Winchester Cathedral

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This article is about the English cathedral. For the song, see Winchester Cathedral (song). For the Clinic album, see Winchester Cathedral (album).
Winchester Cathedral

Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, and of

St Peter and St Paul and of St Swithun
Winchester Cathedral west façade dawn with war memorial at right
Winchester Cathedral is located in Winchester Central
Winchester Cathedral
Winchester Cathedral
Location within Winchester
51°3′38″N 1°18′47″W / 51.06056°N 1.31306°W / 51.06056; -1.31306Coordinates: 51°3′38″N 1°18′47″W / 51.06056°N 1.31306°W / 51.06056; -1.31306
Location Winchester, Hampshire
Country England
Denomination Church of England
Website www.winchester-cathedral.org.uk
Architecture
Style Norman, Gothic
Groundbreaking 1079
Specifications
Length 170.1m
Administration
Diocese Winchester (since c.650)
Province Canterbury
Clergy
Bishop(s) Tim Dakin
Dean James Atwell
Precentor Sue Wallace, Canon Precentor and Sacrist
Canon Chancellor Roland Riem, Vice-Dean, Canon Chancellor and Pastor
Canon Treasurer Annabelle Boyes, Receiver General and Canon Treasurer (Chief Operating Officer)

Winchester Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It is one of the largest cathedrals in England, with the longest nave and greatest overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe.[1] Dedicated to the Holy Trinity, Saint Peter, Saint Paul, and Saint Swithun, it is the seat of the Bishop of Winchester and centre of the Diocese of Winchester. The cathedral is a Grade I listed building.[2]

Pre-Norman cathedral[edit]

A plan published in 1911

The cathedral was founded in 642 on a site immediately to the north of the present one. This building became known as the Old Minster. It became part of a monastic settlement in 971. Saint Swithun was buried near the Old Minster and then in it, before being moved to the new Norman cathedral. So-called mortuary chests said to contain the remains of Saxon kings such as King Eadwig of England, first buried in the Old Minster, and his wife Ælfgifu, are also housed in the present cathedral.[citation needed] The Old Minster was demolished in 1093, immediately after the consecration of its successor.[3]

Architectural history[edit]

A 1723 engraving of Winchester Cathedral
The nave looking east towards the choir
The nave looking towards the stained glass above the western door

Norman[edit]

In 1079, Bishop Walkelin began work on a completely new cathedral.[3] Much of the limestone used to build the structure was brought across from the Isle of Wight from quarries around Binstead. Nearby Quarr Abbey draws its name from these workings, as do many local places such as Stonelands and Stonepitts. The remains of the Roman trackway used to transport the blocks are still evident across the fairways of the Ryde Golf Club, where the stone was hauled from the quarries to the hythe at the mouth of Binstead Creek, and thence by barge across the Solent and up to Winchester.[citation needed]

The building was consecrated in 1093. On 8 April of that year, according to the Winchester Annals, "in the presence of almost all the bishops and abbots of England, the monks came with the highest exultation and glory from the old minster to the new one: on the Feast of S. Swithun they went in procession from the new minster to the old one and brought thence S. Swithun's shrine and placed it with honour in the new buildings; and on the following day Bishop Walkelin's men first began to pull down the old minster."[3]

A substantial amount of the fabric of Walkelin's building, including the crypt, transepts and the basic structure of the nave, survives.[4] The original crossing tower, however, collapsed in 1107, an accident blamed by the cathedral's medieval chroniclers on the fact that the dissolute William Rufus had been buried beneath it in 1100.[3] Its replacement, which survives today, is still in the Norman style, with round-headed windows. It is a squat, square structure, 50 feet (15 m) wide, but rising only 35 feet (11 m) above the ridge of the transept roof.[5]

Gothic[edit]

The High Altar featuring an ornate 15th-century stone screen
The choir stalls facing west

Following the accession of Godfrey de Lucy in 1189 a retrochoir was added in the Early English style. The next major phase of rebuilding was not until the mid-fourteenth century, under bishops Edington and Wykeham.[6] Edingdon (1346–1366),[7] removed the two westernmost bays of the nave, built a new west front and began the remodelling of the nave.[8] Under William of Wykeham (1367–1404) the Romanesque nave was transformed, recased in Caen stone and remodelled in the Perpendicular style,[9] with its internal elevation divided into two, rather than the previous three, storeys.[10] The wooden ceilings were replaced with stone vaults.[9] Wykeham's successor, Henry of Beaufort (1405–1447), carried out fewer alterations, adding only a chantry on the south side of the retrochoir, although work on the nave may have continued through his episcopy.[11] His successor, William of Waynflete (1447–1486), built another chantry in a corresponding position on the north side. Under Bishops Peter Courtenay (1486–1492) and Thomas Langton (1493–1500), there was more work. De Lucy's Lady Chapel was lengthened, and the Norman side aisles of the presbytery replaced. In 1525, Bishop Richard Foxe (1500–1528) added the side screens of the presbytery, which he also gave a wooden vault.[6] With its progressive extensions, the east end is now about 110 feet (34 m) beyond that of Walkelin's building.[12]

Later alterations[edit]

After King Henry VIII seized control of the Catholic Church in England and declared himself head of the Church of England, the Benedictine foundation, the Priory of Saint Swithun, was dissolved. The priory surrendered to the king in 1539. The next year a new chapter was formed, and the last prior, William Basyng, was appointed dean.[13] The monastic buildings, including the cloister and chapter house were later demolished, mostly during the 1560–1580 bishopric of the Protestant Robert Horne.[14][15]

North Transept

The Norman choir screen, having fallen into a state of decay, was replaced in 1637–40 by a new one, designed by Inigo Jones. It was in a classical style, with brass figures of James I and Charles I in niches. It was removed in 1820, by which time its style was felt inappropriate in an otherwise medieval building. The central bay, with its archway, is now in the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge;[16] it was replaced by a Gothic screen by Edward Garbett, its design based on the west doorway of the nave.[17] This stone structure was itself removed in the 1870s to make way for a wooden one designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott,[18] who modelled it on the canopies of the choir stalls.[19]

Restoration work was carried out by T.G. Jackson in 1905–12. Waterlogged foundations on the south and east walls were reinforced by diver William Walker, packing the foundations with more than 25,000 bags of concrete, 115,000 concrete blocks, and 900,000 bricks. Walker worked six hours a day from 1906 to 1912 in total darkness at depths up to 6 metres (20 ft), and is credited with saving the cathedral from total collapse.[20] For this he was awarded the MVO.[21]

Funerals, coronations, and marriages[edit]

Important events which took place at Winchester Cathedral include:

Memorials and artworks[edit]

William Walker's Statue in the Cathedral grounds
Sound II, statue by Antony Gormley in the flooded crypt

In the south transept there is a "Fishermen's Chapel", which is the burial place of Izaak Walton. Walton, who died in 1683, was the author of The Compleat Angler and a friend of John Donne. In the choir is the bell from HMS Iron Duke, which was the flagship of Admiral John Jellicoe at the Battle of Jutland in 1916.[22]

The crypt, which frequently floods, houses a statue by Antony Gormley, called "Sound II", installed in 1986, and a modern shrine to Saint Swithun. The mysterious statue contemplates the water held in cupped hands. Gormley spoke of the connection of memories to basic elements of the physical world, "Is it possible to do this and make something fresh, like dew or frost – something that just is, as if its form had always been like this.’ There is also a bust of William Walker, the deep-sea diver who worked underwater in the crypt between 1906 and 1911 underpinning the nave and shoring up the walls.[23]

St Swithun's memorial shrine with Fyodorov's iconostasis

A series of nine icons were installed between 1992 and 1996 in the retroquire screen which for a short time protected the relics of St Swithun destroyed by Henry VIII in 1538. These icons, influenced by the Russian Orthodox tradition, were created by Sergei Fyodorov and dedicated in 1997. They include the local religious figures St Swithun and St Birinus. Beneath the retroquire Icons, is the Holy Hole once used by pilgrims to crawl beneath and lie close to the healing shrine of St Swithun.[citation needed]

The sculptor Alan Durst was responsible for the carving on one of the memorials in the church.

Stained glass[edit]

The West Window's stained glass mosaic

The cathedral's huge mediaeval stained glass West Window was deliberately smashed by Cromwell's forces following the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642. After the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, the broken glass was gathered up and assembled randomly, in a manner something like pique assiette mosaic work. There was no attempt to reconstruct the original pictures. Out of necessity, the cathedral pre-empted collage art by hundreds of years.[24][25]

The Epiphany Chapel has a series of Pre-Raphaelite stained glass windows designed by Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones and made in William Morris's workshop. The foliage decoration above and below each pictorial panel is unmistakably William Morris and at least one of the figures bears a striking resemblance to Morris's wife Jane, who frequently posed for Dante Gabriel Rossetti and other members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.[citation needed]

Bells[edit]

The cathedral possesses the only diatonic ring of 14 church bells in the world, with a tenor (heaviest bell) weighing 1.81 tonnes (4,000 lb).[26]

Literary and musical connections[edit]

Nowadays the cathedral draws many tourists as a result of its association with Jane Austen, who died in Winchester on 18 July 1817. Her funeral was held in the cathedral and she was buried in the north aisle. The inscription on her tombstone makes no mention of her novels, but a later brass tablet describes her as "known to many by her writings".[27]

The cathedral was the setting for works of fiction by Anthony Trollope, for example, his novels of 19th-century church life known collectively as the Chronicles of Barsetshire.[citation needed] In 2005, the building was used as a film set for The Da Vinci Code, with the north transept used as the Vatican. Following this, the cathedral hosted discussions and displays to debunk the book.[citation needed]

Winchester Cathedral is possibly the only cathedral to have had popular songs written about it. "Winchester Cathedral" was a UK top ten hit and a US number one song for The New Vaudeville Band in 1966. The cathedral was also the subject of the Crosby, Stills & Nash song, "Cathedral" from their 1977 album CSN. Liverpool-based band Clinic released an album titled Winchester Cathedral in 2004.[28]

Rose cultivar 'Winchester Cathedral', Austin 1992

In 1992, the British rosarian David Austin introduced a white sport of his rose cultivar 'Mary Rose' (1983) as 'Winchester Cathedral'.

Public access[edit]

In common with many other Anglican cathedrals in the United Kingdom, an admission fee has been charged for visitors to enter the cathedral since March 2006. Visitors may request an annual pass for the same price as a single admission.[29]

Dean and chapter[edit]

  • Dean – The Very Revd James Atwell (from 25 March 2006 installation)
  • Vice-Dean, Canon Chancellor and Pastor – The Revd Canon Roland Riem (Vice-Dean since 2012; Canon since 2005)
  • Receiver General and Canon Treasurer (Chief Operating Officer) – Annabelle Boyes (from 2008)
  • Canon Precentor and Sacrist – The Revd Canon Sue Wallace (from 2March 2014 installation)[30]

Disposal of the dead[edit]

Burials[edit]

Displaced in mortuary chests[edit]

Panel with list of mortuary chests and their contents in Winchester Cathedral.

Also

One of the mortuary chests also refers to a king 'Edmund', of which nothing else is known. It is possible that this could be Edmund Ironside, King of England (1016) but he is buried at Glastonbury Abbey by most accounts, including the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.[34]

Originally buried at Winchester[edit]

Choirs and organ[edit]

The earliest recorded organ at Winchester Cathedral was in the 10th century; it had 400 pipes and could be heard throughout the city. [35] The earliest known organist of Winchester Cathedral is John Dyer in 1402.

The current organ, the work of master organ builder Henry Willis, was first displayed in the Great Exhibition of 1851, where it was the largest pipe organ. Winchester Cathedral organist Samuel Sebastian Wesley recommended its purchase to the dean and chapter; it was reduced in size and installed in 1854. It was modified in 1897 and 1905, and completely rebuilt by Harrison & Harrison in 1937 and again in 1986–88. Organists at Winchester have included Christopher Gibbons whose patronage aided the revival of church music after the Interregnum, Samuel Sebastian Wesley, the composer of sacred music,[36] and Martin Neary who arranged the music for the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales at Westminster Abbey.

There is a choir of twenty-two boy choristers, all boarders at the local Pilgrims' School, and twelve lay clerks. There are also twenty girl choristers who all attend local schools. They sing with the boy choristers for major concerts and services, as well as at Easter and Christmas.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alec Clifton-Taylor, The Cathedrals of England (Thames & Hudson, 1969)
  2. ^ "Name: CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY List entry Number: 1095509". English Heritage. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Sergeant 1899, p.7
  4. ^ Sergeant 1899, p.16
  5. ^ Sergeant 1899, p.27
  6. ^ a b Sergeant 1899, p.10
  7. ^ Dates of bishops from Sergeant 1899, pp.107–17
  8. ^ Bumpus 1930, p.40
  9. ^ a b Sergeant 1899, p.9
  10. ^ Sergeant 1899, p.35
  11. ^ Sergeant 1899, p.38
  12. ^ Sergeant 1899, p.28
  13. ^ Stevens, John (1722). The History of the Antient Abbeys Monasteries, Cathedrals and Collegiate Churches. London. p. 222. 
  14. ^ Sergeant 1899, pp.13,
  15. ^ Bumpus 1930, p.45
  16. ^ Harris, John; Higgott, Gordon (1989). Inigo Jones:Complete Architectural Drawings. Royal Academy of Arts. pp. 248–50. 
  17. ^ "Photograph of the gothic stone choir screen in Winchester Cathedral". Winchester Museums. Retrieved 25 July 2012. 
  18. ^ "Photograph of the carved wooden choir screen in Winchester Cathedral". Winchester Museums. Retrieved 25 July 2012. 
  19. ^ Sergeant 1899, p.50
  20. ^ "Hampshire – History – Saving the Cathedral". BBC. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2012-05-27. 
  21. ^ Frederick Bussby 2005 'William Walker: The diver who saved Winchester Cathedral' p16
  22. ^ Battle of Jutland Order of Battle
  23. ^ Frederick Bussby 2005 'William Walker: The diver who saved Winchester Cathedral' p18
  24. ^ Collaged glass in Winchester Cathedral
  25. ^ BBC: Cathedrals of Britain
  26. ^ "?". winchester-cathedral.org.uk. 
  27. ^ "Winchester – Jane Austen's final resting place". Hampshire County Council. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  28. ^ "Winchester Cathedral – Clinic (2004) album review". allmusic.com. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  29. ^ Winchester Cathedral, rationale for charging
  30. ^ The Belfrey – Sue Wallace is moving to Winchester (Accessed 3 February 2014)
  31. ^ Hist. Reg. vol. xv., Chron. Diary, p. 55
  32. ^ registered in P. C. C. 255 Auber
  33. ^ Park Honan (1987). Jane Austen: Her Life. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 407. ISBN 0-312-01451-1. 
  34. ^ For further information, see http://www.churchmonumentssociety.org/Mortuary_Chests.html
  35. ^ The cathedral organ; Winchester Cathedral; accessed 2012-04-07
  36. ^ Scholes, Percy (1970) The Oxford Companion to Music; 10th edition. Oxford University Press; p. 1115

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bumpus, Francis (1930). The Cathedrals of England and Wales. London: T. Werner Laurie. 
  • Sergeant, Philip Walsingham (1899). The Cathedral Church of Winchester. Bell's Cathedrals. London: George Bell and Sons. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Willis, Robert (1846; 1980) The Architectural History of Winchester Cathedral; by the Reverend R. Willis [with] The Normans as Cathedral Builders; by Christopher N. L. Brooke. Winchester: Friends of Winchester Cathedral (First work is facsimile reprint of article from Proceedings at the Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1845, published 1846.)

External links[edit]