William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor
|William Waldorf Astor|
|William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor|
|Born||William Waldorf Astor
March 31, 1848
New York City, U.S.
|Died||October 18, 1919
Brighton, Sussex, England
|Spouse(s)||Mary Dahlgren Paul
(m. 1878—1894; her death)
|Parents||John Jacob Astor III
Charlotte Augusta Gibbes
William Waldorf "Willy" Astor, 1st Viscount Astor (March 31, 1848 – October 18, 1919) was a wealthy American attorney, politician, businessman, and newspaper publisher. He moved with his family to England in 1891, became an English subject in 1899, and was made a peer as Baron Astor in 1916 and Viscount Astor in 1917 for his contributions to war charities. He was a prominent member of the Astor family.
Early life and education
William Waldorf Astor was born in New York City. He was the only child of financier/philanthropist John Jacob Astor III (1822—1890) and Charlotte Augusta Gibbes (1825—1887). His childhood was spent in Germany and in Italy under the care of private tutors and a governess. He grew up in a cold and distant household.
In his early adult years, Astor returned to the United States and began studies at Columbia Law School. He was called to the United States Bar in 1875. He worked for a short time in law practice and in the management of his father's estate of financial and real estate holdings.
Marriage and family
In 1878, aged 30, Astor married Mary Dahlgren Paul (1858—1894). They had five children:
- Waldorf Astor (1879—1952), 2nd Viscount Astor, married Nancy Witcher Langhorne (1879—1964) in 1906. They had 5 children.
- Pauline Astor (1880—1972), married soldier/politician Herbert Henry Spender-Clay (1875—1937) in 1904. They had three daughters.
- John Rudolph Astor (1881—1881), no issue
- John Jacob Astor V (1886—1971) married socialite Violet Mary Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound (1889—1965) in 1916. They had three sons.
- Gwendolyn Enid Astor (1889—1902), no issue
After some time practicing law, Astor thought he had found his true calling and an opportunity to make a name for himself outside of his family's fortune by entering the political realm. In 1877, with his eyes set on the United States Congress, Astor entered New York City politics as a Republican.
He was elected as a member of the New York State Assembly (New York Co., 11th D.) in 1878; and of the New York State Senate (10th D.) in 1880 and 1881. Astor was likely supported by the boss of the New York State Republican machine, the notorious Roscoe Conkling, with whom his family was involved.
In 1881, Astor was defeated by Roswell P. Flower as a candidate for the United States Congress. A second attempt at the seat also resulted in defeat. He could not compete with his Democratic opponent, Flower, and his shy nature could not handle the political attacks on his character. This was the end of his political career. The press used his political failures as fodder for more harsh criticisms. The press had already publicized his vast inheritance.
The coverage of his political defeats weakened his desire to remain in the United States. In 1882, President Chester A. Arthur appointed Astor Minister to Italy, a post he held until 1885. He told Astor, "Go and enjoy yourself, my dear boy." While living in Rome, Astor developed a lifelong passion for art and sculpture.
Upon the death of his father in February 1890, Astor inherited a personal fortune that made him the richest man in America. That year, he initiated construction of the luxurious Waldorf Hotel, being built on the site of his former residence. His cousin and rival Colonel John Jacob "Jack" Astor IV (1864—1912) built the adjoining Astoria Hotel in 1897, and the complex became the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel.
Move to England
In 1891 he fell into a family feud with socialite Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn (1830—1908), wife of Willy's uncle businessman William Backhouse Astor, Jr. (1829—1892) and mother of rival cousin Jack, over who should be the "official Mrs. Astor". After Lina won the argument, Willy moved with his wife and children to England. He rented Lansdowne House in London until 1893. That year he purchased a country estate at Cliveden-on-Thames in Taplow, Buckinghamshire from the Duke of Westminster.
To disappear from public view, in the summer of 1892, Astor faked his own death by having his staff report to American reporters that he had died, apparently from pneumonia. However, the ruse was soon discovered, whereupon Astor was mocked in the press.
In 1895 he bought the gothic mansion[nb 1] on the Victoria Embankment at Two Temple Place overlooking the Thames River. He commissioned an extensive $1.5 million renovation of what was to become a "crenellated Tudor stronghold" for managing his holdings.
Astor made several business acquisitions while living in London. In 1892, he purchased the Pall Mall Gazette, and in 1893 established the Pall Mall Magazine. In 1911, he acquired The Observer. In 1912 he sold the Magazine, and in 1914 made a present of the Gazette and The Observer, with the building in Newton Street and its contents, to his son Waldorf Astor.
In 1903 he acquired Hever Castle near Edenbridge, Kent about 30 miles south of London. The huge estate built in 1270 was where Anne Boleyn lived as a child. Astor invested a great deal of time and money to restore the castle, building what is known as the "Tudor Village," and creating a lake and lavish gardens. He also added the Italian Garden (including Fernery) to display his collection of statury and ornaments.
In 1908, he opened the The Waldorf Hilton Hotel London in London's West End, to establish an American-style hotel in England.
Philanthropy and peerage
Having become an English subject in 1899, Astor became interested in gaining English social distinction. Among the charities benefited by his gifts were The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street (to which he gave $250,000 in 1903); University College, London; the Cancer Research Fund; Oxford University; Cambridge University; the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; the British Red Cross Society; Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum; the Soldiers and Sailors Families Association; and the Women's Memorial to Queen Victoria. His gifts to the war charities included $125,000 to the Prince of Wales's National Relief Fund; a similar amount to Princess Louise's Officers' Families Fund; $200,000 to the British Red Cross Society; $25,000 to Queen Mary's Employment Committee; and a similar sum to the Lord Mayor's National Bands Fund. He gave $5,000 to King Edward's Hospital Fund annually starting with its founding in 1897.
Such gifts were often honored by the grant of a title of nobility to the benefactor. On January 1, 1916, he was offered and accepted a peerage of the United Kingdom under the title of Baron Astor of Hever Castle in the County of Kent. On June 3, 1917, he was elevated to the rank of Viscount. The elevation was controversial; many felt that a rich American had bought his way into the English aristocracy.
In the months before his death, Astor was criticized again in the press: his move to England, his support of peace during World War I, his being made a peer. Willy fell prey to the Press again. After going into self-imposed exile, he unexpectedly died of heart failure in the lavatory of his Brighton, Sussex home. His ashes were buried under the marble floor of the chapel (also called the Octagon Temple) at Cliveden.
- Valentino: An Historical Romance of the Sixteenth Century in Italy (1885)
- Sforza, a Story of Milan (1889)
- Pharaoh's Daughter and Other Stories (1890)
- There are also sources that say that he built the place.
- "An Age of Splendor, and Hotel One-Upmanship". New York Times. June 18, 2006.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Astor, William Waldorf". Encyclopedia Americana.
- Virginia Cowles, The Astors (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1972), p. 92.
- "Astor, William Waldorf". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- Cowles (1972), The Astors, p. 112.
- Cowles (1972), The Astors, p. 115.
- "W.W. Astor is Dead: A Sketch of His Career and Estimate of His Vast Estate," New York Herald-Tribune, 12 July 1892
- Kaplin, Justin. (2007). When the Astors Owned New York: Blue Bloods and Grand Hotels in a Gilded Age. Penguin Books. Chapter 7.
- Introduction. Two Temple Place. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Moore, Rowan. (15 October 2011). "Two Temple Place; University of the Arts London – review: Viscount Astor's stately old HQ – lavish, ornate and stuffed with cultural trophies – is to be opened as a new gallery space", London: The Observer
- Strachan, Donald. (2012) Frommer's London 2013. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-118-28862-7.
- Kaplan, Justin. (2007). When the Astors Owned New York: Blue Bloods and Grand Hotels in a Gilded Age. New York: Penguin Books. p. PT 109. ISBN 978-1-1012-1881-5.
- Moore, Rowan. (15 October 2011). Two Temple Place; University of the Arts London – review: Viscount Astor's stately old HQ – lavish, ornate and stuffed with cultural trophies – is to be opened as a new gallery space. London: The Observer.
- Brown, Jane (1999). The English Garden Through the 20th Century. England: Garden Art Press. ISBN 1870673298.
- "Viscount Astor Died Suddenly of Heart Disease. Stricken Saturday Morning, After Having Passed Part of Preceding Day Outdoors. Body Will Be Cremated and the Ashes Placed in Private Chapel at Cliveden. Peerage Came as Reward for War Gifts. Realty Holdings Here Valued at $60,000,000. Little Known to British Public. Estate Will Pay a Heavy Tax. His Pursuit of Title Evoked Bitter Criticism. Became a British Subject in 1899. Peerage Followed War Gifts.". New York Times. October 20, 1919. Retrieved 2008-08-01. "Viscount Astor died yesterday morning. His death, which was from heart disease, was unexpected."
- Kaplan, Justin. When the Astors Owned New York. New York: Viking, 2006.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Astor
- "Astor, John Jacob". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. This article also has a paragraph on William Waldorf Astor.
- "Astor, William Waldorf". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
- "Astor, John Jacob". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. This article also has a paragraph on William Waldorf Astor.
- "Astor, William Waldorf". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.
|New York Assembly|
Elliot C. Cowdin
|New York State Assembly
New York County, 11th District
James M. Varnum
|New York State Senate|
Daniel B. St. John
|New York State Senate
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation||Viscount Astor