William Thompson (Medal of Honor, 1950)
|William Henry Thompson|
|Born||16 August 1927
New York City, New York
|Died||6 August 1950 (aged 22)
Haman, South Korea
|Place of burial||Long Island National Cemetery, Farmingdale, New York|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1945 – 1947, 1948 - 1950|
|Rank||Private First Class|
|Unit||24th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division|
William Henry Thompson (16 August 1927 – 6 August 1950) was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions in the Korean War.
Born to a single mother in an impoverished neighborhood in New York City, Thompson entered the Army in 1945 and served tours in Alaska and Japan. At the outbreak of the Korean War, Thompson was a machine gunner of the U.S. 24th Infantry Regiment, a de facto segregated unit.
During the Battle of Masan in August 1950, Thompson was part of a unit conducting an offensive along the Pusan Perimeter. When North Korean troops attacked his company and caused many men to panic and scatter, Thompson stood his ground, refusing orders to evacuate despite being wounded, and covering the retreat of his platoon until he was killed by a grenade. For his actions, Thompson was awarded the Medal of Honor, one of only two African Americans to be so honored in the war.
William Thompson was born on 16 August 1927 in Brooklyn, New York to an unmarried mother. Little is known of Thompson's early life, but he grew up in an impoverished tenement house neighborhood. He dropped out of school at a young age, and spent his teen years wandering the streets. A local minister noticed Thompson sleeping in a park one evening and took him to a homeless shelter, the New York Home for Homeless Boys. Thompson remained a resident there until he turned 18 in 1945.
Thompson enlisted in the army in October 1945, and after basic combat training was assigned to a post in Adak, Alaska. After 18 months, he was honorably discharged from the military, but found adjustment to civilian life difficult and opted to return to the military. In January 1948, Thompson reenlisted and was assigned to the U.S. 6th Infantry Division, which was on occupation duty in South Korea. When the 6th Infantry Division returned to the United States, he was reassigned to the U.S. 24th Infantry Regiment, U.S. 25th Infantry Division which was assigned to the post-World War II occupation of Japan. His Military Occupational Specialty was 4812, that of a heavy weapons infantryman who operated automatic weapons.
The 24th Infantry was a de facto segregated unit, but Thompson nonetheless enjoyed his time in the military. Described as "thin, hollow-eyed and quiet," he had enjoyed military life, viewing it as one of few places where an African American could enjoy some degree of comfort. He was a very effective soldier, consistently maintaining his uniform and equipment and keeping his firearms extremely clean. Thompson was also a skilled marksman and rarely had behavioral problems. He was content in the lower ranks of the military, preferring to follow orders instead of giving them.
The 24th Infantry first came into heavy contact with North Korean People's Army troops on 22 July during the battle of Sangju. North Korean rifle fire came in on the dispersed regiment, and its troops almost immediately began retreating from the front, ignoring officers' commands to stay in position. Historians blame the retreat as much on officers' ineptitude as on the panicking of individual soldiers. The tendency to panic continued in nearly all the 24th Infantry operations west of Sangju. Men left their positions and straggled to the rear, abandoning weapons on positions. On many occasions units lost most of their equipment while on the move, even when not under fire, causing logistical shortages. In other cases the majority of a unit deserted its position at the first sign of North Korean fire. The situation became so dire that the regiment's senior officers set up a check point west of the town and stopped every vehicle coming from the west, removing stragglers attempting to retreat. Many jeeps were filled with six or seven men claiming they were retreating after their position was overrun. The 24th quickly gained a poor reputation as a "bug out" unit, blasted for its poor performance during combat. Historians contend its accomplishments, particularly at the battle of Yechon, were ignored while shortcomings were seized upon to depict the 24th as a sub-par unit and African-Americans as inferior soldiers to whites.
Medal of Honor action
On 6 August 1950, as the Battle of Pusan Perimeter was beginning, the 25th Infantry Division was locked in a counteroffensive near Masan, during the Battle of Masan. That night, M Company was supporting the division advance near the city of Haman, South Korea, in a mountain valley south of Sobuk-san. As Thompson's platoon approached the town, it was ambushed by a large force of North Korean People's Army troops. Automatic weapons fire caused several men in the company to panic and flee. Those remaining were ordered into a tight perimeter by Second Lieutenant Herbert H. Wilson.
After a North Korean grenade knocked out the only other remaining heavy weapons specialist, Thompson and his .30 caliber M1917 Browning machine gun were left as the last heavy weapon in the platoon. Thompson soon became the North Koreans' focus of fire. During this period, Thompson was wounded several times by North Korean small arms and grenade fragments, but did not react to the injuries or inform the rest of his unit. After the platoon was ordered to withdraw from the heavy resistance, Wilson ordered a withdrawal to higher ground.
Crawling to Thompson's position, Wilson discovered Thompson's injuries. Wilson attempted to order Thompson to withdraw twice, but the latter refused, and continued to fire on advancing North Koreans. Thompson told Wilson he was dying and was not going to move back. Wilson then called forward two non-commissioned officers who unsuccessfully attempted to remove Thompson from the gun physically. Continuing to refuse to move, Thompson's last words to the other soldiers were "Get out of here, I'll cover you!" Wilson reluctantly ordered the remaining men to pull back. As the platoon departed, they heard grenade blasts around Thompson's position, followed by a larger blast, at which point Thompson's gun fell silent. He had continued to fire his machine gun until he was killed.
A few days later, after M Company retook the area, they discovered Thompson had made a last stand, and killed a large number of North Koreans before dying himself. Thompson's actions had prevented higher casualties in his unit as it withdrew.
Thompson's actions were initially overlooked by division commanders, who instead focused on the poor performance of the 24th Infantry Regiment, whose soldiers panicked and fled from combat. Thompson's battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Melvin Blair, initially refused to submit a recommendation, until 4 January 1951, five months after the action. Thompson initially received a Silver Star Medal for the action, but after Blair changed his mind he began pushing the paperwork through, personally locating the witnesses who could attest to Thompson's valor. Blair hoped Thompson's recognition would improve other commanders' views on the 24th Infantry Regiment. Eventually, though, that unit was disbanded and its personnel integrated into other units.
Awards and decorations
Thompson's awards and decorations include:
|Combat Infantryman Badge|
|Medal of Honor||Purple Heart Medal||National Defense Service Medal|
|Korean Service Medal||United Nations Service Medal for Korea||Korean War Service Medal[a]||Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation|
Medal of Honor citation
Thompson was the first of two African Americans to be awarded the Medal of Honor in Korea, the other being Cornelius H. Charlton in June 1951. Charlton was also a member of the 24th Infantry who was recognized posthumously. Other African Americans who fought in Korea are known to have been nominated for the medal but did not receive it. They were the first two African Americans to be nominated for the Medal of Honor since the Spanish-American War, though several World War II veterans were later nominated. The two nominations had seen delays because unit commanders refused to submit their nominations. In all, 131 people were awarded the medal during and in the immediate aftermath of the war.
Pfc. Thompson distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. While his platoon was reorganizing under cover of darkness, fanatical enemy forces in overwhelming strength launched a surprise attack on the unit. Pfc. Thompson set up his machine gun in the path of the onslaught and swept the enemy with withering fire, pinning them down momentarily thus permitting the remainder of his platoon to withdraw to a more tenable position. Although hit repeatedly by grenade fragments and small-arms fire, he resisted all efforts of his comrades to induce him to withdraw, steadfastly remained at his machine gun and continued to deliver deadly, accurate fire until mortally wounded by an enemy grenade. Pfc. Thompson's dauntless courage and gallant self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit on himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of military service.
- In 2000 this award was made retroactive to all US military who served in the Korean War.
- American Battle Monuments Commission.
- Murphy 1997, p. 22.
- Potter 2009, p. 243.
- Ecker 2004, p. 28.
- Murphy 1997, p. 21.
- Bowers, Hammong & MacGarrigle 2005, p. 100.
- Millett 2010, p. 377.
- Appleman 1998, p. 194.
- Bowers, Hammong & MacGarrigle 2005, p. 102.
- Bowers, Hammong & MacGarrigle 2005, p. 103.
- Hastings 1988, p. 80.
- Alexander 2003, p. 117.
- Bowers, Hammong & MacGarrigle 2005, p. 105.
- Millett 2010, p. 379.
- Bowers, Hammong & MacGarrigle 2005, p. 94.
- Bowers, Hammong & MacGarrigle 2005, p. 131.
- Murphy 1997, p. 23.
- Boyd 2004, p. 34.
- Boyd 2004, p. 33.
- Kinshasa 2006, p. 117.
- Astor 2001, p. 374.
- Astor 2001, p. 372.
- Potter 2009, p. 242.
- Sutherland 2003, p. 244.
- Williams 2003, p. 130.
- Bowers, Hammong & MacGarrigle 2005, p. 132.
- Williams 2003, p. 129.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
- Alexander, Bevin (2003), Korea: The First War We Lost, New York, New York: Hippocrene Books, ISBN 978-0-7818-1019-7
- Appleman, Roy E. (1998), South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu: United States Army in the Korean War, Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, ISBN 978-0-16-001918-0
- Astor, Gerald (2001), The Right To Fight: A History Of African Americans In The Military, Mason City, Iowa: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-81031-2
- Bowers, William T.; Hammong, William M.; MacGarrigle, George L. (2005), Black Soldier, White Army: The 24th Infantry Regiment in Korea, Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific, ISBN 978-1-4102-2467-5
- Boyd, Herb (2004), We Shall Overcome, Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, ISBN 978-1-4022-0213-1
- Ecker, Richard E. (2004), Battles of the Korean War: A Chronology, with Unit-by-Unit United States Causality Figures & Medal of Honor Citations, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, ISBN 978-0-7864-1980-7
- Hastings, Max (1988), The Korean War, New York, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-671-66834-1
- Kinshasa, Kwando M. (2006), African American chronology: chronologies of the American mosaic, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-313-33797-0
- Millett, Allan R. (2010), The War for Korea, 1950–1951: They Came from the North, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, ISBN 978-0-7006-1709-8
- Murphy, Edward F. (1997), Korean War Heroes, Novato, California: Presidio Press, ISBN 978-0-89141-636-4
- Potter, Joan (2009), African American Firsts: Famous Little-Known and Unsung Triumphs of Blacks in America, New York City, New York: Kensington Books, ISBN 978-0-7582-4166-5
- Sutherland, Jonathan (2003), African Americans at War: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-57607-746-7
- Williams, Albert E. (2003), Black Warriors: Unique Units and Individuals, Haverford, Pennsylvania: Infinity Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7414-1525-7
- "Korean War Honor Roll listing:George Dalton Libby entry". American Battle Monuments Commission. Retrieved 10 July 2012.