W.W. Bartley, III
|W. W. Bartley, III|
William Warren Bartley, III
October 2, 1934|
|Died||February 5, 1990
Member, Advisory Board,
Est, an educational corporation
William Warren Bartley, III (October 2, 1934 – February 5, 1990), known as W.W. Bartley, III, was an American philosopher.
Early life and education
Born in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, on October 2, 1934, Bartley was brought up in a Protestant home. He completed his secondary education in Pittsburgh and studied at Harvard University between 1952 and 1956, graduating with a BA degree in philosophy.:18 He spent the winter semester of 1956 and the summer semester of 1957 at the Harvard Divinity School and the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1958, he completed his MA degree in philosophy at Harvard. Bartley was training to become a Protestant minister, but rejected Christianity at that point.:44f He went on to study at the London School of Economics under Sir Karl Popper, where he completed his PhD in 1962. Parts of his disseration, Limits of Rationality: A Critical Study of Some Logical Problems of Contemporary Pragmatism and Related Movements, were subsequently published as The Retreat to Commitment in the same year.
After his doctoral graduation, Bartley worked as a lecturer in logic in London. Later, he held positions at the Warburg Institute and the University of California, San Diego. He was appointed to his first full professorship in 1969, at the University of Pittsburgh, where he had been teaching since 1963.
In 1973 he joined the California State University, Hayward faculty as a Professor of Philosophy, where he received the distinction of “Outstanding Professor” of the entire California State University System in 1979. His last position was that of a Senior Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution.
Relationship with Sir Karl Popper
Bartley and Popper had a great admiration for each other, driven by their common stand against justificationism, a view which Popper fought at the British Academy's Annual Philosophical Lecture in 1960 for the first time. However, at the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science at Bedford College, University of London, July 11–17, 1965, they came into a conflict with each other. Bartley had presented a paper 'Theories of demarcation between science and metaphysics' and had attacked Popper in it sharply. He accused Popper of a positivist attitude in his early works and proposed that Popper's demarcation criterion was not as important as Popper thought. Popper took this as a personal attack, and Bartley took his reply as ignorant towards his criticism.:81f Their friendship was not restored until 1974, after the publication of The Philosophy of Karl Popper (edited by Paul Schillpp).:87 Bartley changed the tone of his views about Popper's criterion of demarcation, making it less aggressive. However, despite the restored friendship, these views themselves were never accepted by Popper, and Popper criticized them even after Bartley had died.:First Part
Author and editor
Bartley published a biography of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, titled simply Wittgenstein, in 1973. The book contained a relatively brief, 4–5 page treatment of Wittgenstein's homosexuality, relying mainly on reportage from the philosopher's friends and acquaintances. This matter caused enormous controversy in intellectual and philosophical circles; many perceived it as a posthumous "attack" on Wittgenstein. Some foreign editions of the book, like the Spanish, were printed with the "offending" material excised. In a second edition of the biography, Bartley answered the objections of critics, pointing out that Wittgenstein's period of active homosexuality is verified by the philosopher's own private writings, included his coded diaries; extensive confirmation was also available from people who knew Wittgenstein in the period between the two World Wars in Vienna, including ex-lovers. Bartley also considers, and rejects, the idea of a connection between the private life and the philosophy.
Bartley wrote a biography of Werner Erhard, the founder of est. Bartley was graduate of Erhard Seminars Training, from 1972. Werner Erhard refers to Bartley in the book as "My friend Bill". William Bartley served on the advisory board of Est, an educational company.
Bartley is perhaps best known today for his work in extending Popperian epistemology, discussed in his book The Retreat to Commitment. In it, he describes Pancritical rationalism (PCR), a development of critical rationalism and panrationalism. PCR attempts to work around the problem of ultimate commitment or infinite regress by decoupling criticism and justification. A pancritical rationalist holds all positions open to criticism, including PCR, and never resorts to authority for justification.
Parts of Popper's Realism and the Aim of Science, a book which Bartley edited, and the Addendum to the fourth edition to The Open Society and its Enemies contain passages that are commonly interpreted as Popper's acceptance of Bartley's views. Mariano Artigas held that these were in fact written by Bartley himself.:23–25, 96 Alan Ebenstein, a biographer of F. A. Hayek, criticized Bartley for the extent of the changes he made as the editor of The Fatal Conceit. Bruce Cadwell suggests that the book in its published form may actually have been written by Bartley.
At the time of his death, Bartley had just finished his last book, Unfathomed Knowledge, Unmeasured Wealth: On Universities and the Wealth of Nations. Other works he was preparing at that time included writing a biography, and editing the collected works, of Friedrich Hayek. The latter was being completed after Bartley's death by his colleague and executor Stephen Kresge. Also unfinished was a biography of Popper. Both biographies were in an advanced stage at the time of Bartley's death.
- The Retreat to Commitment, 1962
- Morality and Religion, 1971
- Lewis Carroll's Symbolic Logic, 1977
- Wittgenstein, 1973, 1985
- Ludwig Wittgenstein e Karl Popper: maestri di scuola elementare, 1976
- Come demarcare la scienza della metafisica, 1983
- Werner Erhard, The Transformation of a Man: The Founding of est, 1978
- The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism, 1988 (editor, with F. A. Hayek)
- Rehearsing a revolution – Karl Popper: A Life, 1989
- Unfathomed Knowledge, Unmeasured Wealth, 1990
- Mariano Artigas: The Ethical Nature of Karl Popper's Theory of Knowledge (1999)
- David Miller: Bartley. Critical Rationalism (1994), p. 75
- Gerard Radnitzky: William W. Bartley III (1934–1990). Popper Letters 2:1 (1990)
- Karl R. Popper: On the Sources of Knowledge and of Ignorance. Proceedings of the British Academy 46 (1960), p. 39–71, reprinted in Conjectures and Refutations.
- Kiichi Tachibana: Mails exchanged between Prof. Tachibana and Prof. Agassi On the Kyoto Prize Workshop. Popper Letters 5:1 (November 17, 1992)
- William Warren Bartley III, Wittgenstein, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1973.
- Madigan, Timothy J. "The Uses and Abuses of Philosophical Biographies". Philosophy Now 2012. Philosophy Now. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Bartley treats the criticisms and related matters in the second edition of the biography: Wittgenstein, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1985; pp. 159–97.
- Ankerberg, John and John Weldon (1996). Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs: The New Age Movement. Eugene OR: Harvest House Publishers. p. 263. ISBN 978-1565071605.
- Gardner, Martin (1998). The Universe in a Handkerchief: Lewis Carroll's Mathematical Recreations, Games, Puzzles, and Word Plays. New York: Springer. p. 61. ISBN 978-0387256412.
- Wettersten, John R. "Karl Popper and Critical Rationalism". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The IEP. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Alan Ebenstein: Investigation: The Fatal Deceit. Liberty 19:3 (March 2005)
- Karl Popper, a Centenary Assessment Vol. 1: Life and Times, and Values in a World of Facts, p. 120
- Stephen Kresge: On the Passing of W. W. Bartley III. Popper Letters 2:1 (1990)
- anonymous; Obituary: “William W. Bartley 3d, Research Fellow, 55”, New York Times February 22, 1990 (corrected February 24, 1990).
- Caldwell, Bruce J. "Review of "Friedrich Hayek: A Biography"". The Independent Review. Independent Institute. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- KLI Theory Lab – Authors, William Warren Bartley III (1934–1990)
- clublet.com, "Often referred to on Why simply as Bartley."
- about the philosophers, Bill Bartley (1934–1990)
- Pancritical Rationalism: An Extropic Metacontext for Memetic Progress
- The Bartley Institute (by Stephen Kresge, Bartley's executor)
- Bartley discussing The Burghers of Calais with Popper, on Stanford campus