William Thornton Bate
|William Thornton Bate|
|Died||29 December 1857
Canton, now Guangzhou, China
|Allegiance||United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland
|Years of service||1833–1857|
|Commands held||HMS Royalist
Bate was born in 1820, the son of the Governor of Ascension Island. He entered the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth at the age of 13, spending two years studying there. He was then appointed as a midshipman aboard HMS Isis, and sailed with her to the Cape of Good Hope. He spent five years at the Cape, transferring to HMS Britannia and then, on his passing his lieutenant's exam, to HMS Blenheim. He sailed with the Blenheim to the China Station. While serving there, the First Opium War broke out. A party of men from Blenheim was landed to attack Chinese positions. Bate was one of those involved, helping to capture a fort, but being wounded in the neck as he did so. For his actions, he was promoted to lieutenant on 11 October 1841.
In autumn 1842 Bate was assigned to Commander Collinson on HMS Bentinck, who had been tasked with surveying the waters around the Chinese coast. In May 1842 he was involved in an attack on Chapoo. Collinson was responsible for surveying the approaches to Chapoo, and once the troops were landed, Bate accompanied them. He was involved in a hand to hand battle with a Chinese defender. Bate captured him, then opened the gates of the fort to the British, at which the Chinese fled. This earned him a Mention in Despatches from Vice Admiral William Parker who commanded the force. He returned to England in 1846, and took a series of scientific courses at the colleges at Woolwich and Portsmouth. He was promoted to Commander in 1848 and given command of HMS Royalist, with which he was to carry out further surveys of the Chinese coast. He was taken ill with smallpox in 1852, but recovered and was able to complete his surveys, including one of the island of Palawan. After completing these tasks, Bate returned to England. In January 1856 he was appointed to command HMS Bittern, and to return to Chinese waters to conduct further surveys. He took command in April that year, but it was soon found that the Bittern was unsuitable to the task. Bate sent her back to Britain, transferring his command to the sixth rate HMS Actaeon, while he awaited the arrival of his new ship.
While cruising off the Chinese coast, the Arrow incident occurred, the prelude to the Second Opium War, and the British decided to bombard the port of Canton. Bate was put in charge of the landing parties, and whilst overseeing operations from HMS Barracouta, was struck on the hand by some shot, and was slightly wounded. After the subduing of resistance, Bate took over and garrisoned a fort with 300 men. He held the fort under siege for five months, before the Admiralty ordered him to evacuate. He returned to the Actaeon, then at Hong Kong. As a reward for his services, he was promoted to Captain. Bate returned to Canton in November 1857, and delivered Lord Elgin's ultimatum to the Chinese officials. There being no reply, the navy began to bombard the port on 28 December.
The attackers decided to storm the walls of the city, and Bate volunteered to lead a party. He was landed, but as he was determining the height of the wall to be scaled with his sextant, he was hit in the right breast by a ball fired from a jingal. He died half an hour later. Admiral Michael Seymour wrote to the Admiralty after the capture of Canton:
2. Our gratification at this quick success with trifling losses has been damped by a great calamity, in the death of Captain William Thornton Bate, of Her Majesty's ship Actaeon, who was killed by a gingall ball whilst reconnoitring a suitable spot for placing our scaling ladders.
3.This sad event had placed a gloom over the whole force, Captain Bate being no less beloved for his many virtues, than respected and admired for his professional ability. By the death of Captain Bate, Her Majesty has lost a most zealous, able and faithful servant.
Bate's strong Christian views led to him becoming lionised as a Christian hero. His memoirs were published by Reverend John Ballie, and Charles Rogers included a biography in his Christian heroes in the army and navy. A memorial was erected in St Anns Church, Portsea, Portsmouth. Mount Bate, on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, was probably named after him by Captain George Henry Richards.
- Rogers. Christian heroes. pp. 151–62.
- The London Gazette: . 15 October 1841. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
- Ballie. Memoirs. p. 31.
- The London Gazette: . 13 December 1842. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
- Bulletins and Other State Intelligence. p. 766.
- The London Gazette: . 16 February 1858. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
- Dr. Joseph S. P. Ting (2008). A Preliminary Study : Prominent Figures in the Hong Kong Cemetery at Happy Valley. Hong Kong Institute of Contemporary Culture. p. 25.
- Details on Bate's memorial, held by the UK National Inventory of War Memorials, at the Imperial War Museum
- "Mount Bate". BC Geographical Names. http://apps.gov.bc.ca/pub/bcgnws/names/32580.html.
- Rogers, Charles (1867). Christian heroes in the army and navy. S Low, Marston. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
- Ballie, John; Bate, William Thornton (1859). A Memoir of Captain W. Thornton Bate, R.N. Longman, Brown, Green. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
- Bulletins and Other State Intelligence. 1860. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
- The London Gazette: . 16 February 1858. Retrieved 2008-07-28. Full official despatches relating to the Arrow incident
- The London Gazette: . 16 February 1858. Retrieved 2008-07-28. Full official despatches relating to the capture of Canton