Wine chemistry

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280 nm 45 min LC chromatogram of a red wine, showing mainly phenolic compounds.

Wine is a complex mixture of chemical compounds in a hydro-alcoholic solution with a pH around 3.

Types of natural molecules present in wine[edit]

Volatiles[edit]

Main article: Aroma of wine

Other molecules found in wine[edit]

Conservatives[edit]

Fining agents[edit]

Gum arabic has been used in the past as fining agent.[9]

List of additives permitted for use in the production of wine under EU law:

Type or purpose of addition Permitted additives
Acidification tartaric acid
Clarification calcium alginate

potassium alginate
potassium caseinate
casein
isinglass
silicon dioxide
edible gelatine
acacia (gum arabic)
milk/lactalbumin
proteins of plant origin
ovalbumin (egg white)
alumino silicates
ferrous sulfate

Decolourants polyvinyl-polypyr-rolidone (PVPP)

activated charcoal

Deacidification lactic bacteria

neutral potassium tartrate
potassium bicarbonate
calcium carbonate

Deodorant copper sulfate
Elaboration oak chips

metatartaric acid
water

Enrichment concentrated grape must

rectified concentrated grape must
saccharose
tannin
oxygen

Enzymes betaglucanase

pectolytics
urease

Fermentation fresh lees

ammonium bisulphite
thiamine hydrochloride
yeast cell walls
yeasts for wine production
diammonium phosphate
ammonium sulphate
ammonium sulphite

Sequestrants fresh lees

potassium ferrocyanide
calcium phytate
citric acid

Stabilisation calcium tartrate

potassium bitartrate
yeast mannoproteins
Preservatives sorbic acid
sulphur dioxide
argon
nitrogen
potassium bisulphite
dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC)
carbon dioxide
potassium metabisulphite/disulfite
allyl isothiocyanate
lysozyme
potassium sorbate
ascorbic acid

Others[edit]

Wine faults[edit]

Main article: Wine fault
2,4,6-trichloroanisole, the chemical primarily responsible for cork taint in wines.

4-Ethylphenol is produced from the precursor p-coumaric acid. Brettanomyces converts this to 4-vinylphenol via the enzyme cinnamate decarboxylase.[11] 4-Vinylphenol is further reduced to 4-ethylphenol by the enzyme vinyl phenol reductase. Coumaric acid is sometimes added to microbiological media, enabling the positive identification of Brettanomyces by smell.

Geraniol is a by-product of the metabolism of sorbate and, thus, is a very unpleasant contaminant of wine if bacteria are allowed to grow in wine.

Fusel alcohols are a mixture of several alcohols (chiefly amyl alcohol) produced as a by-product of alcoholic fermentation.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Monoterpenes in grape juice and wines. M. Jiménez, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 881, Issues 1–2, 9 June 2000, Pages 557–567, doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)01342-4
  2. ^ Terpenes in the aroma of grapes and wines: A review. J. Marais, S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic., 1983, volume 4, number 2, pages 49-58 (article)
  3. ^ Inhibition of the decline of linalool and α-terpineol in muscat wines by glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine. Papadopoulou D. and Roussis I. G., Italian journal of food science, 2001, vol. 13, no4, pages 413-419, INIST:13441184
  4. ^ Using LC-MSMS To Assess Glutathione Levels in South African White Grape Juices and Wines Made with Different Levels of Oxygen. Wessel Johannes Du Toit, Klemen Lisjak, Maria Stander and Dersiree Prevoo, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, Vol. 55, No. 8, doi:10.1021/jf062804p
  5. ^ Günata, Ziya; Wirth, Jérémie L.; Guo, Wenfei; Baumes, Raymond L. (2001). "C13-Norisoprenoid Aglycon Composition of Leaves and Grape Berries from Muscat of Alexandria and Shiraz Cultivars". "Carotenoid-Derived Aroma Compounds". ACS Symposium Series 802. p. 255. doi:10.1021/bk-2002-0802.ch018. ISBN 0-8412-3729-8. 
  6. ^ P. Winterhalter, M. A. Sefton and P. J. Williams (1990). "Volatile C13-Norisoprenoid Compounds in Riesling Wine Are Generated From Multiple Precursors". Am. J. Enol. Vitic 41 (4): 277–283. 
  7. ^ Zelena, Kateryna; Hardebusch, Björn; Hülsdau, BäRbel; Berger, Ralf G.; Zorn, Holger (2009). "Generation of Norisoprenoid Flavors from Carotenoids by Fungal Peroxidases". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (21): 9951–5. doi:10.1021/jf901438m. PMID 19817422. 
  8. ^ Cabaroglu, Turgut; Selli, Serkan; Canbas, Ahmet; Lepoutre, Jean-Paul; Günata, Ziya (2003). "Wine flavor enhancement through the use of exogenous fungal glycosidases". Enzyme and Microbial Technology 33 (5): 581. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(03)00179-0. 
  9. ^ Vivas N, Vivas de Gaulejac N, Nonier M.F and Nedjma M (2001). "Incidence de la gomme arabique sur l'astringence des vins et leurs stabilites colloidales" [Effect of gum arabic on wine astringency and colloidal stability]. Progres Agricole et Viticole (in French) 118 (8): 175–176. 
  10. ^ Lamont, Kim T.; Somers, Sarin; Lacerda, Lydia; Opie, Lionel H.; Lecour, Sandrine (2011). "Is red wine a SAFE sip away from cardioprotection? Mechanisms involved in resveratrol- and melatonin-induced cardioprotection". Journal of Pineal Research 50 (4): 374–80. doi:10.1111/j.1600-079X.2010.00853.x. PMID 21342247. 
  11. ^ Brettanomyces Monitoring by Analysis of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol at etslabs.com

References[edit]

  • Comprehensive Natural Products II — Chemistry and Biology, chapter 3.26 – Chemistry of Wine, volume 3, pages 1119–1172. Véronique Cheynier, Rémi Schneider, Jean-Michel Salmon and Hélène Fulcrand, doi:10.1016/B978-008045382-8.00088-5

External links[edit]