd Mounted Division
Western Frontier Force in Egypt
Fifth Army
X Corps
40th Infantry Division
3rd Indian Division
Scottish Command
Battles/wars Second Boer War
World War I
Awards Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
Distinguished Service Order

General Sir William Eliot Peyton KCB KCVO DSO (7 May 1866 – 14 November 1931) was a British soldier, a general of the First World War who fought in several other wars.

He was Delhi Herald of Arms Extraordinary at the time of the Delhi Durbar of 1911.[1]

Early life[edit]

The third son of Colonel John Peyton, commanding officer of the 7th Dragoon Guards, Peyton was educated at Brighton College.[2][3]

Career[edit]

In 1885, Peyton enlisted in the ranks in the 7th Dragoon Guards,[2] a regiment which his father had commanded between 1871 and 1876.[3] The explanation of this was his failure to pass the entrance examination of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.[3] Having risen to sergeant, Peyton was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 7th Dragoon Guards on 18 June 1887,[2][3][4] and promoted lieutenant in 1890.[5] He was appointed regimental adjutant in 1892.[6][7] In 1896 he transferred to the 15th Hussars and was promoted captain.[2][8]

He was seconded to the Egyptian Army and saw service with the Dongola Expeditionary Force in 1896,[9] and was Mentioned in Despatches,[10] then in the Sudan in 1897 and 1898, where he was dangerously wounded and his horse killed under him by a spear.[2][3] In the Sudan he was again Mentioned in Despatches,[11] and received the Distinguished Service Order.[2][12] He was also awarded the Order of the Medjidieh, Fourth Class.[13]

He fought next in South Africa, 1899–1900, where he served with Alexander Thorneycroft's Mounted Infantry, was promoted major and brevet lieutenant-colonel,[14] again Mentioned in Despatches,[15] and received the Queen's South Africa Medal with three clasps, but his service was cut short by illness and he was invalided back to England.[2][3] He passed the Army's Staff College in December 1901.[3]

From 1903 until 1907 Peyton commanded the 15th Hussars,[16][17] being granted the brevet rank of colonel in 1905.[18] In 1907 he went to India to become Assistant Quartermaster-General, India,[19] and, as a temporary brigadier-general, to command the Meerut Cavalry Brigade from 1908 to 1912.[2][3][20] In India, he served as Delhi Herald of Arms Extraordinary at the Coronation Durbar held on 12 December 1911,[1][2] and was made a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO),[21] and from July 1912 was Military Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief, India.[3][22][23][24]

He returned to England in 1914 on the outbreak of the First World War and took up a new post as chief of staff of the 1st Mounted Division Territorial Force.[3][25] Promoted to major-general in 1914 (first as temporary promotion, from October as substantive rank),[26][27] he commanded the 2nd Mounted Division TF on the Gallipoli Peninsula, seeing action on 21 August 1915 and taking part in the final evacuation of 19 December 1915.[2] The division suffered severe casualties at Suvla.[3] Peyton then commanded the Western Frontier Force in Egypt in 1916, leading an expedition against the Senussi and re-occupying Sidi Barrani and Sollum, again being Mentioned in Despatches.[2][28][29][30] For rescuing the shipwrecked British prisoners of HMS Tara from Bir Hakkim (by a force of armoured cars led by Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster) he received the special thanks of the Admiralty and was again Mentioned in Despatches.[2][31]

In May 1916, after success as a combat commander, Peyton was transferred to become Sir Douglas Haig's Military Secretary[32] in Flanders, remaining with Haig until March 1918.[3][33] The post was at the heart of the operation of the management of appointments, promotions, removals, honours and awards of the British Expeditionary Force.[3] He was knighted in 1917, being made a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO) when King George V visited the troops in the field.[2][34]

Funerary monument, Brompton Cemetery, London

In April and May 1918, Peyton nominally commanded the Fifth Army, but it had been defeated on The Somme in March 1918 and renamed the Fourth Army, so there was no Fifth Army, and the command was a reserve HQ at Cécy-en-Ponthieu.[3] On 23 May, the Fifth Army was reconstituted and given to Sir William Birdwood, and for six weeks (as a temporary lieutenant-general[35]) Peyton took command of X Corps, but his Corps was held back from the fighting.[3] However, from 3 July 1918 until March 1919 he returned to active service as commander of the British Army's 40th Infantry Division during operations in France and Flanders, leading it through the Hundred Days advance through Flanders.[3][36][37]

Peyton's feelings about his postings between May 1916 and July 1918 were expressed silently by his omitting any mention of them from his entry in Who's Who.[2][3]

Peyton next returned to India, to command the United Province district and the 3rd Indian Division at Meerut between 1920 and 1922.[2][38][39][40] He was promoted substantive lieutenant-general in 1921.[2][41]

He was next posted as Military Secretary to the Secretary of State for War, from 1922 to 1926, and as Commander-in-Chief of the Scottish Command, 1926 to 1930.[2][42][43] This was his last post before retirement in 1930,[44] and in 1927 he was promoted general.[2][45]

A member of the Army and Navy Club, he died there suddenly on 14 November 1931.[3] He is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London.

He was unusually tall, with a height of six feet, six inches.[3]

Family[edit]

On 27 April 1889, Peyton married Mabel Maria, daughter of late Lt-General the Hon. E. T. Gage CB, third son of Henry Gage, 4th Viscount Gage, and of Ella Henrietta Maxse, a granddaughter of the 5th Earl of Berkeley.[2][46][47] With Mabel, he had one daughter, Ela Violet Ethel.[48] After his wife's death in 1901, Peyton married again, in 1903, Gertrude, the daughter of Major-General A. R. Lempriere and the widow of Captain Stuart Robertson of the 14th Hussars. They had one son, and his second wife died in 1916.[2]

In 1921, Peyton's daughter Ela married Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Edward Daymonde Stevenson KCVO (1895–1958) and she died in 1976, leaving one son.[48] Peyton's son-in-law was Gentleman Usher of the Green Rod, 1953–1958, and Purse Bearer to the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1930–1958.[49]

Honours[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cox, Noel, A New Zealand Heraldic Authority? in John Campbell-Kease (ed), Tribute to an Armorist: Essays for John Brooke-Little to mark the Golden Jubilee of The Coat of Arms, London, The Heraldry Society, 2000, p. 93 & p. 101: "Two heralds, with ceremonial rather than heraldic responsibilities, were appointed for the Delhi Durbar in 1911... Delhi Herald (Brigadier-General William Eliot Peyton) and Assistant Delhi Herald (Captain the Honourable Malik Mohammed Umar Haiyat Khan)."
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac PEYTON, General Sir William Eliot, in Who Was Who 1929–1940 (London, A. & C. Black, 1967 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-0171-X)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s William Eliot Peyton at the web site of the CENTRE FOR FIRST WORLD WAR STUDIES online at bham.ac.uk (accessed 19 January 2008)
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25710. p. 3285. 17 June 1887. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26060. p. 3242. 10 June 1890. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26299. p. 3590. 21 June 1892. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26730. p. 2253. 14 April 1896. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26728. p. 2162. 7 April 1896. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26732. p. 2388. 21 April 1896. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  10. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 26791. p. 6005. 3 November 1896. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  11. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 27009. pp. 5728–5729. 30 September 1898. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  12. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 27023. p. 6689. 15 November 1898. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  13. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 27069. p. 2272. 7 April 1899. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  14. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27306. pp. 2704–2705. 19 April 1901. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  15. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 27282. p. 966. 8 February 1901. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27607. p. 6370. 20 October 1903. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  17. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28068. p. 6814. 11 October 1907. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  18. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27790. p. 3249. 5 May 1905. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  19. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28108. p. 971. 11 February 1908. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  20. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28174. p. 6450. 4 September 1908. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  21. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 28559. pp. 9363–9364. 8 December 1911. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  22. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28638. p. 6285. 23 August 1912. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  23. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28821. p. 3169. 14 April 1914. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  24. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28841. p. 4801. 19 June 1914. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  25. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28879. p. 6686. 25 August 1914. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  26. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28899. p. 7220. 11 September 1914. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  27. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28961. p. 8884. 3 November 1914. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  28. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29578. p. 4701. 12 May 1916. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  29. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29632. pp. 6185–6190. 20 June 1916. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  30. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32155. p. 12118. 7 December 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  31. ^ a b The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29455. p. 1195. 28 January 1916. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  32. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29594. p. 5165. 23 May 1916. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  33. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30676. p. 5562. 7 May 1918. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  34. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 30216. p. 7912. 3 August 1917. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  35. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30676. p. 5565. 7 May 1918. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  36. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31431. p. 8371. 1 July 1919. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  37. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32147. p. 11904. 30 November 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  38. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31614. p. 12983. 21 October 1919. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  39. ^ The London Gazette: no. 32254. p. 2000. 11 March 1921. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  40. ^ The London Gazette: no. 32631. p. 1954. 7 March 1922. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  41. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32439. p. 6830. 29 August 1921. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  42. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33135. p. 1339. 23 February 1926. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  43. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33580. p. 1051. 18 February 1930. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  44. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33614. p. 3670. 10 June 1930. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  45. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33286. p. 3977. 21 June 1927. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  46. ^ General Sir William Eliot Peyton at thepeerage.com (accessed 19 January 2008)
  47. ^ Melville Henry de Massue, Marquis of Ruvigny and Raineval, The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal: The Anne of Exeter Volume, London, T.C. & E.C. Jack, 1907, p. 269
  48. ^ a b Conqueror A1 at william1.co.uk (accessed 19 January 2008)
  49. ^ STEVENSON, Lieut-Col Sir Edward Daymonde in Who's Who 1958 (London, A. & C. Black, 1958)
  50. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29977. p. 2449. 9 March 1917. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  51. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29943. p. 1592. 13 February 1917. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  52. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29875. p. 1248. 22 December 1916. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  53. ^ 15th The King's Hussars[dead link] at regiments.org (accessed 19 January 2008)
  54. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30568. pp. 3093–3097. 8 March 1918. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  55. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33798. p. 953. 12 February 1932. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  56. ^ 15th/19th The King's Hussars[dead link] at regiments.org (accessed 19 January 2008)
  57. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33133. p. 1162. 16 February 1926. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  58. ^ Warwickshire Yeomanry[dead link] at regiments.org (accessed 19 January 2008)

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Hubert Gough
General Officer Commanding the Fifth Army
April 1916 – May 1918
Succeeded by
William Birdwood
Preceded by
Thomas Morland
GOC X Corps
May 1918 – June 1918
Succeeded by
Reginald Stephens
Preceded by
Sir Alexander Godley
Military Secretary
1922–1926
Succeeded by
Sir David Campbell
Preceded by
Sir Walter Braithwaite
GOC-in-C Scottish Command
1926–1930
Succeeded by
Sir Percy Radcliffe