Kingpin (comics)

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The Kingpin
Kingpin drawn by David Mazzucchelli.
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance The Amazing Spider-Man #50 (July 1967)
Created by Stan Lee
John Romita, Sr.
In-story information
Alter ego Wilson Fisk
Team affiliations HYDRA
The Hand
Notable aliases The Brainwasher, Harold Howard
Abilities Master armed/unarmed combatant, manipulator and tactician
Extraordinarily skilled martial artist
Highly skilled planner and organizer
Genius-level intellect
Well-developed physical attributes, including peak-level strength and durability

The Kingpin (Wilson Fisk) is a fictional character, a supervillain in the Marvel Comics Universe. He is one of the most feared and powerful crime lords in the Marvel Universe. The character first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #50. He is a recurring adversary of both Spider-Man and Daredevil, but has also clashed with the Punisher. Kingpin is also the husband of Vanessa Fisk and the father of Richard Fisk. IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains Of All Time List ranked The Kingpin as #10.[1]

He is obese but heavily muscular at the same time, and is a terrifying hand-to-hand combatant. He is also immensely wealthy and controls thousands of henchmen and underlings at any given time. Finally, he is a genius-level criminal mind, capable of orchestrating international criminal rings. His signature look is his white suit jacket and his walking stick, which he tips with diamonds or other hard substances as necessary to aid his physical combat. The name 'Kingpin' is a reference to the title crime lord in mafia slang nomenclature.

Publication history[edit]

The character first appears in The Amazing Spider-Man #50 (July 1967), and was created by writer Stan Lee and artist John Romita, Sr,[2] who based his physical appearance on actor Sydney Greenstreet.[citation needed] There the Kingpin appeared as an adversary of Spider-Man, but eventually became the archenemy of Daredevil.[3] He continues to be a dangerous and recurring opponent of Spider-Man, Daredevil, and the Punisher.

Fictional character biography[edit]

Wilson Fisk began his life as a poor child in New York City, bullied by his classmates due to his obesity. Fisk began training himself in physical combat, using his new-found strength to intimidate the bullies into joining his gang. He was eventually discovered by crime lord Don Rigoletto. Fisk became Don Rigoletto's bodyguard and right-hand man. Eventually, Fisk killed Don Rigoletto and took control of his criminal empire, immediately becoming one of the most powerful figures in New York's underworld.

While the Kingpin enjoyed a long tenure in his new position, he had made enemies such as the Maggia crime syndicate and the terrorist group HYDRA. The two groups teamed together to oppose Fisk, causing him to flee to Japan. There, he started a spice business in order to regain his wealth. After earning enough money, Fisk returned to New York and started gang wars, in an attempt to bring down the Maggia. With the criminal world in chaos, Fisk was able to step in and take back control.

Fisk attempted a coalition of the New York mobs after hearing that Spider-Man had apparently gone out of action, and ordered the abduction of J. Jonah Jameson, but was foiled by Spider-Man in his first confrontation with the web-slinger.[4]

While Fisk was a powerful crime lord, he posed as a legitimate businessman, one who made donations to charities, and seemed like a generous, wealthy man. He eventually met a woman named Vanessa, whom he married and had a son with, Richard Fisk. Vanessa did not know that Fisk was a criminal when she married him, and when she found out, she threatened to leave him if he did not give up his life of crime. He retired from crime, and the family moved back to Japan.[5]

Richard Fisk did not find out that his father was a criminal until he was in college. After graduating, Richard told his parents he would travel through Europe. Only months after he left, they received news that Richard, who was angry after learning the truth about his father, had died in a skiing accident. However, this was not what really happened. It turned out that Richard Fisk was still alive, and was masquerading as a rival crime lord known as the Schemer, intent on toppling his father as the kingpin of crime.[6]

Fisk contended against his rival gang-leader, the Schemer, who proved to be Richard in disguise, and battled Spider-Man in this encounter.[6]

At one point, he became the manager and director of the Las Vegas faction of HYDRA.[7]

At his wife's behest, Fisk later divested himself of his criminal empire. He unsuccessfully attempted to kill Spider-Man once more before retiring from crime.[8]

Cover to Daredevil #170, the Kingpin's first appearance in the title. Art by Frank Miller.

To complete his reformation, the Kingpin agreed to turn over his files to the authorities incriminating his former lieutenants. His wife Vanessa was then kidnapped by said lieutenants, who put out a contract on his life. After he witnessed the apparent death of Vanessa, he returned to a life of crime. He regained control of the New York mobs because he had built them up in the first place and knew how to damage them; promises to keep the East Coast stable kept Midwestern crime lords happy and allowed him room to move. The Kingpin also gained Bullseye's loyalty by promising steady work. The files were taken by Daredevil; Kingpin encouraged him to turn them over to the police as that would allow the him to replace the arrested crime lords that much swifter. Daredevil did not turn them over because this would slow down the Kingpin's plans.[9] Kingpin maneuvered Daredevil into battling the Hand.[10] He secretly promoted mayoral candidate Randolph Cherryh. He then hired Elektra as his assassin. Daredevil found Vanessa alive but amnesiac and returned her to him in exchange for his abandoning the Cherryh scheme. As retribution for this, he sent Elektra to kill Foggy Nelson, Daredevil's friend. Elektra failed and was killed by Bullseye.[11]

The Kingpin learned Daredevil's secret identity through information passed on from his ex-girlfriend Karen Page who was now a pornographic film star. The Kingpin used his influence to destroy Murdock's civilian and professional life. Enamored with the results of his own scheme, he became increasingly obsessed with Daredevil. This leads to, among other events, brutalizing the reporter Ben Urich, having his employees assault multiple policemen and sending the homicidal patriot 'Nuke' into Hell's Kitchen. The last incident results in dozens of deaths and everything laid at the door of the Kingpin. Though he fights off prison, his reputation is destroyed.[12]

Kingpin also provided superpowers to the Black Cat, who at the time was dating Spider-Man, and feared her lack of powers would make her a liability to him. Fisk hired scientists to provide her with defensive bad luck powers that would cause mishap to befall anyone that attempted to harm the Cat in combat, but also negatively affect anyone who stayed in close proximity to her for an extended time, eventually causing death. The Kingpin hoped this would lead to Spider-Man's death, but Spider-Man and the Black Cat ultimately broke up instead. Shortly after, he was attacked by an enraged Spider-Man.[13] Fisk's scientists also created the supervillains the Answer and the Spot to battle Spider-Man and the Black Cat.[volume & issue needed]

Later, Fisk rehired Bullseye to investigate a New York drug war. Kingpin survived an assassination attempt by Crossbones. In retaliation, he sent Bullseye to assassinate Crossbones' employer, the Red Skull. The attempt failed, and the Kingpin instead defeated the Red Skull in personal combat.[14]

After that, Fisk began his own cable television station, partnering with an apparent Texas millionaire the Kingpin thought could be easily manipulated. However, for once, the millionaire was actually bait planted by HYDRA. Learning of this from Nick Fury, Daredevil spread the word through the underworld that the Kingpin had become a HYDRA stooge, weakening his power. When the Kingpin tried to fight back, HYDRA stole the vast majority of his assets, bombed his businesses across the city and even sent a helicopter gunship to attack his skyscraper offices. With his empire crumbling, the Kingpin was brought up on a federal indictment and Daredevil tricked him into committing assault and battery at a bus depot. Bailed out of jail by a rival who intended to use him as an errand boy, Fisk lost what remained of his sanity, murdered his rival, and went on the run.[15]

He spent time in Japan rebuilding his empire and fighting the X-Men.[16] He finally returned to take back New York.[volume & issue needed] While there he manipulated Maya Lopez (also known as Echo) into thinking that Daredevil killed her father (although Fisk was actually responsible) to get her to kill Daredevil.[17] However, his plan backfired when Daredevil convinced her of the truth, and she shot him in the eyes in retaliation, rendering the Kingpin blind.[18] Fisk eventually lost his criminal empire to one of his employees, Samuel Silke, who was working with his son Richard, in a bloody Caesar-like assassination bid, using the Kingpins' new status as a blind man to rally supporters.[19] In the aftermath, Vanessa killed Richard and fled the country with Fisk's remaining wealth while the Kingpin recuperated in an unnamed eastern-European country, broken and alone, and was given an eye transplant which restored his eyesight.[20]

He returned, and after getting revenge on Silke by crushing his head, almost managed to regain his empire through sheer will, but was defeated by Daredevil, who declared himself the new Kingpin. Fisk was put in jail.[21]

He later hatched a scheme to be freed and regain his wealth by giving the FBI proof in the form of the nonexistent "Murdock Papers" that Matt Murdock is Daredevil. Having made so many enemies who were in prison, Fisk was constantly under attack from the Hand, HYDRA, or any number of criminal organizations with which he had had intimate contact. The U.S. Government was hard pressed to get rid of this expensive, dangerous, legally clean master criminal, and Fisk succeeded in manipulating the FBI into gravely wounding Daredevil and providing them a sample of Daredevil's DNA.[volume & issue needed] He tells Ben Urich to give the feds the location of the Night Nurse, the only medic for injured superheroes, or go to jail.[22]

He finally succeeded in getting Matt Murdock arrested, but the FBI betrayed him at the last minute and arrested him as well, placing him in the same jail as Murdock with hopes that the two would kill each other.[volume & issue needed] Ironically, the enemies were forced to team up in order to survive a prison riot which was directed at them. Finally, Murdock sacrificed the deal, refusing to let Bullseye, who was also incarcerated, leave the prison as Kingpin had planned. The fight ended with the Kingpin shot point-blank in the knee by gunfire from Bullseye intended for Murdock, while Murdock escaped.[23]

Fisk also appeared in the Civil War War Crimes one-shot. He offered a deal to Iron Man - consideration on his sentence in exchange for information about Captain America's Resistance base. However, as his status in prison is threatened for collaborating with Stark, he betrays him; he first sets up Iron Man by revealing a gathering of supervillains by Hammerhead to create a new criminal empire, claiming it was a base of Captain America's, and gives information to the Secret Avengers instead.[volume & issue needed]

He also put out a hit on Spider-Man and his loved ones after Iron Man convinced Spider-Man to unmask in public as a means of demonstrating his support for the Superhuman Registration Act. A sniper attempted to hit Spider-Man, only to hit the "secondary target" of Aunt May. Spider-Man tracked down the hit to Kingpin. He confronted the Kingpin in prison and badly beat the Kingpin in a fight in front of the prison's inmates. He decided to let the Kingpin live for a time under the humiliation of his defeat, news of which would quickly spread through the Underworld. Spider-Man vowed to return and kill the Kingpin the second his aunt died if that ever happened.[24]

However, at some point later, after Matt Murdock returns to America with his name cleared, he completes Vanessa Fisk's last wish and takes on Fisk's case, getting all charges dropped in exchange for Fisk leaving the country and giving up his American citizenship. Murdock told Fisk they had to end their vendetta now as otherwise the Vanessa that the Kingpin had loved would be lost forever, as the woman she became got her last wish by having her husband and Daredevil constantly at war with each other all over again. Although the charges were dropped due to the evidence being too tainted to be brought to court, Murdock delayed the case enough so Fisk would not be able to attend his wife's funeral. Fisk is later seen visiting his wife's grave and mourning her death. Fisk later temporarily returned to New York to "[wrap] up some loose ends that he had to deal with."[25]

In Runaways, Fisk meets with the Runaways, revealing he knew all about their parents, since they ruled Los Angeles with efficiency and vision; he never tried to take their territory nor did they invade his. He makes a deal with the Runaways to secure a mysterious object for him in exchange for protection from the government. He and his army of ninjas are defeated when the Runaways refuse to give it after they stole it, discovering that it was a device invented by the Pride. It is later revealed that Fisk was hired by an elderly woman named Lillie McGurty, who orchestrated the events so the Runaways can travel back to 1907 and ensure that she would come back to the present with them, which her past self declined.[25]

Informed of May's survival by Mephisto as a nurse at the hospital, he decides to send a masked hitman after Anna Watson. Mary Jane goes to check on Anna, just in time to stop the hitman, who goes after her. Spider-Man saves Mary Jane and unmasks the hitman.[volume & issue needed]During the course of the One More Day storyline, which ended with the removal of Peter and Mary-Jane's marriage from all memories, the situation changes so nobody (including Fisk and with the exception of Mary-Jane and Deadpool) knows Spider-Man's secret identity.[volume & issue needed]

Return of the King[edit]

Kingpin returns in the Daredevil arc, "Return of the King". There, it reveals he has spent the past year living a normal life in a small Spanish fishing village. There he meets and falls in love with Marta, a young mother of two. He finds himself trying to overcome his former life as a crime boss, only to later find Marta and her kids murdered by Lady Bullseye, and the Hand, who then brutally attack him, stabbing him through the shoulders with two katanas. When he asks why, Lady Bullseye replies "The reasons are far too numerous, but if you want a specific cause, ask Daredevil."[26] In his revenge against the Hand, Kingpin frees and recruits the Owl to help him with it. Fisk begins hallucinating visions of his dead wife Vanessa, who taunts him. It turns out that Fisk's actual plan to is to take the leadership of the Hand, after killing Hiroshi, the ninja-lord who ordered the family's assassinations. However, he is thwarted by Daredevil, who takes the leadership for himself.[27]

Dark Reign[edit]

During the Dark Reign storyline, Kingpin later creates an alliance with Lady Bullseye to destroy Daredevil. He orders Lady Bullseye to disguise herself as a member of the Hand and kill two corrupt cops and a judge, making it seem that Daredevil ordered it and making Norman Osborn send Bullseye in retaliation. Though Daredevil survived the fight with Bullseye, The Kingpin is undeterred and states that he has Daredevil "where he wants him".[28] The Kingpin has also targeted Daredevil's friends to frame Norman Osborn for their recent misfortunes to further his attempts on manipulating Daredevil's actions. He has Foggy Nelson disbarred as an attorney for standing up to a judge on his payroll for an unfair ruling of overturning a jury's verdict. He also causes Dakota North to lose her private investigator's license.[29]


During the Shadowland storyline, Kingpin approaches Iron Fist and Luke Cage telling them that they will need to take down Daredevil soon. Kingpin and Lady Bullseye later perform a ritual that brings back Ghost Rider to attack the Hand.[30] After Daredevil is dethroned from Shadowland, Kingpin takes both Shadowland, and the Hand, under his rule, officially taking his place back as the crime lord of New York City.[31]

"Big Time"[edit]

During the "Big Time" storyline Kingpin hires a new Hobgoblin to steal some experimental vibranium from Horizon Labs.[32]

It was revealed in Spider-Island that Fisk has gained spider powers, as demonstrated by heightened reflexes, and the ability to wall crawl.[33] Like all other New Yorkers, he lost those powers when the situation was resolved.[volume & issue needed]

Marvel NOW![edit]

As part of the Marvel NOW! event, Kingpin hears about how Superior Spider-Man (Doctor Octopus' mind in Spider-Man's body) has been using brutal methods to take down the local crime families which would leave a vacuum to fill. Kingpin's hideout Shadowland is attacked by Superior Spider-Man and Kingpin claims that this Spider-Man is much different than the Spider-Man he fought. While escaping, Kingpin kills his doppelgänger Smedley Kornfeld (who was hired for events like this) in order to fool Superior Spider-Man.[34]

Skills, abilities and equipment[edit]

Kingpin fighting Captain America.

The Kingpin has no superhuman powers. However, he is incredibly strong and durable, possessing remarkable strength concealed by his somewhat corpulent appearance. He has been shown to be strong enough to hurl people across a room,[volume & issue needed] rip limbs from people (demonstrated under a handshake),[volume & issue needed] crush a man's skull with his bare hands,[35] leave imprints in concrete walls after punching them,[volume & issue needed] and even crush one of Spider-Man's web shooters without making any great effort.[volume & issue needed] Contrary to all appearances, most of his body mass is actually muscle that has been built to extraordinary size, much like a sumo wrestler and he is almost as strong as it is physically possible for an ordinary human to be. The Kingpin is a master of many forms of armed and unarmed combat, particularly sumo, jujutsu, and hapkido. He is an extraordinarily skilled martial artist, especially in sumo wrestling. His signature move is the bear hug. He once fought Captain America to a standstill in hand-to-hand combat.[36] While he has been shown as being able to hold his own against Spider-Man, this is because Spider-Man has strong psychological inhibitions against using his superhuman strength against non-powered opponents, for fear of killing them. When Spider-Man went all out against Fisk after the attack on Aunt May, Fisk was easily and decisively beaten.

He typically wears Kevlar armor under his clothing. Fisk sometimes carries a walking stick that conceals a laser beam weapon capable of firing a blast of concussive force sufficient for vaporizing a handgun (or a person's head) at close range; this is also known as his "obliterator cane". He typically wears an ornamental diamond stick-pin that conceals a highly compressed chamber of sleeping gas that is effective if sprayed at close range directly into his victim's face. Due to his wealth and intellectual industry, Kingpin could use far more advanced paraphernalia, but he prefers to use such things as a last resort. As Fisk became less Spider-Man's nemesis than Daredevil's, he became more of a naturalistic mafioso than a comic-book criminal mastermind, and depended less on science fiction-like weaponry.

The United States government is aware of the Kingpin's crimes, but has never been able to prove his involvement. Members of the government have worked with him when necessary (even while describing him as "the Devil"), such as when they needed his help to dispose of a Manhattan office building that The Beyonder turned into gold.[37] The Kingpin is intellectually formidable and is a master tactician and a highly skilled planner and organizer. He is self-educated to university graduate level in the field of political science. He is extremely skilled and knowledgeable in the organization and management of criminal and legal business operations. Kingpin is also a master manipulator, occasionally going so far as to lead superheroes into taking down criminal rivals that pose a threat to his position.[volume & issue needed]

Other versions[edit]


In the Marvel 1602 universe, Wilson Fisk is a pirate captain of the HMS Vanessa, known as the King's Pin, who attacks the ship taking Peter Parquarh and Sir Norman Osborne back to England.[volume & issue needed] However, although his attack injures Osborne, he is unable to take the ship when Peter deflects the cannonballs by using his webbing to throw them back at the Vanessa, throwing Fisk into the sea when he confronts the captain directly, even rejecting Fisk's 'offer' to explain how he got his name.[volume & issue needed]

Age of Apocalypse[edit]

In the Age of Apocalypse, Wilson Fisk is known as Dirigible, a wealthy businessman who bought his way into the Marauders, a human terrorist group serving Apocalypse that makes up for their lack of mutant powers using technology which allows them to fly and emit explosive blasts.[volume & issue needed] Dirigible is clearly the leader of the group, as he is seen giving orders to his three teammates. Alongside Red (Norman Osborn), the Owl, and Arcade, he attacks the human refugee camps of Wakanda. However, Dirigible is killed by Gwen Stacy.[volume & issue needed]

Old Man Logan[edit]

A future Kingpin appears in a possible future timeline in which the United States has been carved up between the various supervillains. This version is described as a "man of the people" who fought his way to the top, gaining control of the Mountain States and killing the domain's former master, Magneto. This version is an African American male, and he is eventually killed and has his territory taken over by Ashley Barton, Hawkeye's daughter and the current Spider-Girl.[38]


  • In the second Batman/Spider-Man crossover, Kingpin is forced to partner with Ra's al Ghul in a plan that would destroy New York City, in exchange for a cure to Vanessa's cancer. As it turned out, Ra's gave Vanessa her cancer to force Kingpin to aid him, but the Kingpin actually formed an alliance with Batman and Spider-Man to save the city. Ra's attempted to get his revenge by denying Fisk the cure for Vanessa's cancer, but Talia al Ghul, Ra's' daughter, provided the cure herself, recognizing in Vanessa a kindred spirit, as both of them loved men that society would regard as monsters.
  • In the second Batman/Daredevil crossover book, Kingpin almost lost his entire criminal empire to the Scarecrow, who had tried to dismantle it merely as a distraction so that he could spread his fear toxin throughout New York. In this book, Kingpin is shown to be a formidable physical match for Batman.
  • The Kingpin has a small role in Marvel vs. DC, when he purchases the Daily Planet, firing Perry White and replacing him with J. Jonah Jameson. He also bullies workers, especially Lois Lane, who threatens to expose him as the Kingpin. Eventually, he is confronted by his angry staff, but is defeated when Spider-Man and Superboy arrive before he can do any significant damage.
  • The Amalgam Comics character The Big Question (Enigma Fisk) is a combination of the Riddler of DC Comics and Kingpin. He appears in the Marvel/DC Comics crossover comic, Assassins #1 (April 1996).

House of M[edit]

Wilson Fisk appears in the House of M, similar to how his mainstream counterpart is represented.[volume & issue needed]

Marvel Zombies[edit]

The Kingpin appears in Marvel Zombies vs. The Army of Darkness #2 with his underlings, willing to work with the Punisher to try and save humanity from the zombie attack. The Punisher kills the group instead.[39]

He appears in Marvel Zombies 3 as a leader of the zombie horde, planning to invade Earth-616. He keeps his wife in hiding, satisfying his hunger (and those of other infected characters) by cloning uninfected humans as a source of food.[volume & issue needed] Eventually, he eats her when his plan is defeated.[40]

Marvel Zombies Return[edit]

An alternate version of Kingpin appears in Marvel Zombies Return, where he summons the Sinister Six to steal a sacred tablet from the college where Peter Parker attends. But when the zombified Spider-Man is transported to their world, he kills and devours five of the members. An infuriated Kingpin decides to confront Spider-Man but is quickly dispatched and devoured by Spider-Man, leaving his men to run for their lives.[41]


Main article: PunisherMAX

A more realistic version of Kingpin appears in a storyarc in the Max version of The Punisher, starting with the first issue of PunisherMAX #1. A realistic version of Bullseye is his main henchman.[42] Like the mainstream version he is incredibly strong, able to squeeze someone's head until their eyes pop out. He is a highly formidable hand-to-hand combatant, cunning and utterly ruthless. This version of Fisk is also married to Vanessa and has a son, Richard, who is depicted here as a young child. Also like the mainstream version, he is employed at the beginning of his criminal career as a bodyguard/enforcer by mob boss Rigoletto. While working as an enforcer, he uses a Glock handgun.[volume & issue needed]

PunisherMAX gives several additional elements to Fisk's background. He is said in this version to be of Irish ethnicity. As a child, Fisk, who comes from Hell's Kitchen, was regularly beaten and abused by his father. After killing a stray dog that Fisk had adopted, Fisk drugged his father and watched him eaten alive by starving rats. At some point in his criminal career, Fisk was convicted and sent to Attica. There he was badly beaten and gang raped by five men, the leader of whom was "Big Lucky". When he was released, Fisk arranged for Big Lucky's wife to be gang-raped by a dozen drug-addicts and winos. He took photographs of the rape and mailed them to Big Lucky, who broke out of jail. When he arrived home, his wife was dead, and Fisk was waiting for him and tortured him for one whole night before killing him, establishing his reputation in the criminal world.[43]

At the beginning of the story arc, this version of the Kingpin works as a bodyguard for mob boss Rigoletto. In order to finally kill the Punisher, Fisk comes up with the idea to create a figurehead "Kingpin of crime" who would be a target for the Punisher in order to flush him out. Rigoletto and the other mafia bosses approve of Fisk's plan. Fisk eventually kills Rigoletto and the other bosses, taking over the mob and actually becoming the "Kingpin" he was originally supposed to impersonate. He does so, however at the cost of his son's life : during his final confrontation with Fisk, Rigoletto takes Richard hostage and threatens to kill him but Fisk, showing no concern for his son's fate, stands idly by as Rigoletto slits the boy's throat. Fisk later reflects that he had always thought that he was trying to advance his criminal career for his son's sake, while in reality it was only for himself. Because of this, Vanessa grows to hate Fisk and vows to have him killed.[44]

The Kingpin becomes the Punisher's target and tries to have him killed by his successive henchmen Bullseye and Elektra. At the end of the series, the Kingpin eventually manages to ambush and seriously wound The Punisher at a confrontation at the Punisher's old family home. During the fight, Kingpin is struck in the side of the head with the claw of a hammer, just as he's about to deliver the fatal blow. He returns to his Tower, but is told by the guard that his ex-wife ordered that he was not to be let in. Kingpin is then shot in the back of the head by the Punisher, who states: "Your city, my world." The Punisher stumbles home to recover from his injuries, before collapsing at the steps of his house.[45] Vanessa Fisk has her ex-husband cremated. She then takes the ashes to a bathroom. Her eulogy to him was: "Goodbye, you son of a bitch." and flushes his ashes down the toilet. Nick Fury cuts power to the city soon afterwards, and shoots Vanessa in the back of the head.[46]


Main article: Marvel Comics 2

In the alternate future portrayed in the MC2 comics, Fisk has finally succeeded in killing Daredevil, although he made the mistake of betraying Kaine in the process.[volume & issue needed] Kaine attempted to revive Daredevil with sorcery, but ended up bonding him with the demon Zarathos and Reilly Tyne (son of Ben Reilly, the Scarlet Spider), creating the superhero Darkdevil.[47]

At some point, Fisk was sent to prison, although he is still able to manage his criminal empire from within the prison, often with the assistance of bribed guards, and lives in luxury within his cell, feasting on gourmet cooking. Fisk and his lawyer, Foggy Nelson, were on their way to court for his latest appeal when Kaine attacked Fisk. Spider-Girl intervened and saved Fisk. He continues to use costumed villains as agents and assassins including Spider-Girl foes Mr. Nobody and Crazy Eight.[volume & issue needed]

When Kaine was being taken away by the police, Kaine asked Nelson why he represented the man who murdered his partner, Matt Murdock. Nelson had been unaware of this (it is not stated how much Nelson knew about Murdock's alter ego Daredevil or the circumstances of his death), and refused to represent Fisk further. This causes Fisk to lose the appeal in question.[48]

When a gang war started, Fisk is slain by a bomb while still in prison. While dying he has a vision of his wife and son, who show the unrepentant criminal his dark past. The two spirits tell him that he can only come to the "light" if he renounces his criminal past. It is left ambiguous as to what he decided.[49]

Spider-Man: Reign[edit]

Fisk appears in a vegetative state in the first part of Spider-Man: Reign. He is seen with Mayor Waters, who is saying that he has not eaten solid food in ten years. This is part of the oppressive regime imposed by the mayor's secret master, his assistant.[50]

Ultimate Marvel[edit]

In the Ultimate Marvel continuity, Kingpin remained mostly unchanged. He is still a large, thick set bald man who usually wears a white suit and carries a cane. He is the head of New York corporate crime, a ruthless murderer and notorious for bribing his way out of any prosecution. He has a reputation for simply owning many parts of New York, such as the McDonalds in Times Square. His employees include Electro, Elektra, and the Enforcers. In the universe, his wife Vanessa Fisk also exists but is in a comatose state. The Kingpin is trying to remedy this with an ancient tablet that he had stolen. Unfortunately for the Kingpin, it was stolen and lost by the Black Cat as revenge. It is unclear why Vanessa is in a coma. He also finds competition in another crime lord called Hammerhead, and manages to play his enemy against Spider-Man, Black Cat, Moon Knight, Iron Fist, and Shang-Chi.[51]

In his first appearance, his employee Electro manages to knock out Spider-Man with electricity, and he, Kingpin, and The Enforcers manage to unmask him, revealing him to be a teenager. They then throw him out a window. From then on, The Kingpin knows Spider-Man to be a teenager, and tortures him with this knowledge many times.

Captain Jeanne De Wolfe was secretly working for the crime lord before being killed by the Punisher. The Kingpin was seen mourning her death in Ultimate Spider-Man Annual #2, possibly indicating an affair. Her death came at the end of a play for territory by another crime boss, the Kangaroo, who was taken into custody.[52]

The Kingpin purchases the holding firm GG Enterprises, which owns the company that carries the licensing rights of the Spider-Man movie franchise. By purchasing the GG, Kingpin now technically owns Spider-Man's likeness. After Iron Fist betrayed the Ultimate Knights team's intentions to him, he had Spider-Man captured. He ties him to a stool, unmasks him, and tortures and humiliates him with this information, citing it as the only reason he would allow Spider-Man to continue to roam free. At the same time, he has Moon Knight assaulted and taken away, and torches Daredevil's offices. In retaliation, a crazed Daredevil breaks into Fisk's offices and threatens to murder his comatose wife by snapping her neck. As Kingpin pleads with Daredevil not to turn something that he only saw as 'business' into something personal, Spider-Man and the rest of the Knights persuade Daredevil to let her go on the condition that Fisk leaves the country. Daredevil grudgingly agrees.[53]

Fisk, furious that the heroes had broken into his house and threatened his wife, orders their deaths, and that Spider-Man's school to be blown up while class is in session. Unfortunately for Fisk, the Moon Knight (whose assassination Fisk had ordered) escapes death from the Kingpin's men and turns himself in, saying the Kingpin ordered his kill. As such, Fisk is finally arrested as he tries to leave the country.[54]

Following the events of Ultimatum, evidence implicating Fisk in his crimes were lost, and Fisk's lawyers were able to clear his name. Hoping to reinstate himself as the Kingpin, Fisk returns to New York. Instead, he is attacked by Mysterio, who throws him out a window. Fisk is later declared dead by the media.[55]

Fisk's grandfather appears in Ultimate Origins attempting to loot a house with Nick Fury and James Howlett (Wolverine), while all three are serving during World War II. Military police arrive to arrest them, and all three are subdued. Fisk is grazed by a bullet, while Fury and Howlett, despite the latter's protests that he's Canadian, are shipped off to separate unknown locations.[56]

Marvel Noir[edit]

In the Marvel Noir universe, Wilson Fisk appears as a crime lord.[57]

During the Spider-Verse storyline, Wilson Fisk assisted Mysterio and his assistant Ella in a plot to obtain The Spider-Man's blood.[58]

In other media[edit]


  • Kingpin has appeared in the 1967 animated Spider-Man episodes "King Pinned" and "The Big Brainwasher", voiced by Tom Harvey. In "King Pinned", Kingpin and his henchmen kidnap J. Jonah Jameson when his newspapers were exposing his drug counterfeiting business. Here, Foswell is a spy for the Kingpin. Spider-Man managed to save J. Jonah Jameson while Kingpin got away.[59] In "The Big Brainwasher", Kingpin has opened a club that Mary Jane has gotten a job at where she takes pictures of city officials and the camera mesmerizes them to enter a room where Kingpin has them brainwashed. Spider-Man stops Kingpin's plot and he and his henchmen are handed over to the police.[60]
  • Kingpin appeared in the Spider-Woman episode "The Kingpin Strikes Again". In that episode, he was first seen trying to loot a bank with a band of capable henchmen. Though initially thwarted by the timely arrival of Spider-Woman, she herself was foiled when she left herself wide open to attack by sticking to a wall, and one of Kingpin's henchmen with a jackhammer used the contraption to shake the surface the heroine was sticking on, causing Spider-Woman to fall into a cell, holding her at bay. He later finds out Jessica Drew is the Spider-Woman and shares this knowledge with the world. In the end, she uses a robot to make everybody (including the Kingpin) think he made a mistake.[citation needed]
  • Kingpin appeared in the 1981 Spider-Man TV series, voiced by Stanley Jones. In "Wrath of the Sub-Mariner", Kingpin calls a truce with Silvermane, Hammerhead, and Caesar Cicero when his scientist Dr. Everett has developed a fluid that dissolves metal. In "Return of the Kingpin", his henchman Hal Hunter sets Spider-Man up for a heist.[citation needed]
  • Kingpin appeared in the Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends episode "Pawns of the Kingpin", voiced by Walker Edmiston. In that episode, he brainwashes Captain America, who then tricks Iceman so both heroes would steal a secret weapon for him. The scientist who developed the brainwashing technique betrays the Kingpin by brainwashing him but the Kingpin eventually reveals that he had already taken precautions and had just pretended to be brainwashed waiting for a chance to capture the scientist. He's eventually captured by the heroes and arrested by the police.[61]
Kingpin as he appears in Spider-Man: The Animated Series.
  • His most prominent appearance is in Spider-Man: The Animated Series, voiced by Roscoe Lee Browne. In this show, he is the most recurring villain. This Kingpin is fairly close to the comics version, but he is often occupied with manipulating superpowered characters to do his bidding. In addition, as opposed to just being a crime lord in New York, Kingpin has a global criminal organization; his headquarters is simply located in New York (in the Chrysler Building, which he dubs "Crime Central"). His physical abilities are generally depicted the same as his comics counterpart, except in one instance when he toppled a huge robot. His bodymass is stated in this continuity as being only "2% fat", a statement followed by the declared possession of "350 pounds of muscle". He's the mastermind behind the creation of the Spider-Slayers and is responsible for the creation of the Insidious Six, the animated equivalent of the Sinister Six. He's also involved in a power struggle with crime boss Silvermane. Initially, he operated behind the scenes until the "Framed/The Man Without Fear" two-part episode, where his identity was revealed to Spider-Man with the help of Daredevil, who was seeking revenge for his father's murder at Kingpin's hands. The Kingpin's main associate here was at first Alistair Smythe, but after Smythe nearly betrayed the Kingpin because he believed Kingpin was going to kill him for placing his son in jail during the Daredevil two-parter, Dr. Herbert Landon replaced him. Kingpin remained at large throughout the series, although an alternate dimension's version was arrested in the series finale. Another alternate version was shown to be the lawyer of that dimension's Peter Parker, though he proved just as underhanded as his counterparts. The Kingpin has proven to be more than a match for Spider-Man, eluding capture and even capturing Spider-Man on occasion. This series also described an origin for the Kingpin as seen in "The man without fear," somewhat different than the comic book version. As a boy, Wilson Fisk was influenced by his father, who sought employment as a mob criminal. When older, Fisk assisted his father in robbing banks and jewelry stores, culminating in one robbery where his father escaped but Fisk, hampered by his already-considerable weight, was captured by police. Fisk did not name his father at his trial and was sentenced to prison, where he resolved to survive. In adulthood, Fisk emulated his father's goal and climbed to a position of seniority within the mob, adopting the alias "Kingpin". He has had his police file destroyed, removing all record of his earlier arrest – effectively making his former life "cease to exist." He then exacted revenge against his father, who was implied to have been killed by the Kingpin's henchmen. It was also revealed that his real name was Wilson Moriarty. He maintained a strained relationship with his wife Vanessa, who was well-aware of his activities and wanted him to let it all go. Though he loved her, she eventually left him after being briefly kidnapped by Silvermane. His son, Richard, works for him until he was arrested at the end of the Daredevil saga and contemplates how long until his son takes his revenge on him like he did with his father. During the 'Six Forgotten Warriors' saga he reforms the Insidious Six and tries to gain access to the Doomsday Device. He is told by Silver Sable that one of his men is working against him. He finally manages to capture the Six American Warriors (save Captain America who is in statis in a vortex with the Red Skull) and Spider-Man, and recover the Six Keys needed to gain access to the Doomsday Complex from them. However the Chameleon uses sleeping gas on them, revealing himself to be working with the Red Skull's son (as he was the Red Skull's adopted son). The Kingpin is freed when the Red Skull and Captain America are released and begin fighting. The Doomsday Device turns the Red Skull's son into Electro. The Kingpin tries to attack Electro, but is easily defeated, and is then hospitalized. His final appearance is in the Spider Wars saga where the first part showed an alternate reality version of Kingpin in allegiance with the Spider-Carnage. After the Spider-Men stopped the Spider-Carnage's doomsday device, Madame Web teleported that Kingpin to a maximum security prison. In the high-tech Spider-Man's reality, Kingpin is Peter Parker's lawyer. Spider-Carnage tricked that reality's Kingpin into helping him construct his doomsday device. Spider-Man revealed to Kingpin that Spider-Carnage had tricked him.
  • Kingpin appears in the Spider-Man: The New Animated Series episode "Royal Scam", voiced by Michael Clarke Duncan. In this series, the Kingpin is depicted as an African-American and uses a red diamond-studded cane capable of shooting lasers. Here, the Kingpin manipulated Spider-Man into thinking he worked for the FBI and assigned the superhero to steal a chip from the mob (they were actually innocent scientists). Spider-Man soon realized he was scammed (evidenced when he learned that the first FBI agent he met is just a movie actor). With the help of Harry Osborn and the real FBI, Spider-Man had the Kingpin behind bars after a confrontation in one of the Kingpin's helicopters. When the copter crashed, both of them successfully escaped and due to Kingpin's weight, he fell from Spider-Man's hand. However, the superhero saved him and had him trapped behind a crate long enough for the FBI to arrest him.


  • In the live action 1989 television movie The Trial of the Incredible Hulk, the Kingpin is portrayed by John Rhys-Davies. David Banner (Bill Bixby) is unjustly arrested after interrupting an assault on a New York City subway by two thugs in the employ of Wilson Fisk, the Kingpin. Attorney Matt Murdock (Rex Smith) agrees to represent him, hoping to use information gleaned from Banner to bring down Fisk's organization. Banner and Murdock eventually learn about each other's secret lives as the Hulk and Daredevil, respectively. The pair is able to thwart Fisk's plans, but the Kingpin himself escapes.
Michael Clarke Duncan as the Kingpin in Daredevil.
  • In the 2003 feature film Daredevil, Michael Clarke Duncan played the character. In the film, the Kingpin appears to be a heavily built corporate head, but in fact he is the sole person running organized crime. Duncan signed on for the role in January 2002, though he had been attached far earlier.[63] When Duncan was cast, he weighed 290 pounds. He was asked to gain 40 pounds for the role in order to fit the physique of Kingpin. In order to do this, he would lift weights for 30 minutes a day, and power-lifted, as well as eating whatever he wanted. Despite this, Duncan's biggest concern was that he is an African-American, while Kingpin had always been portrayed as European-American in the comics.[64] He spoke on the fans' loyalty to the source material by saying "they watch movies to say, 'Hey, that's not like the comic book.' But I want them to get past that and just see the movie for what it is and see me for what I am—an actor."[65] In the film, the Kingpin started out as an enforcer for a mob boss named Falon, in which capacity he was hired to kill Jack "The Devil" Murdock after he refused to throw a fight, leaving a signature red rose at the scene of his crimes. Years later, Fisk became a crime boss in his own right and successfully hid his criminal activities from the public. He hires Bullseye to kill Nikolas Natchios after Natchios attempts to leave his organization, attempting to frame Natchios as the Kingpin in the process. Though Bullseye is successful, Fisk also wants Natchios' family killed and hires Bullseye to kill Natchios' daughter Elektra. After he supposedly kills Elektra, Bullseye is defeated by Daredevil after he reveals during the fight that Fisk is really the Kingpin, unknowingly revealing his role in Murdock's father's death as well. In his fight with Daredevil, the Kingpin unmasks him. Daredevil then breaks Fisk's legs and leaves him for the police. In July 2006, Duncan showed interest in returning for the role of the Kingpin, but stated that he would not be willing to gain weight as he felt "comfortable" being down to 270 pounds. However, he jokingly showed willingness to change his mind if he was offered $20 million. Duncan suggested that the character is portrayed to have been training a lot in jail in order to become faster in combat against Daredevil, also working as a way to fit his weight loss into the story.[66]

Video games[edit]

  • In The Punisher, Kingpin is the final villain. If the player finishes the game, the Kingpin is seemingly killed, however the police never find his body.
  • The Kingpin is the final boss in the video game adaptation of the Daredevil movie for the Game Boy Advance.[67] In the game, he puts out a warrant out for Daredevil's arrest to the criminal underworld (which is later revealed as a fraud). Daredevil interrogates the Kingpin at his penthouse, where it is revealed that Daredevil eliminated his competition when he was setting up his master plan. After Daredevil defeats him, the Kingpin tells him that although Daredevil knows his secret identity, Daredevil can't reveal Wilson Fisk's secret to the police. At the end, Fisk lies to the reporters by saying that Daredevil's arrest was a "media distortion".
  • The Kingpin is featured in the 2005 video game The Punisher, voiced by David Sobolov. Punisher had suspected him of being behind the attempts on his life and being allied with the Gnucchi's and the Russian Mob. Following Bullseye's defeat, the Kingpin confronts Punisher and tells him that his real enemy is a Japanese Yakuza group called the Eternal Sun. In the post-credits scene, the Kingpin is plotting his revenge against the Punisher for the embarrassment he caused him.
  • The Kingpin appears in Spider-Man 3, voiced by Bob Joles. He is featured in his respective sidequest of the game. At a press conference, Peter sees Fisk and gets shots of him with some gang members of the Apocalypse Gang, the Arsenic Candy Gang, and the Dragon Tail Gang (all of whom had been previously defeated and arrested due to Spider-Man's actions in earlier side-quests). Fisk then tells the gang members to break out their bosses (who are being held present at the press conference). Spider-Man then goes to the Kingpin's penthouse and after defeating the gang members and their bosses, he fights the Kingpin. His strength and aggression amplified by the Venom symbiote, Spider-Man causes Kingpin to fall to his apparent death after throwing him through a window, although no body is found and Spider-Man wonders if he survived the fall.
  • Kingpin appears as one of the primary characters in Spider-Man: Web of Shadows, voiced by Gregg Berger. He is shown to own a company called Wilson Fisk Industries. He establishes a crime spree by hiring Vulture to build high-tech armors and gliders for his minions and even sets up a gang war between the Rolling Sevens Gang and the Park Avenue Gang (although the gang war can be averted by Spider-Man and Luke Cage confirming the involvement of Fisk's minions in provoking both gangs). Spider-Man encounters Kingpin and his Tech Soldiers at one of the bridges which was roadblocked by S.H.I.E.L.D. Agents when the Symbiote Infection occurs. He and his Tech Soldiers retreat back to Wilson Fisk Industries. When Spider-Man freed Tinkerer from Ryker's Island, Kingpin and his Tech Soldiers arrived where Kingpin convinced Black Widow to let Tinkerer come up with a device to stop the Symbiote Invasion. Around the part where Spider-Man deactivates and reactivates the defense systems outside of Wilson Fisk Industries, Spider-Man tells Kingpin that they are transferring Tinkerer to his building. After listening to his plans, Kingpin grants the Tinkerer access to his facilities and informs him that he will make some calls to obtain a specific castle in Italy and a girl from Tinkerer's favorite tool catalog. When Spider-Man does missions for Kingpin, a discussion between the two of them has Kingpin mentioning that Vulture has been demonstrating some odd behavior lately. This is later confirmed when Kingpin, Spider-Man, Black Widow, and Tinkerer discover that Vulture had become possessed by a Symbiote. In both Black Suit endings, Kingpin tells Black Widow that the Tinkerer is ready as Black Widow appoints a symbiote-controlled Wolverine (who is in full control of his Symbiote) to bring her Spider-Man dead or alive. In the PSP and PS2 version, Kingpin calls up Spider-Man to give him his missions.
  • Kingpin appears in Lego Marvel Super Heroes, voiced by John DiMaggio.[citation needed] In a bonus mission at Fisk Tower, Kingpin has taken a civilian hostage until the civilian is rescued by Captain America and Spider-Man. When Daredevil arrived, Kingpin unleashed his henchmen, Elektra, and Bullseye on them before engaging the heroes. Kingpin is defeated when it took Spider-Man bringing three chandeliers down upon Kingpin.
  • Kingpin appears in The Amazing Spider-Man 2, voiced by J. B. Blanc. He initially appears as a philanphropist funding Oscorp's attempt to create a new task force called the Enhanced Crime Task Force to cope with the rising gang war, but Spider-Man soon learns that Fisk is actually using the Enhanced Crime Task Force to eliminate his rivals to set himself up as the new head of crime in New York. Fisk not only creates a new serial killer to eliminate other killers and spread fear, but even hires Kraven the Hunter to trick Spider-Man into eliminating more gangs. Although Spider-Man is able to gain access to Fisk's compound after defeating Kraven in a fight and 'earning' the pass-codes Kraven has noted during previous visits, he is unable to expose Fisk's criminal activities upon his defeat due to Electro going on a rampage. In the post-credits, Kingpin is on the phone with the Mayor of Manhattan about the Green Goblin incident and that he will continue to finance the Enhanced Crime Task Force himself. After his call to the Mayor, Kingpin speaks to Chameleon who has been posing as Donald Menken all along. When Chameleon asks what their next plan is, Kingpin states that "the real work begins."


Kingpin can be seen in Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. He is seen robbing a bank with Hammerhead before being stopped by Spider-Man.


  • Kingpin's real name, Wilson Fisk, has been used by English band "Wilson Fisk".[69]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Kingpin is Number 10". Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  2. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 40. ISBN 978-0756692360. Although he made his debut in the previous issue, it was in this [Stan] Lee and [John] Romita tale [The Amazing Spider-Man #51] that the Kingpin - real name Wilson Fisk - really left his mark on organized crime. 
  3. ^ top 5 enemies of Daredevil,
  4. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #50-52
  5. ^ Daredevil vol 1. #170-171
  6. ^ a b Amazing Spider-Man #83-85
  7. ^ Captain America #147 (Mar 1972)
  8. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #197 (October 1979)
  9. ^ Daredevil #170-172 (1981)
  10. ^ Daredevil #174-175
  11. ^ Daredevil #177-178, 180-181
  12. ^ Daredevil #227-233, Daredevil: Born Again
  13. ^ Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #100
  14. ^ Captain America #373, 376-378 (1990)
  15. ^ Daredevil #297-300 (1991-1992)
  16. ^ X-Men #64 (May 1997)
  17. ^ Daredevil Vol 2. #10
  18. ^ Daredevil Vol 2. #15
  19. ^ Daredevil Vol 2. #30
  20. ^ Daredevil volume 2, #46
  21. ^ Daredevil volume 2, #50
  22. ^ Daredevil volume 2, #79
  23. ^ Daredevil volume 2, #86-87
  24. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man, No. 538-542 (May 2007 to Aug 2007)
  25. ^ a b Runaways: v2, issues 25-30
  26. ^ Daredevil #116
  27. ^ Daredevil #118-119, 500
  28. ^ Dark Reign - The List: Daredevil #1
  29. ^ Daredevil#502-504
  30. ^ Shadowland #2
  31. ^ Shadowland #5
  32. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #648-651
  33. ^ Spider-Island: The Amazazing Spider-Girl #1
  34. ^ The Superior Spider-Man #14
  35. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #10
  36. ^ Captain America Vol.1 #147 (1972)
  37. ^ "Gold Rush!", Web of Spider-Man #6, September 1985; "This Gold Is Mine!", Amazing Spider-Man #268, September 1985
  38. ^ Wolverine (vol. 3) #69
  39. ^ Marvel Zombies vs. The Army of Darkness #2
  40. ^ Marvel Zombies 3 #4
  41. ^ Marvel Zombies Return: Spider-Man
  42. ^ "Jason Aaron Takes Punisher to the MAX". Comic Book Resources. 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  43. ^ PunisherMAX #5
  44. ^ Punisher Max (2009) #1-6
  45. ^ PunisherMAX #21
  46. ^ PunisherMAX #22
  47. ^ Darkdevil #2
  48. ^ Spider-Girl #17
  49. ^ Spider-Girl #63
  50. ^ Spider-Man: Reign #1 (December 2006)
  51. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #79 - 85 (September - January 2005 - 2006)
  52. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man Annual #2 (October 2006)
  53. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #106 - 110 (May - August 2007)
  54. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #110 (August 2007)
  55. ^ Ultimate Comics Spider-Man #1 (October 2009)
  56. ^ Ultimate Origins #1
  57. ^ Punisher Noir #3
  58. ^ Edge of the Spider-Verse #1
  59. ^ "at". Archived from the original on 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  60. ^ "at". Archived from the original on 2008-10-16. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  61. ^ "The Spider-Man and his Amazing Friends Webpage". Spider-Friends.Com. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  62. ^ "Vincent D'Onofrio is Wilson Fisk on Marvel's Daredevil on Netflix". June 10, 2014. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  63. ^ Dave McNary (January 9, 2002). "Duncan takes on Daredevil". Variety. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  64. ^ Daniel Robert Epstein. "Michael Clarke Duncan Interview". UGO. Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  65. ^ Ryan J. Downey (February 6, 2003). "Ben Affleck Dares to Dream Daredevil". MTV. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  66. ^ Michael Clarke Duncan - Photos, Gossip, Bio & Reviews - AskActor
  67. ^ Provo, Frank (2003-02-02). "Daredevil Review for Game Boy Advance". GameSpot. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  68. ^ "Spider-Man: Battle for New York". Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  69. ^ "Wilson Fisk. What the Fisk? Wilson Fisk!". Retrieved 2011-02-06. 

External links[edit]