Wind hybrid power systems
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Wind hybrid power systems combines wind turbines with other storage and/or generation sources. One of the key issues with wind energy is its intermittent nature. This has led to numerous methods of storing energy.
A wind-hydro system generates electric energy combining wind turbines and pumped storage. The combination has been the subject of long-term discussion, and an experimental plant, which also tested wind turbines, was implemented by Nova Scotia Power at its Wreck Cove hydro electric power site in the late 1970s, but was decommissioned within ten years. Since, no other system has been implemented at a single location as of late 2010.
Wind-hydro stations dedicate all, or a significant portion, of their wind power resources to pumping water into pumped storage reservoirs. These reservoirs are an implementation of grid energy storage.
Wind and its generation potential is inherently variable. However, when this energy source is used to pump water into reservoirs at an elevation (the principle behind pumped storage), the potential energy of the water is relatively stable and can be used to generate electrical power by releasing it into a hydropower plant when needed. The combination has been described as particularly suited to islands that are not connected to larger grids.
During the 1980s, an installation was proposed in the Netherlands. The IJsselmeer would be used as the reservoir, with wind turbines located on its dike. Feasibility studies have been conducted for installations on the island of Ramea (Newfoundland and Labrador) and on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation (South Dakota).
The island of El Hierro is where the first world's first wind-hydro power station is expected to be complete. Current TV called this "a blueprint for a sustainable future on planet Earth". It is designed to cover between 80-100% of the island's power and is set to be operational in 2012.
One method of storing wind energy is the production of hydrogen through the electrolysis of water. This hydrogen is subsequently used to generate electricity during periods when demand can not be matched by wind alone. The energy in the stored hydrogen can be converted into electrical power through fuel cell technology or a combustion engine linked to an electrical generator.
This technology is being developed in many countries and has even seen a recent IPO of an Australian firm called Wind Hydrogen that looks to commercialise this technology in both Australia and the UK. Essentially Wind Hydrogen offers a source of domestic and vehicular energy for rural communities where current energy transmission costs are prohibitive. Test sites include:
|Ramea, Newfoundland and Labrador ||Newfoundland, Canada||0.3|
|Prince Edward Island Wind-Hydrogen Village ||PEI, Canada|
|Bismarck||North Dakota, US|
|Koluel Kaike ||Santa Cruz, Argentina|
|Ladymoor Renewable Energy Project (LREP) ||Scotland|
|Hunterston Hydrogen Project||Scotland|
A wind-diesel hybrid power system combines diesel generators and wind turbines, usually alongside ancillary equipment such as energy storage, power converters, and various control components, to generate electricity. They are designed to increase capacity and reduce the cost and environmental impact of electrical generation in remote communities and facilities that are not linked to a power grid. Wind-diesel hybrid systems reduce reliance on diesel fuel, which creates pollution and is costly to transport.
Wind-diesel generating systems have been under development and trialled in a number of locations during the latter part of the 20th century. A growing number of viable sites have been developed with increased reliability and minimized technical support costs in remote communities.
The successful integration of wind energy with diesel generating sets relies on complex controls to ensure correct sharing of intermittent wind energy and controllable diesel generation to meet the demand of the usually variable load.
The common measure of performance for wind diesel systems is Wind Penetration which is the ratio between Wind Power and Total Power delivered, e.g. 60% wind penetration implies that 60% of the system power comes from the wind. Wind Penetration figures can be either peak or long term. Sites such as Mawson Station, Antarctica, as well as Coral Bay and Bremer Bay in Australia have peak wind penetrations of around 90%.
Technical solutions to the varying wind output include controlling wind output using variable speed wind turbines (e.g. Enercon, Denham, Western Australia), controlling demand such as the heating load (e.g. Mawson), storing energy in a flywheel (e.g. Powercorp, Coral Bay).
List of communities using wind-diesel systems
The following is a, probably incomplete, list of isolated communities utilizing commercial Wind-Diesel hybrid systems with a significant proportion of the energy being derived from wind.
|Community||Country||Diesel MW||Wind MW||Population||Date Commissioned||Wind Penetration (peak)||Annual average wind penetration (%)||Notes|
|Mawson Station||Antarctica||0.48 MW||0.60 MW||2003||>90%|
|Bremer Bay||Australia||1.28 MW||0.60 MW||240||2005||>90%|
|Cocos||Australia||1.28 MW||0.08 MW||628|
|Coral Bay||Australia||2.24 MW||0.60 MW||2007||93%|
|Denham||Australia||2.61 MW||1.02 MW||600||1998||>70%|
|Esperance||Australia||14.0 MW||5.85 MW||2003|
|Hopetoun||Australia||1.37 MW||0.60 MW||350||2004||>90%|
|King Island||Australia||6.0 MW||2.50 MW||2000||2005||100%||35%||Currently (2013) expanding to include 2 MW Diesel-UPS, 3 MW / 1.6MWh Advanced Lead Acid battery and dynamic load control through smart grid|
|Rottnest Island||Australia||0.64 MW||0.60 MW||2005|
|Thursday Island, Queensland||Australia||0.45 MW|
|Ramea||Canada||2.78 MW||0.40 MW||600||2003||Being converted to Wind Hydrogen|
|Sal||Cape Verde||2.82 MW||0.60 MW||2001||14%|
|Mindelo||Cape Verde||11.20 MW||0.90 MW||14%|
|Alto Baguales||Chile||16.9 MW||2.00 MW||18,703||2002||20%||4.6 MW hydro|
|Dachen Island||China||1.30 MW||0.15 MW||15%|
|San Cristobal, Galapagos Island||Ecuador||2.4 MW||2007||Expanding to cover 100% of island's energy needs by 2015|
|Berasoli||Eritrea||0.08 MW||0.03 MW||Under tender|
|Rahaita||Eritrea||0.08 MW||0.03 MW||Under tender|
|Heleb||Eritrea||0.08 MW||0.03 MW||Under tender|
|Kythnos||Greece||2.77 MW||0.31 MW|
|Lemnos||Greece||10.40 MW||1.14 MW|
|La Désirade||Guadeloupe||0.88 MW||0.14 MW||40%|
|Sagar Island||India||0.28 MW||0.50 MW|
|Marsabit||Kenya||0.30 MW||0.15 MW||46%|
|Frøya||Norway||0.05 MW||0.06 MW||100%|
|Batanes||Philippines||1.25 MW||0.18 MW||2004|
|Flores Island||Portugal||0.60 MW||60%|
|Graciosa Island||Portugal||3.56 MW||0.80 MW||60%|
|Cape Clear||Ireland||0.07 MW||0.06 MW||100||1987||70%|
|Chukotka||Russia||0.5 MW||2.5 MW|
|Fuerteventura||Spain||0.15 MW||0.23 MW|
|Saint Helena||UK||0.48 MW||1999 - 2009||30%|
|Foula||UK||0.05 MW||0.06 MW||31||70%|
|Rathlin Island||UK||0.26 MW||0.99 MW||100%|
|Toksook Bay, Alaska||USA||1.1 MW||0.30 MW||500||2006|
|Kasigluk, Alaska||USA||1.1 MW||0.30 MW||500||2006|
|Wales, Alaska||USA||0.40 MW||160||2002||100%|
|St. Paul, Alaska||USA||0.30 MW||0.68 MW||100%|
|Kotzebue, Alaska||USA||11.00 MW||1999||35%|
|Savoonga, Alaska||USA||0.20 MW||2008|
|Tin City, Alaska||USA||0.23 MW||2008|
|Nome, Alaska||USA||0.90 MW||2008|
|Hooper Bay, Alaska||USA||0.30 MW||2008|
Wind-compressed air systems
At power stations that use compressed air energy storage (CAES), electrical energy is used to compress air and store it in underground facilities such as caverns or abandoned mines. During later periods of high electrical demand, the air is released to power turbines, generally using supplemental natural gas. Power stations that make significant use of CAES are operational in McIntosh, Alabama, Germany, and Japan. System disadvantages include some energy losses in the CAES process; also, the need for supplemental use of fossil fuels such as natural gas means that these systems do not completely make use of renewable energy.
In several parts of China, there are lighting pylons with combinations of solar panels and wind-turbines at their top. This allows space already used for lighting to be used more efficiently with two complementary energy productions units. Most common models use horizontal axis wind-turbines, but now models are appearing with vertical axis wind-turbines, using a helicoidal shaped, twisted-Savonius system.
- "A Wind-Hydro-Pumped Storage Station Leading to High RES Penetration in the Autonomous Island System of Ikaria". IEEE. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- "Stochastic Joint Optimization of Wind Generation and Pumped-Storage Units in an Electricity Market". IEEE. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- Bonnier Corporation (April 1983). Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. pp. 85, 86. ISSN 01617370. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Erich Hau (2006). Wind turbines: fundamentals, technologies, application, economics. Birkhäuser. pp. 568, 569. ISBN 978-3-540-24240-6. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Feasibility Study of Pumped Hydro Energy Storage for Ramea Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- "Final Report: Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Wind-Pumped Storage Feasibility Study Project". United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- "El Hierro, an island in the wind". Guardian. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- "WHL Energy Limited (WHL)" is an Australian publicly listed company focused on developing and commercializing energy assets including wind energy, solar, biomass and clean fossil fuels. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- "Remote Community Wind-Hydrogen-Diesel Energy Solution" Renew ND. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "Prince Edward Island Wind-Hydrogen Village" Renew ND. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "First Danish Hydrogen Energy Plant Is Operational" Renew ND. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "North Dakota has first wind-to-hydrogen plant in nation" Renew ND. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
- "Clean Patagonian Energy from Wind and Hydrogen" Renew ND. Retrieved 30 October 2007
- "Proposals for Ladymoor Renewable Energy Project" Renew ND. Retrieved 2 November 2007 Dead Link 5 April 2010
- "RES2H2 - Integration of Renewable Energy Sources with the Hydrogen Vector" Renew ND. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) Project Update" Renew ND. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "Hydro Continues Utsira Project" Renew ND. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- Wales, Alaska High-Penetration Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- The Ross Island Wind Energy – Stage 1 Project Meridian Official Site
- Renewable Energy Commercialisation in Australia - Wind Projects - Advanced high-penetration wind-diesel power system
- Fed: Govt announces $5 m for wind farm | Article from AAP General News (Australia) | HighBeam Research
- King Island Renewable Energy Integration Project
- World of Energy
- Isolated Systems with Wind Power An Implementation Guideline
- wind4africa - Expression of Interest: Wind Energy Applications in Eritrea
- IngentaConnect New Wind-Diesel System on Osmussaare
- Untitled Document
- Clean Air Initiative: Asia
- Powercorp Alaska: News and Events
- Alaska Village Electric Cooperative
- EnergyStorm - Wales, Alaska High Penetration Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System: Theory of Operation
- "Bottled Wind Could Be as Constant as Coal". Wired. March 9, 2010. Retrieved 2011-07-15.
- Sio-Iong Ao; Len Gelman (29 June 2011). Electrical Engineering and Applied Computing. Springer. p. 41. ISBN 978-94-007-1191-4. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Overview of Compressed Air Energy Storage". Boise State University. p. 2. Retrieved 2011-07-15.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Iowa Stored Energy Project. Retrieved 2011-07-15.
- HAMILTON SPECTATOR - Integrating fuel cell technology into wind turbine structure that can produce cryo-compressed hydrogen and oxygen that is stored on-site, and used to generate electrical power when there is no wind
- International Association for Hydrogen Energy
- European Hydrogen Association
- NREL Wind Hydrogen