Wind chime

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A metal wind chime

Wind chimes are chimes constructed from suspended tubes, rods, bells or other objects and are often made of metal or wood. Wind chimes are usually hung outside of a building or residence, as a visual and aural garden ornament, and are to be played by the wind.

History[edit]

Ancient Rome[edit]

Bronze tintinnabulum, Roman, 1st century AD, British Museum.

Roman wind chimes made of bronze called tintinnabulum were hung up in gardens, courtyards, and porticoes where the wind would move them and make them tinkle. Bells were believed to ward off malevolent spirits and so they were often combined with the phallus, which was also a symbol of good fortune and a charm against the evil eye.[1] The image shows one example with a main phallus portrayed with wings, and the feet and tail of an animal, perhaps a lion. These added to its protective powers.[2]

Eastern and Southern Asia[edit]

In India during the second century CE and later in China extremely large pagodas became popular. At each corner small wind bells were hung; the slightest breeze would swing the clapper and cause a melodious tinkling. It is said that these bells were originally intended to frighten away not only birds but also any lurking evil spirits. Wind bells are not limited to pagodas. They are also hung under the corners of roofs of temples, palaces and homes.[3] Japanese glass wind bells known as Fūrin (風鈴) have been produced since the Edo period,[4] and those at Mizusawa Station are one of the 100 Soundscapes of Japan. Wind chimes are thought to be good luck in parts of Asia and are used in Feng Shui.

It was around 1100 B.C. after the Chinese started casting bells that the wind chime started to become modernized. A bell without a clapper called the yong-zhong was crafted by skilled metal artisans which was primarily used in religious ceremonies. Afterwards, the Chinese created the feng-ling which is similar to today's modern wind bell. The feng-lings were hung from shrines and pagodas to ward off evil spirits and attract benevolent ones. Today, wind chimes are common practice in the East and used to maximize the flow of chi, or life's energy.

Sounds and music[edit]

Wind chime with the audible tones a1-d2-f2-g2-a2-d3-f3-a3. The bamboo cylinder is not only the case of the instrument, but at the same time it is the resonator. The eight tones are produced by eight metal rods within the cylinder which are centrally stroken by a disk attached to the cord with the wind sail.
A recording of wind chimes.

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Chimes produce inharmonic (as opposed to harmonic) spectra, although if they are hung at about 2/9 of their length[5] (22.4%[6]), some of the higher partials are damped and the fundamental rings the loudest. This is common practice in high-quality wind chimes, which are also usually hung so the centre ball strikes the centre of the wind chime's length, also resulting in the loudest sounding fundamental. Frequency is determined by the length, width, thickness, and material. There are formulas [7] that help predict the proper length to achieve a particular note, though a bit of fine tuning is often needed.

In instruments such as organ pipes, the pitch is determined primarily by the length of the air column, because it is the resonance of the air column that generates the sound. The pipe material helps determine the "timbre" or "voice" of the pipe, but the air column determines the pitch. In a wind chime, the vibrations of the pipe itself radiates the sound after being struck and so the air column has little to do with the pitch being produced.

Sound can be produced when the tubes or rods come in contact with a suspended central clapper in the form of a ball or horizontal disk, or with each other.

Wind chimes may be used to observe changes in wind direction, depending on where they are hung, when they commence to sound.

Materials[edit]

A close-up of metal rods on a wind chime.

Wind chimes can be made of materials other than metal or wood and in shapes other than tubes or rods. Other wind chimes materials include glass, bamboo, shell, stone, earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.[8] More exotic items, such as silverware or cookie cutters, can also be recycled to create wind chimes.[9] The selected material can have a large impact on the sound a wind chime produces. The sounds produced by recycling objects such as these are not tunable to specific notes and range from pleasant tinkling to dull thuds. The sounds produced by properly sized wind chime tubes are tunable to notes, as discussed in the external link below.[7] As aluminum is the common metal with the lowest internal damping, wind chimes are often made from aluminum to achieve the longest and loudest sounding chime.

The tone will depend on factors such as the material, the exact alloy, and heat treatment and the use of a solid cylinder or a tube. If a tube is used, the wall thickness also has an impact on the tone. Tone may also depend on the hanging method. The tone quality will also depend on the material of the object that is used to hit the chimes.

With clay wind chimes, the higher the final firing temperature required, the higher and more ringing the tone will be. Lower fired earthenware clay produces a duller sound than higher fired stoneware clay. Stoneware wind chimes are also more durable and able to resist stronger winds without suffering chipping or damage.

Use in music[edit]

David Sitek with a wind chime suspended from his guitar.

Different types of wind chimes have also been used in modern music and are listed as a percussion instrument. The following is a brief list of artists and composers who have used them:

Influences[edit]

The Japanese game Pokémon was influenced by the wind chime to create the Pokémon Chimecho.

Often, Mark trees are mistakenly called wind chimes, but they are different instruments.

Wind chime images[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Catherine Johns (1982). Sex or Symbol?: Erotic Images of Greece and Rome. Taylor & Francis. pp. 66–68. 
  2. ^ "Bronze phallic wind chime (tintinabulum)". British Museum. 
  3. ^ Westcott, Wendell (1970). "Chapter 1: Bells of the Orient". Bells and Their Music. G.P. Putnam. LCCN 76077762. 
  4. ^ Amano, Kenichi; Kawakami, Takashi (May 28, 2007). "Foreign tourists find real Tokyo". The Nikkei Weekly. 
  5. ^ Sethares, William A. (2005). Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale, p.115. ISBN 9781846281136.
  6. ^ "Physics of Music: Make your own wind chimes". Michigan Tech. Michigan Tech. 2009-01-08. 
  7. ^ a b "Giant, Ominous Wind Chimes". Milwaukee Makerspace. 2011-09-29. 
  8. ^ "Wind chimes". Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary. Virginia Tech. 2009-01-08. 
  9. ^ MacKenzie, Peggy (August 25, 2007). "Crafted silver chimes hit right note; Retooled cutlery the meat and potatoes of woman's successful small business". The Toronto Star. pp. H05. 
  10. ^ Anderman, Joan (October 15, 2008). "Connecting with TV on the Radio". The Boston Globe. pp. B07.