Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
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The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation is the independent nonprofit technology transfer organization serving the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Morgridge Institute for Research. It provides significant research support, granting tens of millions of dollars to the university each year and contributing to the university's "margin of excellence."
WARF was founded in 1925 to manage a discovery by Harry Steenbock, who invented the process for using ultraviolet radiation to add vitamin D to milk and other foods. Rather than leaving the invention unpatented—then the standard practice for university inventions—Steenbock used $300 of his own money to file for a patent. He received commercial interest from Quaker Oats but declined the company's initial offer.
Instead, Steenbock sought a way to protect discoveries made by UW-Madison faculty, ensure use of the ideas for public benefit and bring any financial gains back to the university. His concept gained support from Harry L. Russell, dean of the College of Agriculture, and Charles Sumner Slichter, dean of the Graduate School.
Slichter began soliciting the interest and financial support of wealthy UW-Madison alumni acquaintances in Chicago and New York. He gained a substantial sum in verbal pledges from a number of alumni, nine of whom would eventually contribute $100 each.
The UW Board of Regents approved the plan on June 22, 1925, and the organization's charter was filed with the Secretary of State of Wisconsin on November 14 that same year. The organization was named the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation to reflect both its governing body of five UW–Madison alumni and its mission to promote, encourage and aid scientific investigation and research at UW-Madison.
Since its founding, WARF has helped steward the cycle of research, discovery, commercialization and investment for UW–Madison. Through its patenting and licensing efforts, WARF enables university innovations to advance from the lab to the marketplace.
Each year, WARF contributes more than $70 million to fund additional UW–Madison research. The university refers to WARF's annual gifts as its "margin of excellence" funding. WARF currently licenses nearly 100 UW–Madison technologies each year. As of 2014, WARF had an endowment of $2.6 billion.
In 1923, Harry Steenbock and James Cockwell discovered exposure to ultraviolet light increased the Vitamin D concentration in food. After discovering that irradiated rat food cured the rats of rickets, Steenbock sought a patent. Steenbock then assigned the patent to the newly established Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. WARF then licensed the technology to Quaker Oats for use in their breakfast cereals. In addition, WARF licensed the technology for use as a pharmaceutical, Viosterol. WARF's commercialization of Vitamin D culminated in its enrichment of milk.
"Enriching milk with vitamin D posed a significant challenge to WARF and its industry partners. Cereals and pharmaceuticals could be easily fortified by adding irradiated yeast or activated lipids (ergosterol) to them as sources of vitamin D. But strict pure foods laws at the time prohibited the addition of anything to milk, even chocolate. In order to produce vitamin D in milk, the milk itself would have to be irradiated. " (quote from site)
By the time the patent expired in 1945, rickets was all but nonexistent.
Through innovations from Hector DeLuca, Vitamin D continues to be a large percentage of WARF's income, around 70%.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is named for WARF, and the story of its discovery is emblematic of the "Wisconsin Idea" and the relationship of the university to the Wisconsin public. In 1933 a farmer from Deer Park showed up unannounced at the School of Agriculture and walked into a professor's laboratory with a milk can full of blood which would not coagulate. In his truck, he had also brought a dead heifer and some spoiled clover hay. He wanted to know what had killed his cow. In 1941, Karl Paul Link successfully isolated the anticoagulant factor, which initially found commercial application as a rodent-killer. Warfarin is now one of the most widely prescribed medicines in the world, used in vascular and heart disease to prevent stroke and thrombosis.
Stem cells and WiCell
More recently, WARF was assigned the patents for non-human primate and human embryonic stem cells. The stem cells were first isolated and purified by James Thomson. In October 1999, WARF established the non-profit subsidiary WiCell in order to license its stem cell lines. Thomson was appointed as WiCell's scientific director. In September 2005, WiCell was awarded the NIH contract to develop the first National Stem Cell Bank (NSCB). The NSCB works to distribute characterized human embryonic stem cells eligible for US federal funding to non-profit researchers world wide.
WARF has also helped establish more than 60 startup companies including Imago, Mirus Bio, Nimblegen, Tomotherapy, Deltanoid Pharmaceuticals, Quinntessence, Neoclone, Silatronix, Third Wave Technologies, Cambria Biosciences, and OpGen, Inc.
- Apple, Rima D. (September 1989). "Patenting University Research: Harry Steenbock and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation". Isis 80 (3): 374–394.
- Muehl, Ann. "WARF grants more than $70 million to support UW-Madison". UW-Madison. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "WARF Endowment". WARF. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- WARF - Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
- WiCell Research Institute
- National Stem Cell Bank
- WARF's History
- Miracle In the Midwest - How Madison, Wis. Became A Hotebed Of Biocapitalism, Forbes Magazine, 05.24.04.
- WARF's Vitamin D patents