According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 36.34 square miles (94.1 km2), all land. There are small towns of Wilton Center, Wilton, and Wallingford. There used to be a small town of Pierce. Major roads are Wilmington-Peotone Rd., U.S. Route 52, Elevator Rd., Tulley Rd., and Cedar Rd.
Wilton Township is so small that it has no school district. The only school is a small elementary called Wilton Center Elementary School. It houses K - 4th grades. It is a part of Peotone Community School District 207 - U.