Winton Motor Carriage Company
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (March 2011)|
|Former type||Automobile Manufacturing|
|Genre||Touring cars, limousines|
|Headquarters||Cleveland, Ohio, United States|
|Area served||United States|
Scottish immigrant Alexander Winton, owner of the Winton Bicycle Company, turned from bicycle production to an experimental single-cylinder automobile before starting his car company. Winton owned a large lakeshore estate in Lakewood, Ohio. In the mid-1960s the home was demolished and an upscale high rise condominium was constructed aptly named Winton Place.
The company was incorporated on March 15, 1897. Their first automobiles were built by hand. Each vehicle had fancy painted sides, padded seats, a leather roof, and gas lamps. B.F. Goodrich made the tires for Winton.
By this time, Winton had already produced two fully operational prototype automobiles. In May of that year, the 10 hp (7.5 kW) model achieved the astonishing speed of 33.64 mph (54.14 km/h) on a test around a Cleveland horse track. However, the new invention was still subject to much skepticism, so to prove his automobile's durability and usefulness, Alexander Winton had his car undergo an 800-mile (1,300 km) endurance run from Cleveland to New York City.
On March 24, 1898 Robert Allison of Port Carbon, Pennsylvania became the first person to buy a Winton automobile after seeing the first automobile advertisement in Scientific American. Later that year the Winton Motor Carriage Company sold twenty-one more vehicles, including one to James Ward Packard, who later founded the Packard automobile company after Winton challenged a very dissatisfied Packard to do better. Winton sold 22 cars that year.
In 1899, more than one hundred Winton vehicles were sold, making the company the largest manufacturer of gas-powered automobiles in the United States. This success led to the opening of the first automobile dealership by Mr. H.W. Koler in Reading, Pennsylvania. To deliver the vehicles, in 1899, Winton built the first auto hauler in America.
Publicity generated sales and in 1901 the news that both Reginald Vanderbilt and Alfred Vanderbilt had purchased Winton automobiles boosted the company's image substantially. That same year, Winton lost a race at Grosse Pointe to Henry Ford.
Type Engine(Horsepower) Wheelbase Runabout 2-passenger 1-cylinder(8 hp) N/A Touring 4-passenger and Mail Delivery Van 1-Cylinder(9 hp) N/A
Winton vowed to come back and win, producing the 1902 Winton Bullet, which set an unofficial land speed record of 70 mph (113 km/h) in Cleveland that year. The Bullet was defeated in another Ford by famed driver Barney Oldfield, but two more Bullet race cars were built.
In 1903, Dr Horatio Nelson Jackson made the first successful automobile drive across the United States. He purchased a slightly used Winton touring car and hired a mechanic to accompany him. The trip took 64 days, including breakdowns, delays while waiting for parts to arrive(especially in Cleveland), and hoisting the Winton up and over rocky terrain and mudholes. Jackson's Winton is now part of the collections at the National Museum of American History.
The 1904 Winton was a five-passenger tonneau-equipped tourer which sold for US$2,500. By contrast, the Enger 40 was US$2,000, the FAL US$1,750, an Oakland 40 US$1,600, the Cole 30 and Colt Runabout US$1,500, while the (1913) Lozier Light Six Metropolian started at US$3,250, American's lowest-priced model was US$4,250, and Lozier's Big Six were US$5,000 and up.
Type Engine HP Wheelbase Transmission Touring-5p. Two-Cylinder 20 94.5" 2-speed sliding-gear Touring-5p. Four-Cylinder 24 104" 2-speed sliding-gear
Model Engine HP Wheelbase Model 20 Six-cylinder 48.6 130"
Winton continued to successfully market automobiles to upscale consumers through the 1910s. As dozens of new automobile companies started up, rapid innovation and intense competition led to falling sales in the early 1920s.
End of production
Winton Motor Carriage Company ceased automobile production in 1924. However, Winton continued in the marine and stationary gasoline and diesel engine business, an industry he entered in 1912 with the Winton Engine Company.
Sale to General Motors
Winton Engine Company became the Winton Engine Corporation, a subsidiary of General Motors, on June 20, 1930. It produced the first practical two-stroke diesel engines in the 400 to 1,200 hp (300 to 900 kW) range, which powered early Electro-Motive Corporation (another GM subsidiary) diesel locomotives and U.S. Navy submarines. A Winton 8-cylinder, 600-horsepower (447 kW), 8-201-A diesel engine was the motive power of the revolutionary Burlington Zephyr streamliner passenger train, in 1934 the first American diesel-powered train. That part of Winton devoted to the manufacturing of diesel locomotives in 1935 became part of the Electro-Motive Corporation (later the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors), and provided 201 series engines for rail use until late 1938, when the EMC designed 567 series engines were introduced. Successor EMD is still in business today.
1936 and beyond
By 1936 Winton was producing engines only for marine, U.S. Navy, and stationary applications. GM reorganized the company in 1937 as the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division of General Motors. Cleveland engines were used widely by the U.S. Navy in the Second World War, powering submarines, destroyer escorts, and numerous auxiliaries. After the war the Winton designed engines were gradually replaced with similar sized EMDs. The Cleveland Diesel Engine Division closed in 1962.
In popular culture
A purpose-built "Winton Flyer" features prominently in William Faulkner's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1962 novel The Reivers. In fact, the 1969 film version of the novel starring Steve McQueen was known as The Yellow Winton Flyer in the UK.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Winton vehicles.|
- 100 Years of the American Auto Millennium Edition, Copyright 1999 Publications International, Ltd.
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.58. This is the same mistake Enzo Ferrari would make with Ferruccio Lamborghini.
- 100 Years of the American Auto Millennium Edition, page 23, Copyright 1999 Publications International, Ltd.
- "The Family of Winton". Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- Kimes, Beverly (1996). standard catalog of American Cars 1805–1942. Krause publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4.
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.156.
- Stein, Ralph. The American Automobile. Random House.
- Winton touring car From the Smithsonian Collection
- Clymer, p.104.
- Clymer, p.84.
- Clymer, p.63.
- Clymer, p.111.
- Clymer, p.91.
- "Cleveland Diesel Model 278A". Old Marine Engines. Tugboat Enthusasts Society of the Americas. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Pinkpank, Jerry A (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter’s Guide. Kalmbach Books. pp. 25–26. LCCN 66-22894.
- Silverstone, Paul H (1966). U.S. Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company. pp. 164–167.
- Jane’s Fighting Ships of World War II. Crescent Books (Random House). 1998. pp. 288, 290–291. ISBN 0517-67963-9.
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925. New York: Bonanza Books, 1950.
- Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly (January, 1904)
- America on the Move (National Museum of American History)