Willys Hurricane engine

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Willys Hurricane
1955 Jeep Willys Utility Wagon 2013 FL AACA-h.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer
Also called
  • F-134
  • F-161
  • Mitsubishi JH4, KE31, KE36
Production 1950–1971
Combustion chamber
Configuration F-head Straight-4 and Straight-6
Cylinder block alloy Cast Iron[1]
Cylinder head alloy Cast Iron[1]
Valvetrain IOE
Dimensions
Dry weight 470 lb (213 kg)
Chronology
Predecessor
Successor Jeep Tornado engine

The Willys F4-134 Hurricane was an inline-4 piston engine and powered the famous Jeep CJ in the CJ-3B, CJ-5, and CJ-6 models. It was also used in the Willys 473 and 475 pickups, wagons, and sedan deliveries. It replaced the Willys Go Devil engine that was used in the M8 Jeep and other early Jeep-based models like the Jeepster. This engine was also built by Mitsubishi for their license-built Jeep, as well as other applications.

Design[edit]

Hurricane engine in a Jeep M170 Ambulance

The Hurricane was based on the earlier Go-Devil flathead engine. To get more power from the engine, the induction system was change from the Go-Devil's side-valve configuration to an inlet-over-exhaust configuration, or "F-head". This allowed the valves to be larger and the combustion chamber to be smaller, improving flow and increasing the compression ratio.[2] The compression ratio rose from 6.5:1 in the Go-Devil engine to 7.5:1 in the Hurricane engine, although a version of the Hurricane engine was made with a 6.9:1 compression ratio.[3]

F134[edit]

The L134 Go Devil was updated with the F-head to become the F134 in 1950.[4][5] This engine produced a gross output of 75 hp (56 kW; 76 PS) at 4000 rpm and 114 lb·ft (155 N·m) of torque at 2000 rpm with a 7.5:1 compression ratio. The gross power and torque outputs fell to 72 hp (54 kW; 73 PS) and 112 lb·ft (152 N·m) respectively when the engine had a 6.9:1 compression ratio. Bore and stroke dimensions were the same as the L-head engine at 3 18" x 4 38" giving 134.2 cu in (2,199 cc).[3]

The F4-134 was introduced in 1950 in the Jeep Truck.[4] Vehicles with this engine were given the model designation 4-73.[6] This engine was not placed in a CJ until the introduction of the CJ-3B in 1953, which had a distinctive high hood to accommodate the much taller engine.[2] The engine remained in production until 1971, after American Motors Corporation (AMC) purchased Kaiser Jeep.

Applications:

F161[edit]

The F6-161 Hurricane is an F-head version of the L6-161 Lightning flathead straight six. It was used in the Model 685 Station Wagon.[7]

BF-161 The BF-161 has a 3 18 inch bore and a 3 12 inch stroke, a one-barrel carburetor, and an output of 90 hp (67 kW; 91 PS) at 4400 rpm and 135 lb·ft (183 N·m) of torque at 2000 rpm. Its 161.1 cu in (2,640 cc) displacement features a compression ratio of 7.6:1.[8]

2600 The 2600 was essentially the same BF-161 engine made in Brazil by Willys-Overland's subsidiary, but it had two one-barrel carburetors (simultaneously opened) and had an output of 130 hp (97 kW; 132 PS) at 4400 rpm and 140 lb·ft (190 N·m) of torque at 2000 rpm. The compression ratio remained 7.6:1.[8]

3000 The 3-liter version is almost identical to the BF-161 engine with the stroke increased to 4 inches (100 mm) giving it a displacement of 3,016 cc (184.0 cu in).[8] With a 2-barrel carburetor it produced 140 hp (104 kW; 142 PS) at 4400 rpm and 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) of torque at 2000 rpm. It also had a slightly higher compression ratio of 8:1.[8] It initially used a different head with removable intake manifold. Later, after Ford acquired Willys-Overland do Brasil, they reverted the engine to its former head design with integral intake manifold, improved cooling between cylinders 5 and 6 and installed a side-mounted oil filter, instead of the front-mounted, hose connected arrangement used by Willys.

Applications:

Super Hurricane[edit]

The 6-226 "Super Hurricane"[9] was a L-head 6-cylinder[10][11] from Continental[11] with a bore of 3 516 inches and stroke of 4 38 inches, giving a displacement of 226.2 cu in (3,707 cc).[12] Horsepower rating is 105 hp (78 kW; 106 PS) at 3600 rpm or 115 hp (86 kW; 117 PS) at 3650 rpm,[12] as well as a torque rating of 190 lb·ft (258 N·m) at 1400 rpm or at 1800 rpm,[12] depending on the year of production.

Mitsubishi versions[edit]

Mitsubishi built a version of the Hurricane from 1954 as the JH4, mostly for use in their license-built version of the Jeep.[13] They later developed a 61 PS (45 kW) overhead-valve diesel version of the same, called KE31. This was also turned into a 3.3 liter six-cylinder version with the same internal dimensions, producing 85 PS (63 kW), which was named KE36. These diesel engines were used in the Jeep, but also in a number of light to medium-weight trucks and buses.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Engine Specs - Jeep Engines - Hurricane F-Head 134 I4". Baeta.org. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Brown, Arch (1994). "Chapter Five – Kaiser and the Jeep: 1953-55". Jeep: The Unstoppable Legend. Publications International. pp. 80, 82. ISBN 0-7853-0870-9. 
  3. ^ a b Brown, p. 236
  4. ^ a b Brown, p. 74.
  5. ^ Allen, Jim (2007). "Chapter 10 GO POWER Engine Performance". Jeep 4x4 Performance Handbook. Motorbooks Workshop Series 242 (Second ed.). MBI Publishing. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-7603-2687-9. Retrieved 21 August 2014. "1950–1971 F134 "Hurricane" Four-Cylinder F-head" 
  6. ^ Allen, Jim (1999). "Chapter 13: Two-Wheel Drive Jeeps". Jeep Collector's Library (Third ed.). MBI Publishing. p. 215. ISBN 0-7603-1979-0. Retrieved 21 August 2014. "The F-head–powered Station Wagon became Model 4-73." 
  7. ^ Allen, p. 228.
  8. ^ a b c d "Motores Willys 6 cilindros: BF-161, 2600, 3000 + Ford 4 cil. OHC 2300" (in Portuguese). ruralwillys. 27 July 2002. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  9. ^ Morr, Tom (2007). The Joy of Jeep. MBI Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7603-3061-6. 
  10. ^ Morr, p. 52.
  11. ^ a b Allen, p. 101.
  12. ^ a b c Shaw, Wilbur (March 1954). "New Engine Zips Up Little Willys". Popular Science 164 (3): 173–175. ISSN 0161-7370. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  13. ^ "三菱ジープのエンジン" [Mitsubishi Jeep engines]. じいぷファン倶楽部 [Jeep Fan Club] (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Takayoshi, Seiji (高吉 誠司), ed. (2011). "トラックメーカーアーカイブ vol.2: 三菱ふそうのすべて" [Truck Manufacturer Archive Volume 2: Everything Mitsubishi Fuso] (in Japanese). Geibun Mooks. p. 48. ISBN 978-4-86396-112-8.