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A wireless router is a device that performs the functions of a router but also includes the functions of a wireless access point. It is commonly used to provide access to the Internet[note 1] or a computer network. It does not require a wired link, as the connection is made wirelessly, via radio waves. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network), in a wireless-only LAN (WLAN), or in a mixed wired/wireless network, depending on the manufacturer and model.
Most current wireless routers have the following characteristics:
- One or multiple NICs supporting Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet integrated into the main SoC
- One or multiple WNICs supporting a part of the IEEE 802.11-standard family also integrated into the main SoC or as separate chips on the Printed circuit board. It also can be a distinct card connected over a MiniPCI or MiniPCIe interface.
- So far the PHY-Chips for the WNICs are generally distinct chips on the PCB. Dependent on the mode the WNIC supports, i.e. 1T1R, 2T2R or 3T3R, one WNIC have up to 3 PHY-Chips connected to it. Each PHY-Chip is connected to a Hirose U.FL-connector on the PCB. A so-called pigtail cable connects the Hirose U.FL either to a RF connector, in which case the antenna can be changed or directly to the antenna, in which case it is integrated into the casing. Common are single-band (i.e. only for 2.4 GHz or only for 5 GHz) and dual-band (i.e. for 2.4 and 5 GHz) antennas.
- Often an Ethernet Switch supporting Gigabit Ethernet or Fast Ethernet, with support for IEEE 802.1Q, integrated into the main SoC (MediaTek SoCs) or as separate Chip on the PCB.
- Some wireless routers come with either xDSL modem, DOCSIS modem, LTE modem, or fiber optic modem integrated.
- IEEE 802.11n compliant or ready.
- Some dual-band wireless routers operate the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands simultaneously.
- Some high end dual-band wireless routers have data transfer rates of at most 300 Mbit/s (For 2.4 GHz band) and 450 Mbit/s (For 5 GHz band).
- Some wireless routers have 1 or 2 USB port(s). For wireless routers having 1 USB port, it is designated for either printer or desktop/mobile external hard disk drive. For wireless routers having 2 USB ports, one is designated for the printer and the other one is designated for either desktop or mobile external hard disk drive.
- Some wireless routers have a USB port specifically designed for connecting mobile broadband modem, aside from connecting the wireless router to an Ethernet with xDSL or cable modem. So, can be inserted a mobile broadband USB adapter into the router to share the mobile broadband Internet connection through the wireless network.
The most common operating system on such embedded devices is Linux. More seldom VxWorks is being used. The devices are configured over a web user interface served by a light web server software running on the device.
Asides from the OEM firmware, for a couple of wireless routers a third party firmware called OpenWrt is available. It is an open source project with the ambition to mainline support for components found in embedded devices into the Linux kernel.
- Connected via xDSL, cable, or Fiber Optic modem provided by the Internet service provider of the subscriber.
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