Wilmer McLean

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Wilmer McLean
Wilmer McLean ca 1860.jpg
Wilmer McLean, c.1860.
Born (1814-05-03)May 3, 1814
Manassas, Virginia
Died June 5, 1882(1882-06-05) (aged 68)
Alexandria, Virginia
Resting place
St. Paul's Episcopal Cemetery
Occupation Grocer
McLean residence in Appomattox Court House, photographed in 1865 by Timothy O'Sullivan
McLean House at Appomattox Court House National Historical Park (photographed 2011)
Kitchen at the McLean House
Dining room at the McLean House

Wilmer McLean (May 3, 1814 – June 5, 1882) was a wholesale grocer from Virginia. It is said that the American Civil War "started in his front yard and ended in his front parlor".

American Civil War[edit]

First Battle of Bull Run[edit]

The initial engagement on July 21, 1861 of what would become the First Battle of Bull Run (First Mannasas) took place on McLean's farm, the Yorkshire Plantation, in Manassas, Prince William County, Virginia. Union Army artillery fired at McLean's house, which was being used as a headquarters for Confederate Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard, and a cannonball dropped through the kitchen fireplace. Beauregard wrote after the battle, "A comical effect of this artillery fight was the destruction of the dinner of myself and staff by a Federal shell that fell into the fire-place of my headquarters at the McLean House."[1]

McLean was a retired major in the Virginia militia, but at 47, he was too old to return to active duty at the outbreak of the Civil War. He made his living during the war as a sugar broker supplying the Confederate States Army. He decided to move because his commercial activities were centered mostly in southern Virginia and the Union army presence in his area of northern Virginia made his work difficult. He undoubtedly was also motivated by a desire to protect his family from a repetition of their combat experience. In the spring of 1863, he and his family moved about 120 miles (200 km) south to Appomattox County, Virginia, near a dusty, crossroads community called Appomattox Court House.[2]

Appomattox Court House[edit]

On April 9, 1865, the war revisited Wilmer McLean. Confederate General Robert E. Lee was about to surrender to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant. He sent a messenger to Appomattox Court House to find a place to meet. On April 8, 1865, the messenger knocked on McLean's door and requested the use of his home, to which McLean reluctantly agreed. Lee surrendered to Grant in the parlor of McLean's house, effectively ending the Civil War.[2] Later, McLean is supposed to have said "The war began in my front yard and ended in my front parlor".[3]

Once the ceremony was over, members of the Army of the Potomac began taking the tables, chairs, and various other furnishings in the house—essentially, anything that was not tied down—as souvenirs. They simply handed the protesting McLean money as they made off with his property.[4] Major General Edward Ord paid $40.00 (equivalent to $616.26 in today's dollars).[5] for the table Lee had used to sign the surrender document, while Major General Philip Sheridan got the table on which Grant had drafted the document for $20.00 (equivalent to $308.13 in today's dollars) in gold.[6][7] Sheridan then asked George Armstrong Custer to carry it away on his horse.[7] The table was presented to Custer's wife and is now on exhibit at the American History Museum at the Smithsonian.[8][citation needed] McLean's second home is now part of the Appomattox Court House National Historical Monument operated by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

After the War[edit]

After the war, McLean and his family sold their house in 1867, unable to keep up the mortgage payments, and returned to their home in Manassas.[9] They later moved to Alexandria, Virginia. He worked for the Internal Revenue Service from 1873 to 1876.

McLean died in Alexandria and is buried there at St. Paul's Episcopal Cemetery.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ G. T. Beauregard. "The First Battle of Bull Run". 
  2. ^ a b "Key Civilians at Appomattox; Wilmer McLean". Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  3. ^ Halkim, Joy, War, Terrible War 1855-1865, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-515330-8. Alternative versions of this quote are "... began in my front yard ...", "front lawn", and "front porch".
  4. ^ "Lula McLean's Rag Doll; The "Silent Witness"". Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  5. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  6. ^ Burr, Frank A. (1888). "Little Phil" and His Troopers: The Life of Gen. Philip H. Sheridan.. J. A. & R. A. Reid. p. 303. 
  7. ^ a b Rudolph Unger (March 5, 1986). "The Price for a Piece of History". Chicago Tribune. 
  8. ^ http://www.civilwar.si.edu/appomattox_furniture.html
  9. ^ "Appomattox Court House National Historical Park - The McLean House". Retrieved 2011-02-04. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]