Wisława Szymborska, Kraków, Poland 2011
2 July 1923|
Prowent, Poland (now Kórnik, Poland)
|Died||1 February 2012
|Spouse(s)||Adam Włodek (1948–1954; divorced)|
Wisława Szymborska-Włodek [viˈswava ʂɨmˈbɔrska] (2 July 1923 – 1 February 2012) was a Polish poet, essayist, translator and recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Prowent, which has since become part of Kórnik, she later resided in Kraków until the end of her life. She was described as a "Mozart of Poetry". In Poland, Szymborska's books have reached sales rivaling prominent prose authors: although she once remarked in a poem, "Some Like Poetry" ("Niektórzy lubią poezję"), that no more than two out of a thousand people care for the art.
Szymborska was awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature "for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality". She became better known internationally as a result of this. Her work has been translated into English and many European languages, as well as into Arabic, Hebrew, Japanese and Chinese.
Wisława Szymborska was born on 2 July 1923 in Prowent, Poland (now part of Kórnik, Poland), the daughter of Wincenty and Anna (née Rottermund) Szymborski. Her father was at that time the steward of Count Władysław Zamoyski, a Polish patriot and charitable patron. After the death of Count Zamoyski in 1924, her family moved to Toruń, and in 1931 to Kraków, where she lived and worked until her death in early 2012.
When World War II broke out in 1939, she continued her education in underground classes. From 1943, she worked as a railroad employee and managed to avoid being deported to Germany as a forced labourer. It was during this time that her career as an artist began with illustrations for an English-language textbook. She also began writing stories and occasional poems. Beginning in 1945, she began studying Polish literature before switching to sociology at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. There she soon became involved in the local writing scene, and met and was influenced by Czesław Miłosz. In March 1945, she published her first poem "Szukam słowa" ("Looking for words") in the daily newspaper, Dziennik Polski. Her poems continued to be published in various newspapers and periodicals for a number of years. In 1948, she quit her studies without a degree, due to her poor financial circumstances; the same year, she married poet Adam Włodek, whom she divorced in 1954 (they remained close until Włodek's death in 1986). Their union was childless. Around the time of her marriage she was working as a secretary for an educational biweekly magazine as well as an illustrator.
Her first book was to be published in 1949, but did not pass censorship as it "did not meet socialist requirements". Like many other intellectuals in post-war Poland, however, Szymborska adhered to the People's Republic of Poland's (PRL) official ideology early in her career, signing an infamous political petition from 8 February 1953, condemning Polish priests accused of treason in a show trial. Her early work supported socialist themes, as seen in her debut collection Dlatego żyjemy (That is what we are living for), containing the poems "Lenin" and "Młodzieży budującej Nową Hutę" ("For the Youth who are building Nowa Huta"), about the construction of a Stalinist industrial town near Kraków. She became a member of the ruling Polish United Workers' Party.
Like many communist intellectuals initially close to the official party line, Szymborska gradually grew estranged from socialist ideology and renounced her earlier political work. Although she did not officially leave the party until 1966, she began to establish contacts with dissidents. As early as 1957, she befriended Jerzy Giedroyc, the editor of the influential Paris-based emigré journal Kultura, to which she also contributed. In 1964, she opposed a Communist-backed protest to The Times against independent intellectuals, demanding freedom of speech instead.
In 1953, Szymborska joined the staff of the literary review magazine Życie Literackie (Literary Life), where she continued to work until 1981 and from 1968 ran her own book review column, called Lektury Nadobowiązkowe. Many of her essays from this period were later published in book form. From 1981–83, she was an editor of the Kraków-based monthly periodical, NaGlos (OutLoud). In the 1980s, she intensified her oppositional activities, contributing to the samizdat periodical Arka under the pseudonym "Stańczykówna", as well as to the Paris-based Kultura. The final collection published while Szymborska was still alive, Dwukropek, was chosen as the best book of 2006 by readers of Poland's Gazeta Wyborcza. She also translated French literature into Polish, in particular Baroque poetry and the works of Agrippa d'Aubigné. In Germany, Szymborska was associated with her translator Karl Dedecius, who did much to popularize her works there.
Wisława Szymborska died 1 February 2012 at home in Kraków, aged 88. Her personal assistant, Michał Rusinek, confirmed the information and said that she "died peacefully, in her sleep". She was surrounded by friends and relatives at the time. Foreign Minister Radek Sikorski described her death on Twitter as an "irrepairable loss to Poland's culture".
She was working on new poetry right until her death, though she was unable to arrange her final efforts for a book in the way she would have wanted. Her last poetry will be published later in 2012.
Szymborska frequently employed literary devices such as ironic precision, paradox, contradiction and understatement, to illuminate philosophical themes and obsessions. Many of her poems feature war and terrorism. It is, however, important to note the ambiguity of her poetry. Although her poetry was influenced by her experiences, it is relevant across time and culture. She wrote from unusual points of view, such as a cat in the newly empty apartment of its dead owner. Her reputation rests on a relatively small body of work, fewer than 350 poems. When asked why she had published so few poems, she said: "I have a trash can in my home".
Szymborska's poem "Nothing Twice" turned into a song by composer Andrzej Munkowski performed by Łucja Prus in 1965 makes her poetry known in Poland, rock singer Kora cover of "Nothing Twice" was a hit in 1994.
In her last years Szymborska collaborated with Polish jazz trompeter Tomasz Stańko who dedicated his record Wisława (ECM, 2013) to her memory - taking inspiration for the compositions from their collaboration and her poetry.
- 1952: Dlatego żyjemy ("That's Why We Are Alive")
- 1954: Pytania zadawane sobie ("Questioning Yourself")
- 1957: Wołanie do Yeti ("Calling Out to Yeti")
- 1962: Sól ("Salt")
- 1966: 101 wierszy ("101 Poems")
- 1967: Sto pociech ("No End of Fun")
- 1967: Poezje wybrane ("Selected Poetry")
- 1972: Wszelki wypadek ("Could Have")
- 1976: Wielka liczba ("A Large Number")
- 1986: Ludzie na moście ("People on the Bridge")
- 1989: Poezje: Poems, bilingual Polish-English edition
- 1992: Lektury nadobowiązkowe ("Non-required Reading")
- 1993: Koniec i początek ("The End and the Beginning")
- 1996: Widok z ziarnkiem piasku ("View with a Grain of Sand")
- 1997: Sto wierszy – sto pociech ("100 Poems – 100 Happinesses")
- 2002: Chwila ("Moment")
- 2003: Rymowanki dla dużych dzieci ("Rhymes for Big Kids")
- 2005: Dwukropek ("Colon")
- 2009: Tutaj ("Here")
- 2012: Wystarczy ("Enough")
- 2013: Błysk rewolwru ("The Glimmer of a Revolver")
Prizes and awards
- 1954: The City of Kraków Prize for Literature
- 1963: The Polish Ministry of Culture Prize
- 1991: The Goethe Prize
- 1995: The Herder Prize
- 1995: Honorary Doctor of the Adam Mickiewicz University (Poznań)
- 1996: The Polish PEN Club prize
- 1996: Nobel Prize in Literature
- 2011: Order of the White Eagle
- 1998 Boston Review: Poems – New and Collected 1957–1997 by Francis Padorr Brent
- 2001 The New Republic: "Miracle Fair: Selected Poems of Wislawa Szymborska" by Ruth Franklin
- 2006 The Christian Science Monitor: A fascinating journey with two women poets by Elizabeth Lund
- 2006 Moondance magazine: Stories/Poems. Plain and Simple. – Mapping the Words of Wislawa Szymborska on Her Latest Book, Monologue of a Dog by Lys Anzia
- 2006 Sarmatian Review: Wislawa Szymborska's 'Conversation With a Stone' – An Interpretation by Mary Ann Furno
- 2006 Words Without Borders: Monologue of a Dog – New Poems of Wislawa Szymborska by W. Martin
- List of female Nobel laureates
- List of Nobel laureates in Literature
- List of Polish-language poets
- Polish Writers on Writing featuring Wislawa Szymborska. Edited by Adam Zagajewski (Trinity University Press, 2007).
- "Polish Nobel winning poet Szymborska dies at 88". Reuters. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- "Nobel Prize-winning poet Szymborska dies aged 88". France24. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Szymborska, Wisława. "Some Like Poetry".
- "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996". Nobelprize. 7 October 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- "I Don't Know: The Nobel lecture". The New Republic. 30 December 1996. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- "Poland Nobel poetry laureate Wislawa Szymborska dies". BBC News. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Michał St. de Zieleśkiewicz, "Szymborska: zabić księży Kurii Krakowskiej." Bibula – pismo niezalezne, 2011-01-21. (Polish)
- Waldemar Łysiak (2000). Stulecie kłamców. Ex Libris/Galeria Polskiej Książki. p. 214. ISBN 978-83-88455-21-6. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Stanisław Wilhelm. Pajęczyna III RP – Urzędnicy i Sędziowie; Anatomia manipulacji prawem. Stanislaw Wilhelm Grys. p. 320. ISBN 978-83-932740-0-0. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- "portal poświęcony Polsce, rodzinie i tradycji". Prawy.pl. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- "Dates of birth and death for Wisława Szymborska". Rmf24.pl. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- "Notice of Wisława Szymborska's death". Wiadomosci.onet.pl. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Duval Smith, Alex (14 October 2005). "A Nobel Calling: 100 Years of Controversy". The Independent (UK: Independent Print Limited). Retrieved 26 April 2008. "1996: The themes in this Polish poet's 16 collections are wide-ranging, though many deal with war and terrorism. Her poem, "The End and the Beginning", reads: "No sound bites, no photo opportunities And it takes years All the cameras have gone To other wars." Szymborska was born in Kórnik, in western Poland, in 1923."
- name="http://ecmrecords.com/Catalogue/ECM/2300/2304_05.php" ECM Records
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