Wingsuit flying

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Wingsuit formation flight over the coast

Wingsuit flying (or wingsuiting) is the sport of flying the human body through the air using a wingsuit which adds surface area to the human body to enable a significant increase in lift. The modern wingsuit, first developed in the late 1990s, creates a surface area with fabric between the legs and under the arms. Wingsuits are sometimes referred to as "birdman suits" (after the makers of the first commercially available wingsuit), "flying squirrel suits" (due to their resemblance to the animal), and "bat suits" (due to their vague resemblance to the animal or perhaps the superhero).

A wingsuit flight normally ends with a parachute opening, and so a wingsuit can safely be flown from any point that provides sufficient altitude for flight and parachute deployment—normally a skydiving drop aircraft, or BASE-jump exit point. The wingsuit flier wears parachute equipment specially designed for skydiving or BASE-jumping. While the parachute flight is normal, the canopy pilot typically unzips arm wings (after deployment) to be able to reach the steering parachute toggles and control the descent path.

History[edit]

An early attempt at wingsuit flying by a tailor, Franz Reichelt, who, on 4 February 1912, aged 33, jumped from the Eiffel Tower to test a combination of parachute and wing of his invention, which was similar to modern wingsuits. He fooled the guards by saying that the experiment was going to be conducted with a dummy. He hesitated quite a long time before he jumped, and hit the ground with his head, opening a measurable hole, but an autopsy showed that he died of a heart attack before hitting the pavement. A YouTube film of his attempt exists.

A wingsuit was first used by 19-year-old American, Rex Finney, of Los Angeles, California, in 1930, as an attempt to increase horizontal movement and maneuverability during a parachute jump.[1][2] These early wingsuits were made of materials such as canvas, wood, silk, steel, and whale bone. They were not very reliable, although some "birdmen", notably Clem Sohn and Leo Valentin, claimed to have glided for miles.

In the mid 1990s, the modern wingsuit was developed by Patrick de Gayardon of France, adapted from the model used by Jhon Carta. In 1997, Bulgarian Sammy Popov designed and built a wingsuit which had a larger wing between the legs and longer wings on the arms. His prototype was developed at Boulder City, Nevada. Testing was conducted in a vertical wind tunnel in Las Vegas at Flyaway Las Vegas. Popov's wingsuit first flew in October 1998, over Jean, Nevada, but it never went into commercial production. Popov's design was a great improvement in creating lift; it was able to slow the vertical speed to 30 km/h while gliding horizontally at speeds over 300 km/h. In 1998, Chuck "Da Kine Raggs" built a version which incorporated hard ribs inside the wing airfoils. Although these more rigid wings were better able to keep their shape in flight, this made the wingsuit heavier and more difficult to fly. Raggs' design also never went into commercial production. Flying together for the first time, Popov and Raggs showcased their designs side-by-side at the World Free-fall Convention at Quincy, Illinois, in August, 1999. Both designs performed well. At the same event, multiple-formation wingsuit skydives were made which included de Gayardon's, Popov's, and Raggs' suits.

Commercial era[edit]

In 1999, Jari Kuosma of Finland and Robert Pečnik of Croatia teamed up to create a wingsuit that was safe and accessible for all skydivers. Kuosma established Bird-Man International Ltd. the same year. BirdMan's "Classic", designed by Pečnik, was the first wingsuit offered to the general skydiving public. BirdMan was the first manufacturer to advocate the safe use of wingsuits by creating an instructor program. Created by Kuosma, the instructor program's aim was to remove the stigma that wingsuits were dangerous and to provide wingsuit beginners (generally, skydivers with a minimum of 200 jumps) with a way to safely enjoy what was once considered the most dangerous feat in the skydiving world. With the help of Birdman instructors Scott Campos, Chuck Blue and Kim Griffin, a standardized program of instruction was developed that prepared instructors.[3] Phoenix-Fly, Fly Your Body, and Nitro Rigging have also instituted an instructor training program.

Despite the training and regulation, wingsuit flying remains a precarious pastime. A University of Colorado study found that 72% of wingsuit flyers had witnessed death or serious injury, and 76% had experienced a "near miss".[4]

Technical mechanics[edit]

Wingsuits in flight

The wingsuit flier enters free fall wearing both a wingsuit and parachute equipment. Exiting an aircraft in a wingsuit requires skilled techniques that differ depending on the location and size of the aircraft door. These techniques include the orientation relative to the aircraft and the airflow while exiting, and the way in which the flier will spread his legs and arms at the proper time so as not to hit the aircraft or become unstable in the relative wind. The wingsuit will immediately start to fly upon exiting the aircraft in the relative wind generated by the forward speed of the aircraft. Exiting from a BASE jumping site, such as a cliff, or exiting from a helicopter, a paraglider, or a hot air balloon, is fundamentally different from exiting a moving aircraft, as the initial airspeed upon exit is absent. In these situations, a vertical drop using the forces of gravity to accelerate is required to generate the airspeed that the wingsuit can then convert to lift.

At a planned altitude above the ground in which a skydiver or BASE jumper would typically deploy their parachute, a wingsuit flier will also deploy their parachute. The parachute is flown to a controlled landing at the desired landing spot using typical skydiving or BASE jumping techniques.

A wingsuit modifies the body area exposed to wind to increase the desired amount of lift with respect to drag generated by the body. An attainable glide ratio of some wingsuits is 2.5:1 or more[citation needed]. This means that for every meter dropped, two and a half meters are gained moving forward. This ratio can be referred to as flight efficiency. With body shape manipulation and by choosing the design characteristics of the wingsuit, a flier can alter both their forward speed and fall rate. The pilot manipulates these flight characteristics by changing the shape of their torso, de-arching and rolling of the shoulders and moving hips and knees, and by changing the angle of attack in which the wingsuit flies in the relative wind, and by the amount of tension applied to the fabric wings of the suit. The absence of a vertical stabilizing surface results in little damping around the yaw axis, so poor flying technique can result in a spin that requires active effort on the part of the skydiver to stop.

A wingsuit flyer over Palm Islands, Dubai

Wingsuit fliers can measure their performance relative to their goals with the use of free fall computers that record the amount of time they were in flight, the altitude they deployed their parachute, and the altitude they entered free fall. The fall rate speed can be calculated from this data and compared to previous flights. GPS receivers can also be used to plot and record the flight path of the suit, and when analyzed, can indicate the amount of distance flown during the flight. BASE jumpers can use landmarks on exit points, along with recorded video of their flight by ground crews, to determine their performance relative to previous flights and the flights of other BASE jumpers at the same site.

A typical skydiver's terminal velocity in belly to earth orientation ranges from 180–225 km/h (110 to 140 mph). A wingsuit can reduce these speeds dramatically. A vertical instantaneous velocity of 40 km/h (25 mph) has been recorded.[5] However the speed at which the body advances forward through the air is still much higher.

The tri-wing wingsuit has three individual ram-air wings attached under the arms and between the legs. The mono-wing wingsuit design incorporates the whole suit into one large wing.

Further developments[edit]

Wingpack[edit]

BASE jumping in a wingsuit

Another variation on which studies are being focused is the wingpack, which consists of a strap-on rigid wing in carbon fibre.[6] It is a mix between a hang-glider and a wingsuit. The wingpack can reach a glide ratio of 6 and permits transportation of oxygen bottles and other material.[7]

On 31 July 2003, the Austrian Felix Baumgartner, jumping from 9 kilometres (30,000 ft), successfully crossed the English Channel in 14 minutes using a wingpack, having covered over 35 kilometres (22 mi).[8]

In 2006, the German enterprise ESG introduced the "Gryphon", a wingpack specifically destined for the secret incursions of the special forces.[9]

Wingsuit BASE[edit]

Since 2003,[10] many BASE jumpers have started using wingsuits, giving birth to WiSBASE.

Some popular places where WiSBASE is practiced are Kjerag and Trollstigen in Norway, Lauterbrunnen in Switzerland, Chamonix in France, and Monte Brento in Italy, with the landing field near Dro.

One technique is proximity flying, which is flying close to the faces and ridges of mountains. Loic Jean-Albert of France is generally considered one of the first proximity flyers; his pioneering flying brought many BASE jumpers into the sport. In November 2012, Alexander Polli became the first WiSBASE jumper to successfully strike a wingsuit target.[11] This target was made of foam and around 3 m (10 ft) tall.

Jet-powered wingsuits[edit]

A jet-powered wingpack

As of 2010, there have been experimental powered wingsuits, often using small jet engines strapped to the feet[12] or a wingpack setup to allow for even greater horizontal speeds and even vertical ascent.[8]

On 25 October 2005, in Lahti, Finland, Visa Parviainen jumped from a hot air balloon in a wingsuit with two small turbojet engines attached to his feet. The engines provided approximately 160 N (16 kgf, 35 lbf) of thrust each and ran on (JET A-1) fuel. Parviainen achieved approximately 30 seconds of horizontal flight with no noticeable loss of altitude.[12][13] Parviainen continued jumping from hot air balloons and helicopters, including one for the Stunt Junkies program on Discovery Channel.[14]

Christian Stadler from Germany organized the first international wingsuit competition to feature a monetary prize, in 2005, called "SkyJester's Wings Over Marl". His "VegaV3 wingsuit system" uses an electronic adjustable hydrogen peroxide rocket.[15] The rocket provides 1000 Newtons (100 kgf) of thrust, and produces no flames or poisonous fumes. His first successful powered wingsuit jump was in 2007, when he reached horizontal speeds of over 255 km/h (160 mph).[16]

Using a powered wingpack, Yves Rossy became the first person to attain the maneuverability and flight distances of an aircraft, moving only his body for steering; his experimental wingpack, however, is not commercially viable because the materials required in construction are cost-prohibitive. He took an eight-minute flight over the Swiss Alps.[17]

Training[edit]

Flying a wingsuit adds considerable complexity to a skydive. The United States Parachute Association (USPA) requires in the Skydivers Information Manual that any jumper flying a wingsuit for the first time have a minimum of 200 free fall skydives, made within the past 18 months, and receive one-on-one instruction from an experienced wing suit jumper, or 500 jumps experience to go without an instructor.[18] Requirements in other nations are similar. Wingsuit manufacturers offer training courses and certify instructors, and also impose minimum jump number requirements in order to purchase a wingsuit.[19]

Records[edit]

Wingsuit formation records[edit]

Fédération Aéronautique Internationale has not established judging criteria for official world record wingsuit formations. However, several national organizations have established record categories and have established criteria for judging whether or not a wingsuit formation is complete.[20]

Officially recognized

The largest wingsuit formation officially recognized as meeting the criteria for a national record consisted of 68 jumpers, in an arrowhead formation, which set a US National Record at Lake Elsinore, California, on 12 November 2009.[21]

The largest global record was a diamond formation involving 100 jumpers at Perris, California, on 22 September 2012.[22] While not meeting the criteria for a US National Record, it was certified as a Guinness World Record.

Wisbase jump records[edit]

Highest

On 8 June 2006, the Australian couple Heather Swan and Glenn Singleman jumped from 6,640 metres (21,780 ft) off Meru Peak in India setting a world record for highest Wisbase jump.[23] This record was broken on 5 May 2013, by Russian Valery Rozov, who jumped from 7,220 metres (23,690 ft) on Mount Everest's North Col.[24]

Longest

The longest verified WiSBASE jump is 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi)) by American Dean Potter[25] on 2 November 2011. Potter jumped from the Eiger mountain and spent 3 minutes and 20 seconds in flight, descending 2,800 metres (9,200 ft) of altitude.

Wingsuit flight records[edit]

Fastest

On 28 May 2011, Japanese wingsuit pilot Shin Ito set world records for the fastest speed reached in a wingsuit of 363 km/h (226 mph).[26]

Longest time and highest

On 20 and 21 April 2012, Colombian skydiver Jhonathan Florez set Guinness World Records in wingsuit flying. The jumps took place in La Guajira in Colombia. following records:

  • Longest time: The longest (duration) wingsuit flight – nine minutes, six seconds[27]
  • Highest: The highest altitude wingsuit jump – 11,358 m (37,265 ft)[28]
Landing

A month later, on 23 May 2012, British stuntman Gary Connery safely landed a wingsuit without deploying his parachute, landing on a crushable "runway" (landing zone) built with thousands of cardboard boxes.[29]

Farthest

Three days later, on 26 May 2012, the Japanese wingsuit pilot Shin Ito achieved two new world records: "greatest horizontal distance flown in a wing suit" [26.9 km (16.7 mi)][30] and "greatest absolute distance flown in a wing suit" [28.707 km (17.838 mi)], both of which were above Yolo County, California, USA.[31]

Accidents[edit]

Soaring in a wingsuit

On 16 September 1963, Stunt parachutist Gerard Masselin, jumped from a biplane showing his wingsuit to the camera, and was killed after his parachute failed to open.[32]

On 31 October 1997, French skydiver Gayardon held a press conference showing off a wingsuit with allegedly unparalleled record of safety and performance.[33][34] De Gayardon died on 13 April 1998, while testing a new modification to his parachute container in Hawaii; his death was attributed to a rigging error that was part of the new modification, rather than a flaw in the suit's design.[35]

On 5 October 2003, Dwain Weston, an Australian skydiver and holder of the 2002 BASE-jumping world title, died after hitting a railing on the Royal Gorge Bridge near Cañon City, Colorado.[36][37]

In 2011, ten people died WiSBASE jumping.[38]

On 16 January 2012, Jeb Corliss was severely injured when he hit a ledge with his legs on Table Mountain, Cape Town.[39]

On 14 August 2013, Mark Sutton, a British stuntman who had parachuted into the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony as a James Bond character, was killed when he hit a ridge while wingsuit BASE-jumping near Martigny, Switzerland.[40] He was participating in an event sponsored by Epic TV, and a wingsuit expert stated that he appeared to have miscalculated the gradient of the ground he was flying over.[41]

On 23 August 2013, Álvaro Bultó, a Spanish wingsuiter, died after a wingsuit BASE-jump in Switzerland. It is reported he hit the cliff and horizontal flight did not commence, and the parachute was never opened.[42][43]

On 8 October 2013, Hungarian Viktor Kováts died in rural China during a trial flight for the world BASE-jump championships.[44]

On 29 March 2014, three experienced wingsuit flyers: New Zealander Dan Vicary (33), Frenchman Ludovic Woerth (34), and American Brian Drake (33), jumped from a helicopter over the Lütschental Alps area near Bern, Switzerland. They had planned to land in the valley, but took a wrong turn, flew over the wrong ridge, and crashed into an Alpine pasture. Vicary and Woerth were found dead; Drake died four days later in the hospital.[45][46]

On 6 June 2014, Darío Barrio, a famous Spanish TV Chef, owner of the Madrid restaurant Dassa Bassa and experienced wingsuiter died in an accident while participating in the International Air Festival at Segura de la Sierra in Jaén (a province in the South of Spain). Darío, aged 42, was supposed to fly over an old castle but, for unknown reasons, crashed onto the cliff where the castle is located. [47]

On Tuesday, 2nd September 2014, Alex Duncan, a 26 year old Australian from Manly, Sydney, died by crashing into a mountain during a jump in the Swiss Alps. He was new to the international wingsuit scene but had been involved with extreme sports since he was a teenager. An avid adventurer to the end, Alex died doing what he loved. [48]

In popular culture[edit]

Wingsuits were showcased in the 1969 movie, The Gypsy Moths, starring Burt Lancaster and Gene Hackman.[citation needed]

The Marvel Comics superhero, The Falcon, has a costume that is modified to have a wingsuit function. In the film, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, the Falcon has a separate jet pack device that deploys large wings to enable it to fly, as well containing an emergency parachute in the event of a mechanical failure.

In the 2011 movie Transformers: Dark of the Moon, wingsuits are used by the United States military to perform an aerial insertion into a city overrun by enemy giant robots.

In the 2012 game New Super Mario Bros U, a wingsuit directly designed after a flying squirrel is a powerup for the playable characters.

In the 2014 movie How to Train Your Dragon 2, a wingsuit is created by the protagonist, Hiccup, so he can fly alongside Toothless, his dragon.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Flying Squirrel Zooms Through Air". Popular Science Monthly: 53. September 1930. 
  2. ^ Ewers, Retta E. (January 1934). "Rex - The Human Glider". Popular Aviation (aka Flying Magazine): 28. 
  3. ^ "Bird-Man Worldwide Instructors list". Retrieved 28 January 2008. 
  4. ^ "i" newspaper, 4 Sep 2014, page 33
  5. ^ "Wingsuit Flying and Basic Aerodynamics 1". phoenix-fly.com. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  6. ^ "A Modern-day Lilienthal: Alban Geissler constructs wings for people without nerves". SPELCO GbR. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  7. ^ "Daily Mail". Daily Mail (London). 7 June 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "Birdman Flies Atair Parachutes Across English Channel". Atairaerospace.com. 21 November 2003. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  9. ^ "Press release: ESG gives you wings – the parachute system for special operations". ESG. 15 May 2006. 
  10. ^ Matt Gerdes, The Great Book of BASE, BirdBrain Publishing, 2010, p. 216
  11. ^ "Alexander Polli Wingsuit Downhill Gate Bashing: Precision Of Human Flight". YouTube. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  12. ^ a b "First jet powered Birdman flight". Dropzone.com. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  13. ^ Skydiving with rocket engines - original video of Visa's first jump. (Engineering.com)
  14. ^ Animation of Visa's helicopter jump for Discovery channel's 'Stunt Junkies' show (TDMA Animation Studio website)
  15. ^ "First living rocket airplane in the world! :: News by". Peroxide Propulsion. 3 January 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  16. ^ "First living rocket plane in the world". YouTube. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  17. ^ Rocketman flies over alps with jet pack strapped to back, 15 May 2008 (Daily Mail)
  18. ^ "U.S. Parachute Association > SIM > Read > Section 6". Uspa.org. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  19. ^ "Which wingsuit is for me?". Tony Wingsuits. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  20. ^ The US Parachute Association guidelines and the The Australian Skydivers judging criteria are examples of this. See further, on official US national record, recognized for this in 2009.
  21. ^ "USPA Records: largest wingsuit formation jump". Uspa.org. 1 May 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  22. ^ "Largest wingsuit formation". The Daily Telegraph (London). 22 September 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  23. ^ "Leap from the top of the world". Sydney Morning Herald. 8 June 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  24. ^ http://www.redbull.com/en/adventure/stories/1331592877474/valery-rozov-base-mount-everest
  25. ^ Dean Potters record breaking flight from the Eiger,
  26. ^ "Fastest speed reached in a wing suit". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  27. ^ The longest (duration) wingsuit flight
  28. ^ The highest altitude wingsuit jump
  29. ^ Gary Connery: stuntman completes 2400ft skydive without a parachute
  30. ^ "Greatest horizontal distance flown in a wing suit". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  31. ^ "Greatest absolute distance flown in a wing suit". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  32. ^ "Another bird man Gerard Masselin dies". British Pathe. 8 April 2010. Retrieved date=13 November 2013. 
  33. ^ "L'uomo volante ce l'ha fatta". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 1 November 1997. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  34. ^ "Patrick, l'uomo shuttle" (in Italian). La Gazzetta dello Sport. 1 November 1997. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  35. ^ Abrams, Michael (2006). Birdmen, Batmen, and Skyflyers: Wingsuits and the Pioneers Who Flew in Them, Fell in Them, and Perfected Them. New York: Harmony Books. pp. 211–220. ISBN 978-1-4000-5491-6. 
  36. ^ "Base jumper was 'meticulous'". The Sydney Morning Herald. 7 October 2003. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  37. ^ Jones, Lola (16 November 2008). "The Legend's last jump on the last day - whatever happens happens". XtremeSport. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  38. ^ Dongen,Costyn van and Cordia, Jarno (2012). "Wingsuit History". Fly like a Brick. Retrieved 14 October 2012. 
  39. ^ "Jeb Corliss - Grounded". Youtube. 21 Feb 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012. 
  40. ^ "London 2012 parachutist Mark Sutton killed". BBC News Online. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  41. ^ Reilly, Jill (15 August 2013). "'First trip here to fly and loving it': Tragic last message of James Bond Olympics daredevil who died after crashing into mountain at 200km/h". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  42. ^ Alvaro Bulto dies while skydiving Global Post website
  43. ^ Original news report from EFE (Spanish)
  44. ^ "Victor Kovats, Hungarian Wingsuit Flyer, Dies in Accident"; Daily Mail online; retrieved .
  45. ^ US Wingsuit Flyer Dies After Weekend Accident; 3 April 2014; The Local; retrieved April 2014.
  46. ^ Swiss Wingsuit Crash Claims Third Victim; 3 News New Zealand; retrieved April 2014.
  47. ^ Dario Barrio dead: Spanish TV chef killed in base jumping wingsuit crash; The Independent.
  48. ^ [1]

Citations[edit]

  • Michael Abrams (2006). Birdmen, Batmen, and Skyflyers: Wingsuits and the Pioneers Who Flew in Them, Fell in Them, and Perfected Them. ISBN 1-4000-5491-5. 
  • Matt Gerdes (2010). The Great Book of BASE, BirdBrain Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4000-5491-6. 
  • Scott Campos (2005). Skyflying Wingsuits in Motion. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]