Winton Motor Carriage Company

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Winton Motor Carriage Company
Former type Automobile Manufacturing
Industry Automotive
Genre Touring cars, limousines
Founded 1897
Founder(s) Alexander Winton
Defunct 1962
Headquarters Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Area served United States
Products Vehicles
Automotive parts

The Winton Motor Carriage Company was a pioneer United States automobile manufacturer based in Cleveland, Ohio. Winton was one of the first American companies to sell a motor car.

History[edit]

1896[edit]

1899 Winton Stanhope
1908 Winton touring car
Winton Motor Carriage Company First Auto Ad
Horatio Nelson Jackson in his 2-seat Winton tourer, "The Vermont", drives across America
1910 Winton Six
1915 Winton Six Limousine

Scottish immigrant Alexander Winton, owner of the Winton Bicycle Company, turned from bicycle production to an experimental single-cylinder automobile before starting his car company.[1] Winton owned a large lakeshore estate in Lakewood, Ohio. In the mid-1960s the home was demolished and an upscale high rise condominium was constructed aptly named Winton Place.

A 1910 Winton Advertisement – Des Moines Capital, May 14, 1910

1897[edit]

The company was incorporated on March 15, 1897. Their first automobiles were built by hand. Each vehicle had fancy painted sides, padded seats, a leather roof, and gas lamps. B.F. Goodrich made the tires for Winton.[2]

By this time, Winton had already produced two fully operational prototype automobiles. In May of that year, the 10 hp (7.5 kW) model achieved the astonishing speed of 33.64 mph (54.14 km/h) on a test around a Cleveland horse track. However, the new invention was still subject to much skepticism, so to prove his automobile's durability and usefulness, Alexander Winton had his car undergo an 800-mile (1,300 km) endurance run from Cleveland to New York City.[2]

1898[edit]

Alexander Winton, in Cleveland, Ohio invented the world's first semi-truck in 1898 and sold his first manufactured semi-truck in 1899.[1] On March 24, 1898 Robert Allison of Port Carbon, Pennsylvania became the first person to buy a Winton automobile after seeing the first automobile advertisement in Scientific American.[2] Later that year the Winton Motor Carriage Company sold twenty-one more vehicles, including one to James Ward Packard, who later founded the Packard automobile company after Winton challenged a very dissatisfied Packard to do better.[3] Winton sold 22 cars that year.[1]

1899–1900[edit]

In 1899, more than one hundred Winton vehicles were sold,[4] making the company the largest manufacturer of gas-powered automobiles in the United States. This success led to the opening of the first automobile dealership by Mr. H.W. Koler[5] in Reading, Pennsylvania. To deliver the vehicles, in 1899, Winton built the first auto hauler in America.[2]

One of these 1899 Wintons was purchased by Larz Anderson and his new wife, Isabel Weld Perkins. It is still on display at Larz Anderson Auto Museum in Brookline, Massachusetts.[2]

1901[edit]

Publicity generated sales and in 1901 the news that both Reginald Vanderbilt and Alfred Vanderbilt had purchased Winton automobiles boosted the company's image substantially. That same year, Winton lost a race at Grosse Pointe to Henry Ford.

Models[6]
Type Engine(Horsepower) Wheelbase
Runabout 2-passenger 1-cylinder(8 hp) N/A
Touring 4-passenger and Mail Delivery Van 1-Cylinder(9 hp) N/A

1902[edit]

Winton vowed to come back and win, producing the 1902 Winton Bullet, which set an unofficial land speed record of 70 mph (113 km/h) in Cleveland that year. The Bullet was defeated in another Ford by famed driver Barney Oldfield, but two more Bullet race cars were built.

1903[edit]

In 1903, Dr Horatio Nelson Jackson made the first successful automobile drive across the United States.[7] He purchased a slightly used Winton touring car and hired a mechanic to accompany him. The trip took 64 days, including breakdowns, delays while waiting for parts to arrive(especially in Cleveland[8]), and hoisting the Winton up and over rocky terrain and mudholes.[9] Jackson's Winton is now part of the collections at the National Museum of American History.

1904–1924[edit]

The 1904 Winton was a five-passenger tonneau-equipped tourer which sold for US$2,500. By contrast, the Enger 40 was US$2,000,[10] the FAL US$1,750,[10] an Oakland 40 US$1,600,[11] the Cole 30[10] and Colt Runabout US$1,500,[12] while the (1913) Lozier Light Six Metropolian started at US$3,250,[13] American's lowest-priced model was US$4,250,[14] and Lozier's Big Six were US$5,000 and up.[13]

Models(1904)
Type Engine HP Wheelbase Transmission
Touring-5p. Two-Cylinder 20 94.5" 2-speed sliding-gear[15]
Touring-5p. Four-Cylinder 24 104" 2-speed sliding-gear

Winton's flat-mounted water-cooled straight-2, situated amidships of the car, produced 20 hp (14.9 kW). The channel and angle steel-framed car weighed 2300 lb (1043 kg).

Models(1914)[6]
Model Engine HP Wheelbase
Model 20 Six-cylinder 48.6 130"

Winton continued to successfully market automobiles to upscale consumers through the 1910s, but sales began to fall in the early 1920s. This was due to the very conservative nature of the company, both in terms of technical development and styling. Only one sporting model was offered - the Sport Touring, with the majority of Wintons featuring tourer, sedan, limousine and town car styling.[16]

Models(1922)[6]
Model Engine HP Wheelbase
Model 40 Six-cylinder 70/72 132"

End of production[edit]

The Winton Motor Carriage Company ceased automobile production on February 11, 1924. However, Winton continued in the marine and stationary gasoline and diesel engine business, an industry he entered in 1912 with the Winton Engine Company.

Sale to General Motors[edit]

Winton Engine Company became the Winton Engine Corporation, a subsidiary of General Motors, on June 20, 1930. It produced the first practical two-stroke diesel engines in the 400 to 1,200 hp (300 to 900 kW) range, which powered early Electro-Motive Corporation (another GM subsidiary) diesel locomotives and U.S. Navy submarines. A Winton 8-cylinder, 600-horsepower (447 kW), 8-201-A diesel engine was the motive power of the revolutionary Burlington Zephyr streamliner passenger train, in 1934 the first American diesel-powered train. That part of Winton devoted to the manufacturing of diesel locomotives in 1935 became part of the Electro-Motive Corporation (later the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors), and provided 201 series engines for rail use until late 1938, when the EMC designed 567 series engines were introduced. Successor EMD is still in business today.[17][18]

1936 and beyond[edit]

By 1936 Winton was producing engines only for marine, U.S. Navy, and stationary applications. GM reorganized the company in 1937 as the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division of General Motors. Cleveland engines were used widely by the U.S. Navy in the Second World War, powering submarines, destroyer escorts, and numerous auxiliaries. After the war the Winton designed engines were gradually replaced with similar sized EMDs. The Cleveland Diesel Engine Division closed in 1962.[17][19][20][21][22][23]

In popular culture[edit]

A purpose-built "Winton Flyer" features prominently in William Faulkner's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1962 novel The Reivers. In fact, the 1969 film version of the novel starring Steve McQueen was known as The Yellow Winton Flyer in the UK.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 100 Years of the American Auto Millennium Edition, Copyright 1999 Publications International, Ltd.
  2. ^ a b c d e Hedgbeth, Llewellyn. "Winton: The King of Cars". http://www.secondchancegarage.com. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  3. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.58. This is the same mistake Enzo Ferrari would make with Ferruccio Lamborghini.
  4. ^ 100 Years of the American Auto Millennium Edition, page 23, Copyright 1999 Publications International, Ltd.
  5. ^ "The Family of Winton". Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
  6. ^ a b c Kimes, Beverly (1996). standard catalog of American Cars 1805–1942. Krause publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4. 
  7. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.156.
  8. ^ Stein, Ralph. The American Automobile. Random House. 
  9. ^ Winton touring car From the Smithsonian Collection
  10. ^ a b c Clymer, p.104.
  11. ^ Clymer, p.84.
  12. ^ Clymer, p.63.
  13. ^ a b Clymer, p.111.
  14. ^ Clymer, p.91.
  15. ^ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/Misc%20Brochures/Autos%20of%201904%20Booklet/Autos%20of%201904-10.html
  16. ^ Spajic, Igor. "Vintage Cars of ‘The Great Gatsby’ – Winton Six". http://www.vintagecarheritage.com. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "Cleveland Diesel Model 278A". Old Marine Engines. Tugboat Enthusasts Society of the Americas. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  18. ^ Pinkpank, Jerry A (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter’s Guide. Kalmbach Books. pp. 25–26. LCCN 66-22894 Check |lccn= value (help). 
  19. ^ Silverstone, Paul H (1966). U.S. Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company. pp. 164–167. 
  20. ^ Jane’s Fighting Ships of World War II. Crescent Books (Random House). 1998. pp. 288, 290–291. ISBN 0517-67963-9. 
  21. ^ "NavSource USS Balabo SS-285". Photographic History of the U.S. Navy. NavSource Naval History. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  22. ^ "NavSource USS Cannon DE 99". Photographic History of the U.S. Navy. NavSource Naval History. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 
  23. ^ "NavSource USS Sotoyomo ATA 121". Photographic History of the U.S. Navy. NavSource Naval History. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 

External links[edit]