Wind power in Denmark
Denmark was a pioneer in developing commercial wind power during the 1970s, and today a substantial share of the wind turbines around the world are produced by Danish manufacturers such as Vestas and Siemens Wind Power along with many component suppliers. Wind power provided just over 30% of electricity production in Denmark in 2012. In 2012 the Danish government adopted a plan to increase the share of electricity production from wind to 50% by 2020.
- 1 History
- 2 Wind resources
- 3 Capacities and production
- 4 Economic impacts
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
As concerns over global warming grew in the 1980s, Denmark found itself with relatively high carbon dioxide emissions per capita, primarily due to the coal-fired electrical power plants that had become the norm after the 1973 and 1979 energy crises. Renewable energy became the natural choice for Denmark, decreasing both dependence on other countries for energy and global warming pollution. Denmark adopted a target of cutting carbon emissions by 22% from 1988 levels by 2005. 29. March 1985, one year before the Chernobyl disaster, the Danes passed a law forbidding the construction of nuclear power plants. In the process the Danish grassroots movement had a substantial role. The Danish Anti-nuclear Movement's (OOA) smiling-sun logo "Atomkraft, Nej Tak" ("Nuclear Power, No Thanks") spread world wide, and the renewable alternatives were promoted by the Danish Organisation for Renewable Energy (OVE).
Planning of wind power was deliberately streamlined by authorities in order to minimize hurdles.
Many countries tried to subsidize green technology such as wind power, and most failed to make a viable industry. The Danish system was an exception, providing 30% of initial capital cost in the early years which was gradually reduced to zero, but still maintaining a feed-in tariff.
|Wind map of Denmark|
Denmark has relatively modest average wind speeds in the range of 4.9–5.6 m/s measured at 10 m height. Onshore wind resources are highest in the western part of the country, and on the eastern islands with coastlines facing south or west. The country has very large offshore wind resources, and large areas of sea territory with a shallow water depth of 5–15 m, where siting is most feasible. These sites offer higher wind speeds, in the range of roughly 8.5–9.0 m/s at 50 m height. There have been no major problems from wind variability, although there is a temporary problem resulting from the connection of a large bloc of wind power from offshore wind farms to a single point on a weak section of the transmission network. The wind resource over Denmark was mapped in 1999 by EMD International A/S and Risø National Laboratory. The mapping was made using a 200 m grid resolution using the models in WindPRO and WAsP. The results were validated on more than 1200 wind turbines nationwide.
Denmark is connected by transmission line to other European countries (e.g Cross-Skagerrak) and therefore it does not need to install additional peak-load plants to balance its wind power. Instead, it purchases additional power from its neighbours when necessary. With some strengthening of the grid, Denmark plans to increase wind's share even further, to 50% of consumption.
Some wind power is used for charging electric vehicles. A deal was announced in 2008, between Project Better Place (Palo Alto, US) and Danish utility Dong Energy, aiming to promote mass production of electric vehicles and implementation of an extensive recharging and battery-swap infrastructure. This would act as storage capacity for the country's wind power generation capability. "Two million electric cars in circulation ... would provide a standby capacity around five times the size of Denmark's needs ... with smart charging systems charging batteries when the power's plentiful, and even feeding power back into the grid when necessary." Other efforts try to match charging with wind power production, such as the Tesla Roadster from Vindenergi.
Capacities and production
In 2005, Denmark had installed wind capacity of 3,127 MW, which produced 23,810 TJ (6.6 TW·h) of energy, giving an actual average production of 755 MW at a capacity factor of 24%. In 2009, Denmark's capacity grew to 3,482 MW; most of the increase came from the 209 MW Horns Rev 2 offshore wind farm, which was inaugurated on September 17, 2009 by Crown Prince Frederik. In 2010, capacity grew to 3,752 MW, and most of the year's increase came from the Rødsand-2 off-shore wind farm. At the end of 2013[update], Denmark's capacity stands at 4,792 MW, the largest increase coming from the Anholt offshore wind farm.
Denmark has the highest proportion of wind power in the world, with production in 2013 being 33% of total power consumption. For the month of December 2013, that share was over 50%. For 21 December 2013, the share was 102%, and for 1 hour the share was 135%.
Wind power output reduces spot market prices in general via the merit order effect; in 2008 this caused a net reduction of pre-tax electricity prices (balancing the increase from the feed-in law).
|Installed wind capacity (kW)||52||813||1,090|
|Electricity generated (MW·h)||120||240|
|Installed wind capacity (MW)||2.7||6.3||10.6||14.3||19.8||47.0||72.4||111.9||190.3||246.7|
|Electricity generated (GW·h)||2||5||12||19||26||44||104||154||266||398|
|Installed wind capacity (MW)||326||393||436||468||521||600||814||1,123||1,438||1,753|
|Electricity generated (TW·h)||0.57||0.68||0.83||0.92||1.06||1.09||1.19||1.89||2.76||3.00|
|Installed wind capacity (MW)||2,390||2,497||2,890||3,116||3,123||3,127||3,135||3,124||3,163||3,482|
|Electricity generated (TW·h)||4.22||4.31||4.86||5.56||6.58||6.61||6.11||7.14||6.98||6.72|
|Wind power share in the electricity supply (%)||12.1||12.2||13.9||15.8||18.5||18.5||16.8||19.7||19.1||19.3|
|Installed wind capacity (MW)||3,752||3,927||4,162||4,792|
|Electricity generated (TW·h)||7.81||9.77||10.27||11.1|
|Wind power share in domestic electricity supply (%)||21.2||29.3||35.3|
|Wind power share in domestic electricity usage (%)||21.9||28.2||30.1||33.2|
Future parks in Denmark
Electricity exports from Denmark
Annual wind power production is currently (2012-2013) equal to about 30% of electricity consumed in Denmark. The proportion of this that is actually consumed in Denmark has been disputed, with claims of up to 40% of wind power being exported, countered by claims that only 1% was exported. According to the first argument, power in excess of immediate demand is exported to Germany, Norway, and Sweden. The latter two have considerable hydropower resources, which can rapidly reduce their generation whenever wind farms are generating surplus power, saving water for later, and can export electricity to Denmark when wind power output drops. The benefit of this goes to Denmark's neighbours: when Denmark's wind farms are exporting power, it is sold at the spot market price, which sometimes falls to near or below zero. According to the second argument, the correlation between exports and wind power is weak, and a similar correlation exists with conventional thermal plants; meanwhile, causal analysis shows that export from Denmark typically occurs as a consequence of the merit order effect, when large thermal plants have reserve capacities at times the spot market price of electricity is high. In any case, the export price is the intermediate between the prices of the two areas, so the exporting TSO (Energinet) uses the profit to relieve tariffs. This service of timeshifting production and consumption is also found around the world in pumped-storage hydroelectricity balancing coal and nuclear plants. Wind power organizations state that Denmark exports power at a higher price than it imports at.
Wind turbine industry
The Danish wind turbine industry is the world's largest. Around 90% of the national output is exported, and Danish companies accounted for 38% of the world turbine market in 2003, when the industry employed some 20,000 people and had a turnover of around 3 billion euro.
The development of wind power in Denmark has been characterized by a close collaboration between publicly financed research and industry in key areas such as research and development, certification, testing, and the preparation of standards. For example, in the 1980s, a large number of small Danish companies were developing wind turbines to sell to California, and the Danish Risø laboratory provided test facilities and certification procedures. These resulted in reliable products and the rapid expansion of the Danish turbine manufacturing industry.
Criticism of Danish wind economics
In 2009, the Institute for Energy Research commissioned the Danish think-tank CEPOS (Centre for Political Studies) to report on electricity exports from Denmark and the economic impact of the Danish wind industry. This report states that Danes pay the highest residential electricity rates in the European Union (partly to subsidize wind power), and that the cost of saving a ton of carbon dioxide between 2001 and 2008 has averaged 647 DKK (€ 87, US$ 124). It also estimated that 90% of wind industry jobs were transferred from other technology industries, and states that as a result Danish GDP is 1.8 billion DKK (US$ 270 million) lower than it would have been without wind industry subsidies. The report was later heavily criticised. Firstly Danish paper Ingeniøren claimed that the report was ordered and paid for by the American oil and coal lobby. Later, several Danish researchers and professors from all technical universities in Denmark, wrote a joint response to the report, refuting it. The report from CEPOS was even brought to Government level, where minister of Climate and Energy Lykke Friis discredited the work done by CEPOS and the report.
Wind turbine cooperatives
To encourage investment in wind power, families were offered a tax exemption for generating their own electricity within their own or an adjoining commune. While this could involve purchasing a turbine outright, more often families purchased shares in wind turbine cooperatives which in turn invested in community wind turbines. By 1996 there were around 2,100 such cooperatives in the country. Opinion polls show that this direct involvement has helped the popularity of wind turbines, with some 86% of Danes supporting wind energy when compared with existing fuel sources.
The role of wind turbine cooperatives is not limited to single turbines. The Middelgrunden offshore wind farm – with 20 turbines the world's largest offshore farm at the time it was built in 2000 – is 50% owned by the 10,000 investors in the Middelgrunden Wind Turbine Cooperative, and 50% by the municipal utility company.
By 2001 over 100,000 families belonged to wind turbine cooperatives, which had installed 86% of all the wind turbines in Denmark. By 2004 over 150,000 were either members or owned turbines, and about 5,500 turbines had been installed, although with greater private sector involvement the proportion owned by cooperatives had fallen to 75%. The cooperative model has also spread to Germany and the Netherlands.
The island of Samsø erected 11 one-megawatt, land-based wind turbines in 2000, followed by ten offshore 2.3 MW wind turbines completed in 2003. Together with other renewable energy measures, this community of 4,200 achieved fame, claiming that it is the largest carbon-neutral settlement on the planet. This claim exploits the general discourse, that one can neglect carbon-dioxide and other pollution from fossil fuel consumption (cars, imported electricity, heating for houses...), if the yearly average electricity production from sustained sources is higher than the total energy consumed.
- Energy in Denmark
- List of offshore wind farms in Denmark
- Hydrogen energy plant in Denmark
- Danish Organisation for Renewable Energy (OVE)
- Nordic energy market
- GWEC Annual Report 2012. Retrieved November 5., 2013.
- Carsten Vittrup. "2013 was a record-setting year for Danish wind power" Energinet.dk, 15 January 2014. Accessed: 20 January 2014.
- The Guardian:"Denmark aims to get 50% of all electricity from wind power", 26 March 2012
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- Gellert, Bjarne Christian. Electricity interconnections Energinet.dk, 22 August 2011. Accessed: 6 December 2011.
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- Lund 2010, p. 21 "Denmark has a strategy to raise this share to 50 percent and the necessary measures are in the process of being implemented".
- Lettice, John (2008-04-27). "Denmark signs up for wind powered electric car switch". The Register. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
- Wind in the tank Vindenergi. Retrieved: 24 September 2010.
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- Lund 2010, p. 6 "The cost of wind power is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1–3 percent on average in the period 2004–2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly."
- Månedlig elforsyningsstatistik, HTML-spreadsheet summary tab B58-B72 Danish Energy Agency 18 January 2012. Accessed: 11 March 2012.
- "Analysis of Wind Power in the Danish Electricity Supply in 2005 and 2006" (PDF). Techconsult. 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2009-04-04. "It is often said that wind power covers ca. 20% of Danish electricity consumption. It is more correct to say that the production of power by Danish wind turbines corresponds to about 20% of electricity demand. But a considerable part of the wind energy produced is exported to neighbouring countries and thus does not cover any part of Danish electricity consumption. (...) For the whole country the degree of cover in 2005 was 13.6% (not 18.7% as stated by the Wind Turbine Industry), and in 2006 it was 10.3%, not 17%." Translation of "Analyse af Vindkraft i Dansk Elforsyning 2005 og 2006", Summary.
- Sharman, Hugh (May 2005). "Why Wind Power Works in Denmark" (PDF). Proceedings of ICE, Civil Engineering (Thomas Telford, Ltd.): 66–72. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
- Lund 2010, pp. 20–21 "the wind export in 2008 was only 61 GWh, equal to approx. 1 percent of the wind power production"
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- Jens H. Larsen, Copenhagen Environment and Energy Office (2001). "The world's largest off-shore windfarm, Middelgrunden 40 MW". Middelgrunden Wind Turbine Co-operative. Archived from the original on 2007-08-17. Retrieved 2007-06-21.
- Kolbert, Elizabeth. (2009-01-07) A Reporter at Large: The Island in the Wind. The New Yorker. Retrieved on 2011-06-11.
- No free ride for athletes, Athens News, 29 August 2008
Lund, Henrik et al (2010-02-19). "Danish Wind Power Export and Cost". CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis) Research Project (Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University). ISBN 978-87-91830-40-2. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Boyle, Godfrey (2004). Renewable energy: Power for a sustainable future, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-926178-4
- Caldicott, Helen (2006). Nuclear power is not the answer to global warming or anything else, Melbourne University Press, ISBN 0-522-85251-3
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- Sharman, Hugh (September 2009). "Wind Energy — The Case of Denmark" (PDF). Center for Politiske Studier (CEPOS). Retrieved 2010-04-14.