William Windom

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This article is about the former politician. For the actor, who is his great-grandson, see William Windom (actor).
William Windom
William Windom, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
39th United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
March 7, 1889 – January 29, 1891
President Benjamin Harrison
Preceded by Charles S. Fairchild
Succeeded by Charles W. Foster
33rd United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
March 8, 1881 – November 13, 1881
President James Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
Preceded by John Sherman
Succeeded by Charles J. Folger
United States Senator
from Minnesota
In office
November 15, 1881 – March 4, 1883
Preceded by Alonzo J. Edgerton
Succeeded by Dwight M. Sabin
In office
March 4, 1871 – March 7, 1881
Preceded by Ozora P. Stearns
Succeeded by Alonzo J. Edgerton
In office
July 15, 1870 – January 22, 1871
Preceded by Daniel S. Norton
Succeeded by Ozora P. Stearns
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Minnesota's 1st district
In office
March 4, 1859 – March 4, 1869
Preceded by James M. Cavanaugh
Succeeded by Morton S. Wilkinson
Personal details
Born (1827-05-10)May 10, 1827
Belmont County, Ohio
Died January 29, 1891(1891-01-29) (aged 63)
New York City
Political party Republican
Profession Lawyer and politician
Religion Quaker

William Windom (May 10, 1827 – January 29, 1891) was an American politician from Minnesota. He served as U.S. Representative from 1859 to 1869, and as U.S. Senator from 1870 to January 1871, from March 1871 to March 1881, and from November 1881 to 1883. He also served as Secretary of the Treasury from March to November 1881, and from 1889 to 1891. He was a Republican. He was the great-grandfather of the actor named after him, William Windom.

Early life[edit]

Windom was born in Belmont County, Ohio. He moved to Minnesota Territory in 1855 and settled in the town of Winona on the banks of the Mississippi River in southeastern Minnesota.[1]

Political career[edit]

Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Windom as Secretary of the Treasury.

Windom was elected U.S. Representative in 1859, filling one of Minnesota's two at-large seats.[2] He was re-elected in 1861, again at-large. By 1862, Minnesota had established Congressional districts, and in that year he was re-elected from Minnesota's 1st congressional district; and also in 1864 and 1866. He was not a candidate in 1868.

Senator Daniel S. Norton died on July 13, 1870. On July 15, Governor Alexander Ramsey appointed Windom to the resulting vacancy, to serve until the legislature elected a replacement.[3] When the legislature met in January 1871, they elected Ozora P. Stearns to serve the last 41 days of the current term (January 22-March 4), and elected Windom to serve the next full term, beginning March 4. Windom was re-elected in 1877, and served until March 7, 1881 when he resigned to become Secretary of the Treasury.

In the United States Senate, Windom was recognized as a strong advocate of railroad regulation. Indeed in December 1872, he became the chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard to investigate transportation practices. The select committee's report was submitted to the Senate on April 24, 1874, and was ordered to be printed the same day. The analytical report, among other conclusions and recommendations, recommended a Bureau of Commerce; it would have all the basic elements of the Interstate Commerce Commission, as created thirteen years later, in January 1887,[4] and other follow-on. Almost 35 years later the Progressive Era Inland Waterways Commission, looking into similar issues and many new ones, would recognize the "Report of the Windom Select Committee" as the third epoch in the movement toward developing the inland waterways of the country.[5]

In 1880, Windom sought the Republican nomination for President.[6] But at the Republican National Convention, he received only 10 votes on the first ballot. The convention deadlocked, and after over 30 ballots began to consider choosing a "dark horse" candidate, such as Windom. But instead of Windom, they nominated James A. Garfield, who was subsequently elected President.[7]

On March 7, 1881, Windom resigned from the Senate and was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by Garfield, taking office the next day.

Windom served as Treasury Secretary until November 13, when he resigned. On October 26, he was again elected Senator by the Minnesota Legislature, this time to fill the vacancy left by his own resignation. He re-assumed his Senate seat on November 15 and served until the end of his term on March 4, 1883. He sought re-election in 1882, but was defeated.

In 1883, he moved to New York City, where he practiced law until 1889. After President Benjamin Harrison was elected in 1888, he appointed Windom as Secretary of the Treasury. Taking office on March 8, 1889, Windom served as Treasury Secretary until his death on January 29, 1891. During the last year of his treasury service he purchased 1,145,577 acres of land from the railroad for 3 cents per acre, when others were paying $5.00.

Memorials[edit]

Windom appears on U.S. silver certificates

Windom's engraved portrait appeared on the $2.00 denomination of U.S. silver certificates from 1891 to 1896. The revenue cutter USS Windom was named for him.

The city of Windom in Cottonwood County, Minnesota is named for him.

Windom Park in Winona, Minnesota is named after him.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Theodore Blegen, Minnesota: a History of the State (University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1963) p. 249.
  2. ^ Ibid., p. 235.
  3. ^ Ibid. p. 290.
  4. ^ John A. Garraty, The New Commonwealth: 1877-1890 (Harper & Row Pub.: New York, 1968) p. 118.
  5. ^ Introductory note to the Gallatin Report of 1808, included in the Preliminary Report of the Inland Waterways Commission, 1908
  6. ^ Reeves, Thomas C. Gentleman Boss: The Life of Chester Alan Arthur (Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1975) p. 164.
  7. ^ Allan Peskin, Garfield (Kent State University Press: Kent, Ohio, 1999) p. 477.
  8. ^ ["Visit Winona]". 
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
James M. Cavanaugh
U.S. Representative from Minnesota's 1st congressional district
1859–1869
Succeeded by
Morton S. Wilkinson
United States Senate
Preceded by
Daniel S. Norton
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Minnesota
1870–1871
Served alongside: Alexander Ramsey
Succeeded by
Ozora P. Stearns
Preceded by
Ozora P. Stearns
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Minnesota
1871–1881
Served alongside: Alexander Ramsey, Samuel J. R. McMillan
Succeeded by
Alonzo J. Edgerton
Preceded by
Alonzo J. Edgerton
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Minnesota
1881–1883
Served alongside: Samuel J. R. McMillan
Succeeded by
Dwight M. Sabin
Political offices
Preceded by
John Sherman
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Served under: James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur

1881
Succeeded by
Charles J. Folger
Preceded by
Charles S. Fairchild
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Served under: Benjamin Harrison

1889–1891
Succeeded by
Charles W. Foster

Morgan Township, Traill County, North Dakota Land filings