Witness accounts of the Roswell UFO incident

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The witness accounts of the Roswell UFO incident would transform Roswell, New Mexico, from a forgotten incident to perhaps the most famous UFO case of all time.

In 1978, author Stanton T. Friedman interviewed Jesse Marcel, who voiced his suspicion that debris he recovered on a ranch near Roswell in 1947 was "not of this world." Marcel and others gave descriptions of debris which seemed to be describing a similar set of objects.[citation needed] Numerous accounts of aliens and alien craft emerged while UFO researchers sought out and interviewed more people in connection with the 1947 incident.[citation needed]


Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, reporting the RAAF captured a flying saucer

In mid-June or during the first week of July 1947, William Brazel, a foreman for a ranch in Roswell, New Mexico, was examining livestock when he noticed a wreckage of an unknown shiny, metallic material.[1][2] Brazel collected a sample of the debris and showed it to George Wilcox of the Chaves County, New Mexico's Sheriff Office where the two talked "confidential-like".[3] Wilcox brought down Major Jesse Marcel from the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) to examine the debris.[2] After the discussion, Marcel, Brazel, and Counterintelligence Corps officer Sheridan Cavitt traveled to the debris field, which covered an area approximately 0.75 miles (1.21 km) long and was several hundred feet wide.[2] Marcel informed the United States Air Force (USAF) of the wreckage, and it was handled by the Eighth Air Force (8 AF).[2]

On July 8, the Roswell Daily Record reported the RAAF found a flying saucer in the Roswell, New Mexico region.[1] A press release from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was released the same day claiming a weather balloon was found instead of a flying saucer.[4] The debris was flown from Roswell to the 8 AF's headquarters in Fort Worth, Texas that day on a Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Marcel flew, too, and he met with General Roger Ramey, where parts of the debris was set up for the press to photograph.[5] A telex was sent on July 8 from the FBI's office in Dallas, Texas to the Cincinnati, Ohio office. The writer said a flying disc—hexagonal in shape and 20 feet (6.1 m) wide—had been found, and the debris was going to be transferred to Wright Field in Riverside, Ohio for a special investigation.[6] The press reported the weather balloon story from Fort Worth, and nothing else was reported.[5]


Brazel, who discovered the debris which sparked the Roswell UFO incident, died in 1963, well before researchers started to interview witnesses to the incident. He was interviewed in 1947, however, and his accounts of debris appeared in the Roswell Daily Record on July 9, 1947. In the interview he said he found "bright wreckage made up of rubber strips, tinfoil, a rather tough paper and sticks".[7][8] Bessie, his daughter, helped recover the debris, which she described to be similar to aluminium and wax paper, and it has indescribable writings on it.[9] In 1995, her affidavit was published and included additional descriptions. She claimed the pieces looked like a weather balloon. The pieces of the debris has two parts: the front was foil-like, and the other was rubber-like, both of which were gray in color. The debris had sticks attached to them with white tape.[10] His son, Bill, confirmed what Bessie said, by claiming there was tinfoil-like material and wood with Japanese or Chinese figures. The wood was similar to balsa wood, but it could not be cut or broken.[11]

Marcel was approached by Stanton T. Friedman in 1978, and former recounted details suggesting the debris was exotic. He believed the true nature of the debris was being suppressed by the military. His accounts were featured in the documentary UFOs are Real (1979) and in a February 1980 National Enquirer article, both of which are largely responsible for making the incident famous by sparking renewed interest.[citation needed] He said at the debris site there were small beams, approximately 0.375–0.5 square inches (2.42–3.23 cm2), covered in undecipherable hieroglyphics. It was made of something similar to balsa wood in terms of look and weight, except it was extremely dense and unable to burn.[12] Marcel's son, Jesse Jr., saw the debris. Marcel went home and showed the debris to his family. Jesse Jr. labeled the debris into three categories: a metallic gray, foil-like substance; plastic-like material that was similar to Bakelite and brownish-black in color; and I-beams that contained purple hieroglyphics.[13]

Sheridan Cavitt, the Roswell Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) identified by Marcel as assisting him in investigating the crash and recovering debris, was interviewed in 1994 when the United States Air Force investigated the allegations of a cover-up. In the interview, he said he had no memory of ever meeting Brazel or going out with Marcel. He claimed, however, he went to the crash site with his CIC assistant, Sgt. Lewis Rickett.[citation needed] Cavitt described the crash site as 20 square feet (1.9 m2), which contained bamboo sticks and reflective material similar to aluminum.[14] Rickett said he and Cavitt traveled to it the following day where an extensive cleanup was in progress. The participants in the cleanup were guarded by MPs. Rickett held a 6 inches (150 mm) by 12–14 inches (300–360 mm) piece of debris that was unbreakable.[citation needed]

Sgt. Robert Porter helped load the debris and was on the B-29 flight from Roswell to Fort Worth, where Marcel displayed some recovered material to Gen. Roger Ramey before proceeding on to Wright Field, Ohio. Porter said one of the debris pieces was triangular in shape and 2 feet (0.61 m) on the bottom. Overall, the debris was lightweight and in small pieces.[15] 1st Lt. Robert Shirkey witnessed debris being loaded onto the B-29. He said the boxes were filled with pieces of aluminum-looking metal; however, the material did not have the shiny, reflective properties of it. He saw an I-beam with markings on the inner flange.[16] Sgt. Robert Smith helped with the loading of the debris onto the aircraft. He described the material as extremely lightweight. When someone tried to crumple a piece, there were no creases, and it reshaped into the original. The largest piece Smith saw was approximately 20 feet (6.1 m) long.[17]

Two witnesses, J. Bond Johnson and Irving Newton, were brought into Ramey's office and told that the debris they saw came from Roswell. Johnson was a reporter and photographer for the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. He took six photographs of the debris, which he described as aluminum, balsa wood, and burnt rubber.[18] Newton was a weather forecaster at Fort Worth. He was identified in contemporary accounts as being brought in to make an official weather balloon identification for Gen. Ramey. In his original testimony, Newton indicated that when he got to Ramey's office, he was told it was a weather balloon.[19] In a later affidavit for the Air Force, he was convinced it was a balloon and remained convinced there were figures on the sticks, which looked to be weather-faded markings.[20] Newton's photo was also taken with the balloon debris by an unknown photographer.[21]


Frank Kaufmann performed various duties at RAAF, and his accounts appeared in UFO Crash at Roswell (1991). When interviewed by Karl Pflock in 1993, he claimed to have been a part of a nine-member team, the only ones permitted to travel to the location of a crashed alien craft and its crew. The site was north of Roswell, though he elsewhere claimed the site was on the Foster ranch. Kaufmann said his team came to the site and discovered a crashed craft split open, with an alien thrown against the arroyo wall, another hanging from the craft, and two more inside. All were clad in silver, wet-suit-like, one-piece uniforms. The aliens were described as having smaller noses, eyes, and ears compared to humans; no hair, being trimly built, standing about 5.25 feet (1.60 m) tall. The skin color was pale and gray.[22] Gerald Anderson claimed he saw aliens at the Plains of Agustin, where Barney Barnett was said to have also seen aliens. His accounts were featured initially in Crash at Corona (1992). He, with his family, said he saw a silver object in a hillside. He described seeing three crew members on the ground in an upright position.[23] Sgt. Thomas Gonzales, in an interview with Don Ecker, editor of UFO magazine, said he helped guard a crash site and saw aliens and a craft. Ecker wrote that Gonzales said he saw "little men." They were human-looking but had eyes and heads slightly larger than human. The craft was an "airfoil" design.[24] PFC Elias Benjamin was an MP with 390th Air Service Squadron. On July 7 or July 8, he was placed in charge of escorting three or four bodies covered with sheets on gurneys from Hangar 84 to the Roswell base hospital. During the transfer, the sheet slipped off of one revealing the grayish face, which contained hairless head of a non-human species. Later at the base hospital, with the sheet removed, he could make out a small person with an egg-shaped head.[25]

Sgt. Frederick Benthal, a photographic specialist, claimed he and Cpl. Al Kirkpatrick were flown from Washington D.C. to photograph alien wreckage and bodies. They were first driven north of town to one site, where Benthal said he witnessed covered trucks carrying wreckage . Then, Kirkpatrick was sent to another site where they were picking up pieces, and Benthal was taken to a nearby tent where he photographed several little bodies lying on a tarp. Kirkpatrick later returned from the other site in a truck loaded down with wreckage. All their equipment and film was confiscated. They were returned to the base and then flown back to Washington, debriefed and told they had not seen anything.[26][27] Jim Ragsdale claimed to have witnessed first-hand aliens and their craft. His accounts first appeared in The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell (1994). He claimed, while out camping about 30 miles (48 km) north of Roswell, to have seen an object fly overhead and crash. He described seeing a craft partially embedded in the ground. Near the craft were bodies about 4–5 feet (1.2–1.5 m) in height. He and his girlfriend threw some of the wreckage into their jeep and left as the army arrived.[28]

Walter Haut was a public information officer for the 509th Bomb Group in Roswell. He wrote the original press release claiming the RAAF found the flying disc.[29] In The Roswell Incident he originally claimed to not be a witness of the event.[30] With the publication of his 2002 posthumous affidavit, however, he said to be a witness.[31] In the affidavit, he saw a space craft and alien bodies.[29] Haut's affidavit discussed a high-level meeting with General William H. Blanchard and Ramey. Haut states the debris was passed to participants to touch, and nobody was able to identify the material. General Roger M. Ramey suggested to have the press release issued because the residents were already aware of the crash site, but there was a second crash site, which had more debris from the craft.[32] The plan was an announcement acknowledging the first site would draw away attention from the second location. The affidavit discussed a cleanup operation, where military personnel removed the debris from both crash sites and erasing all signs of the crash.[31] This ties in with claims made by Roswell residents in which debris collected as souvenirs were seized by the military. He claims Blanchard took him to Building 84, one of the hangars at RAAF, and showed him the space craft, which was a metallic egg-shaped object 12–15 feet (3.7–4.6 m) in length and 6 feet (1.8 m) wide.[29] Inside the hangar, he saw two bodies approximately 4 feet (1.2 m) tall, disproportionately large heads, and partially covered by a tarpaulin. Haut concluded the bodies were from outer space.[32] Ramey returned to 8 AF headquarters at Fort Worth, Texas. During a photo op of Ramey with debris in his office, a picture of him holding a teletype message, called the Ramey Memo by ufologist, was taken.[33] It was from Ramey to Hoyt Vandenberg stating there had been victims. In addition, he mentioned a disk had been found, and something inside was being shipped to his command.[34]


Numerous other people say they heard reports of recovered aliens and/or an alien craft from others. In some cases, several people heard similar alien stories from the same person. Numerous others claimed to have seen, handled or been told about crash material with strange physical properties.[35]


Air Force[edit]

Retired Air Force Brig. Gen. Arthur E. Exon, a former commanding officer at Wright-Patterson AFB, has been identified as the highest-ranking military figure to suggest an alien spacecraft and bodies could have been recovered. He cautioned though his information was second-hand, it came from men directly involved whom he knew personally and trusted. Exon said he was told about anomalous debris analysis at Wright-Patterson, saying the consensus was that the pieces were from space. He said he was told about bodies being recovered from a nearby related crash site. He flew over the area a few months later and saw at least two impact regions. He said the whole matter was covered up at the highest levels of government.[36]

Retired Air Force Lt. Colonel Raymond Madson was the Project Officer for the USAF's "crash test dummy" program from 1956 to 1960 at Holloman Air Force Base. The program was used by the USAF to debunk stories of Roswell alien bodies in their 1997 "Case Closed" report, citing Madson as a key witness. Madson, however, said later[when?] the crash dummy explanation was nonsense, part of a coverup, and his personal views on the Roswell case were completely misrepresented by the Air Force. Madson instead believes an extraterrestrial crash happened, and the alien bodies were stored for a period of time at Wright-Patterson AFB. This was based on his service in the early 1950s at Wright-Patterson and speaking to others who would have been positioned to know there was a very secure facility at the base where the recovered bodies were stored. His wife was employed at the base in the early 1950s in the medical laboratory. Madson said she was told by coworkers about child-sized beings from another world who had crashed sometime prior to her employment and brought to the base to be studied.[37]

June Crain was employed at Wright-Patterson from 1942 to 1952 with a top-secret clearance. In a 1997 interview with Jim Clarkson, shortly before her death, she spoke of learning from coworkers about the 1947 Roswell alien spacecraft crash and two later New Mexico alien spacecraft crashes from 1948 and 1951 or 1952 and recovery of bodies taken to Wright-Patterson. The bodies were taken to the Aeromedical Lab for study. She also said she personally handled an extremely strong thin metal material with memory properties similar to that described by a number of Roswell witnesses and described to her as being from one of the recent crashes.[38]

Private First Class Ed Sain was an MP in the 390th Air Service Squadron. On the evening of July 7, he and Cpl. Raymond Van Why were told to report to the ambulance pool outside the base hospital and boarded a military ambulance. It was driven north of town and then west into the desert. When they got there at night somewhere in the desert, there were a few tents and a number of floodlights. They were told to guard the entrance to the site from a tent set up for that purpose and to “Shoot anyone that tries to get in.” They were returned to the base at daybreak. His son Steven said his father was still reluctant to talk about it, being under a security oath and fearing for his life. According to Steven Sain, his father told both him and his brother that his job was to "guard the bodies at the crash site," which he said "were kept in one of the other tents until being transported to the base." He also thought his father had seen the craft, because he said "it was the strangest thing he had ever seen in his life." Raymond Van Why’s wife, Leola, said her husband first talked about it in 1954 when he got out of the service. He told her that he had been a guard at a crash site "out in the desert" where a spaceship had crashed. "My husband told me that it was a UFO that had crashed, that it was a round disc. ..he was out there and saw it!" [39]

Sgt. LeRoy Wallace was another MP in the 390th Air Service Squadron. According to his widow, he was called away one evening to go to a crash site outside of Corona "to help load the bodies." When he returned home the next morning, the first thing she noticed was the horrible stench on his clothes, which she burned. The horrible smell lingered on his body for another two weeks despite repeated bathing.[40]

Sgt. Homer G. Rowlette, Jr. was with the 603rd Air Engineering Squadron at Roswell. According to his son Larry and daughter Carlene Green, he told them about the "crash of a flying saucer" on his deathbed in March 1988. Larry Rowlette said his father was part of the cleanup detail sent to the impact site north of Roswell. There were also two other sites near Corona, N.M. He had handled the "memory material" which he described as "thin foil that kept its shape." He saw the actual ship that was "somewhat circular." Finally, he said he had seen "three little people. They had large heads and at least one was alive." Carlene Green said her father, still lucid, told her, "I was at Roswell when they recovered the spaceship in 1947. I was involved. I saw it. It’s all true." [41]

Private First Class Rolland Menagh was another MP in the 390th Air Service Squadron. He later became a security specialist for the Air Force Office of Special Investigations. According to sons Michael and Rolland Jr., their father first spoke about his involvement in the 1960s. Rolland Jr. recalled, "He was an MP who guarded the UFO crash site north of Roswell. He saw the ship, which he described as being round or egg-shaped and seamless." Rolland Jr. didn’t remember his father talking about bodies, but Michael recalled he mentioned three bodies. He added, "He said the spaceship was loaded onto an 18-wheeler with a tarp covering it and then driven right through the center of town down to the air base. My father said he accompanied it in a Jeep all the way from the crash site to the hangar where it was deposited." [42]

S/Sgt. Milton Sprouse, a B-29 crew chief, said a medic friend who worked in the hospital emergency room, told him of seeing "humanoid" bodies and that autopsies had been hurriedly carried out on two of them by two doctors and two nurses. The bodies were taken out to a heavily guarded hangar. The next day, the medic was transferred and they never found out his fate. The doctors and nurses were also immediately transferred, and their fate was also unknown. A few years later, Glenn Dennis told him about a call from the base for child-size caskets. Five members of his crew were part of the massive clean-up of the Foster Ranch and told him of debris that was "out of this world," including metal foil with memory properties.[43]

Captain Oliver "Pappy" Henderson, a pilot at Roswell in 1947, told various family members and friends that he flew alien wreckage and had seen alien corpses. His wife, Sappho, said in an affidavit: "He pointed out [a 1980/81 newspaper article on Roswell] to me and said, 'I want you to read this article, because it's a true story. I'm the pilot who flew the wreckage of the UFO to Dayton, Ohio. I guess now that they're putting it in the paper, I can tell you about this. I wanted to tell you for years.' Pappy Henderson never discussed his work because of his security clearance. He described the beings as small with large heads for their size. He said the material from their suits were made of was different from anything he had ever seen. He said they looked strange. I believe he mentioned that the bodies had been packed in dry ice to preserve them." His daughter Mary Groode in an affidavit similarly wrote, "He told me that he saw the crashed craft and the alien bodies described in the article, and that he had flown the wreckage to Ohio. He described the alien beings as small and pale, with slanted eyes and large heads. He said they were humanoid-looking, but different from us. I think he said there were three bodies." Vere McCarthy said Henderson told his old WWII flight crew about seeing the alien bodies at a reunion in 1982. Henderson said "...something to the effect that they were badly deteriorated from exposure and gnawed at by predators." [44]

Military Police[edit]

Colonel Edwin Easley was the Provost Marshal at Roswell. He said he had sworn a security oath and could not talk about the crash. When he asked if the extraterrestrials theories were on the right track, however, Easley agreed. Easley admitted they held Brazel at the base under armed guard for several days.[45] Easley’s doctor, Harold Granik, reported Easley spoke about creatures at Roswell on his deathbed.[46]

Private Francis Cassidy was a military policeman in the 1395th Military Police Company at Roswell. According to his wife, Sarah Mounce, her husband told her during his final days in 1976 about guarding Hangar P-3 and seeing the bodies inside. Corporal Robert Lida was another policeman in the 1395th. His wife, Wanda Lida, said her husband told her in the final months of his life in 1995 about guarding the bodies inside the same hangar. He observed wreckage inside the hangar and a number of small bodies being prepared for shipment.[47]

Blanche Wahnee, daughter of Capt. Meyers Wahnee, said her father told the family that the Roswell Incident was true in the last year of his life. A pilot during WWII, in 1947 he was a top-tier security officer. He was flown from Fort Simmons in Colorado to Roswell to oversee the transport of a “Top Secret item” from Roswell to Fort Worth on a special B-29 flight. The item was a single, large, wooden crate that Wahnee was to accompany as a security guard in the bomb bay, which he said contained the alien bodies recovered near Roswell. He also said there were three sites.[48] Three crew members on a special B-29 flight from Roswell to Fort Worth on July 9, Sgt. Robert Slusher, PFC Lloyd Thompson, and S/Sgt. Arthur Osepchook, also spoke of the unusual crate flight with security detail in the bomb bay, that was met in Fort Worth by a mortician.[49]

Steven Lovekin, who served in the White House Army Signal Corp between 1959 and 1961 (handling encrypted and classified White House communications), said he and others received UFO briefings at the Pentagon. According to Lovekin, they were shown a metal beam covered with hieroglyphs and a piece of foil-like debris. They were told it had come from a "New Mexico crash in 1947 of an extraterrestrial craft." Further, "...they did discuss the fact that there were bodies, extraterrestrial bodies... there were either 3 or 5... One was alive, partially alive, at the time that this happened." Lovekin added he heard Pres. Eisenhower talking and worrying about how control was slipping out of government hands and being assumed by corporations tasked with studying the situation.[50]

Counter Intelligence Corps[edit]

CIC agent Lewis Rickett said he accompanied Sheridan Cavitt to the ranch, witnessed high security and a large military debris recovery, handled strange metal debris, and saw a gouge in the ground. In September 1947, Rickett said he and Cavitt assisted astronomer Dr. Lincoln La Paz try to determine the speed and trajectory of the device that crashed on the Brazel ranch. “According to Rickett, La Paz formed the opinion that [the object] was a probe from another planet.” Rickett said they found a touchdown point five miles (8 km) from the debris field where the sand had crystallized, possibly from the heat.[51] Shortly before he died, it is also claimed he confirmed that the object’s shape was long, thin with a 'bat-like' wing."[52]


In 2012, retired CIA agent Chase Brandon performed an interview with The Huffington Post talking about the Roswell UFO incident. He told that the debris recovered was not a weather balloon, and claimed it did not come from this planet.[53] Brandon was inside of a special section—the Historical Intelligence Collection—of the George Bush Center for Intelligence in Langley, Virginia in the 1990s where he discovered a box labeled Roswell. Inside were documents and photographs confirming there was a crash and a recovery of a space ship.[54] Under law, he is not allowed to say what the documents exactly were.[53] Retired United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates was asked about the validity of his employee, and he refused to challenge it.[54]


Chester Lytle, an engineer who designed and manufactured the implosion detonator for the first A-bomb and subsequently held top-secret clearances with the United States Atomic Energy Commission and other government agencies, related in 1998 former Roswell base commander Gen. William Blanchard told him in 1953 Roswell was the crash of an alien spacecraft and four humanoid bodies had been recovered. From another high Air Force source, Lytle said he learned some of the bodies had gone originally to Muroc Army Air Field, but all eventually wound up at Wright-Patterson AFB in a highly secure facility. Lytle related he learned some details about the autopsies carried out on the bodies.[55][56][57]

Beverly Bean, daughter of Sgt. Melvin Brown, said her father also helped guard the crash site where alien bodies were recovered. She claimed her father told her he saw two or three alien bodies packed in ice as they drove back to the base in a truck. "He said they were smaller than a normal man--about four feet--and had much larger heads than us, with slanted eyes, and that the bodies looked yellowish, a bit Asian-looking." That night, he stood guard outside a hangar where either debris or bodies awaited shipment to Texas.[58]

Ruben, Pete, and Mary Anaya, related Ruben receiving a call from the base from New Mexico Lt. Governor Joseph Montoya, a personal friend, to pick him up outside a base hangar. (Ruben worked at the base.) Bringing him to their home, Montoya was pale and frightened. He related how a platter-shaped object had crashed. In a hangar, he saw pieces of crash debris and two (or four) non-human “little men,” one barely alive, being worked on by doctors. They were short, white, bald and skinny with big eyes and four long fingers. They wore a tight-fitting suit. Montoya warned them not to talk about it or somebody in the government would get them.[59] In another interview, Ruben Anaya said he spoke to a nurse outside the hangar who told him of the bodies "not of this world." He got a distant glimpse of two small bodies in the hangar covered with a sheet, one moving. Pete Anaya also said he spoke to a nurse outside the hangar, who he knew. She warned him not to go in the hangar. He never saw her again.[60]

Lt. Robert Shirkey, assistant operations officer, (see above) said there were other flights, another to Fort Worth, and a B-29 flight directly to Wright Field piloted by Henderson. He also said that he later learned that: “a Sergeant and some airmen went to the crash site and swept up everything, including bodies. The bodies were laid out in Hangar 84. Henderson's flight contained all that material. All of those involved--the Sergeant of the Guards, all of the crewmen, and myself--were shipped out to different bases within two weeks.” [61]

According to four sons of Lt. Col. Marion M. Magruder, their father told them on his deathbed of being shown crash wreckage and a live alien at Wright Field, Ohio, in mid or late July 1947. He had been attending Air War College at Maxwell Field, Montgomery, Alabama, composed solely of the best high-ranking officers in the various services, including generals. They were flown up to Wright Field to get their opinion on a matter of utmost urgency and importance. There the surprised officers were told about the recovery to Wright Field of an extraterrestrial spaceship that had crashed just two weeks previously near Roswell. Wreckage was brought out for them to examine. Then they were taken to another room and shown a surviving alien. According to the description from Mike Magruder, his father said the “creature” was under 5 feet (1.5 m) tall, “human-like” but with longer arms, larger eyes, and an oversized, hairless head. It had a slit for a mouth and two holes but no appendages for a nose and ears. There was no question that it “came from another planet.” [62]


Accounts of an alien recovery at Roswell first publicly emerged in The Roswell Incident (1980). An incident recounted by soil engineer Barney Barnett to various people was mentioned, where Barnett said that he and a team of archaeologists stumbled across a flying saucer crash with four aliens on the Plains of San Agustin, near Socorro, New Mexico in July 1947. The military arrived almost simultaneously and led them away.[63]

Dr. Charles Bertrand Schultz, a vertebrate paleontologist from the University of Nebraska told a similar crash story but closer to Roswell. He said he had been in Roswell at the time, and while driving out north of town along Highway 285, he saw a military cordon blocking access west of the highway. Later, he met with archeologist Dr. William Curry Holden of Texas Tech University, who told him he and his archeological team had been at a crash site north of Roswell and west of the highway and had come across a strange craft with alien bodies. They contacted the military, which took them away when they arrived.[64]

Lydia Sleppy was a Teletype operator working at an Albuquerque radio station in 1947. She said they received a telephone call from John McBoyle of KSWS Radio in Roswell. In her affidavit she recalled McBoyle saying, "There's been one of those flying saucer things crash down here north of Roswell." He'd met Brazel in a coffee shop. Brazel said he'd discovered the object and "had towed it underneath a shelter on his property. Brazel offered to take McBoyle to the ranch to see the object. McBoyle described it as a 'big crumpled dishpan.'" She added the FBI then interrupted the teletype as she tried to send it and ordered that they cease transmission. She said her boss, Karl Lambertz, spoke to McBoyle the next day. "He told Mr. Lambertz the military had isolated the area where the saucer was found and was keeping the press out. He saw planes come in from Wright Field, Ohio, to take the thing away." [65] The station owner, Merle Tucker, confirmed hearing the story at the time. In an interview shortly before his death, McBoyle confirmed seeing an object that looked like “a crushed dishpan,” about 25–30 feet long, impacted in a slope.[66]

Frank Joyce, Roswell radio KGFL news announcer, said he spoke to Brazel when he first reported the incident to Sheriff Wilcox. In earlier interviews, Joyce wouldn't discuss the details of what Brazel told him, saying only that he didn't believe the story, but suggested he report the incident to the base. After Brazel gave his press interview, he called Joyce again and said, "We haven't got the story right." Brazel went to the radio station and told Joyce a balloon story. Joyce responded, "Look, this is completely different than what you told me on the phone the other day about the little green men. Joyce said Brazel responded to the effect, "No they weren't green. Our lives will never be the same again." [67] However, he initially was quoted by Roswell researcher William Moore as saying that he had this conversation with his dying boss Walt Whitmore Sr. Joyce later objected that he had been misquoted; the conversation was with Brazel. Moore was provided corrections by Joyce and changed the attribution to Brazel.[68] In more recent interviews, as first reported by Tom Carey and Don Schmitt in 1998, Joyce has explained this cryptic conversation by saying Brazel first mentioned small, nonhuman beings when he first spoke to him. Initially Brazel was highly stressed over the large quantities of debris that needed to be cleaned up. "Who's gonna clean all that shit up?" Then Joyce said Brazel really began "losing it," talking about the "horrible stench" from the dead "little people" he had found at another location. Joyce suggested maybe he had found monkeys from a military experiment. "They're not monkeys, and they're not human!" Joyce then went on to explain that his "little green men comment [referred] back to our original phone conversation." [69]

According to Brazel’s neighbor Loretta Proctor, her 7-year old son Timothy or "Dee" was with Brazel when he first discovered the debris field. But he was also with Brazel when he discovered something else at another site 2-1/2 miles to the east that left him deeply traumatized for the rest of his life. He never told her exactly what he saw there but did take her to the location in 1994 saying, "Here is where Mack found something else." Dee Proctor would also duck all attempts at interview and died in 2006. However, other rancher children are believed to have visited the site, including Sydney "Jack" Wright, who said that two sons of rancher Thomas Edington and one of rancher Truman Pierce’s daughters got to "the other location." Wright in 1998 would state, "There were bodies, small bodies with big heads and eyes. And Mack was there too. We couldn’t get away from there fast enough." [70]

Frankie Rowe, was the daughter of Roswell fireman Dan Dwyer. Her father told the family of being on a run outside of Roswell to what they thought was a plane crash. "He said it was a crash of something that was not from the earth. ...the crash left a lot of pieces of small material around, and two small bodies and one person walking around. He said it was from another planet...they were very small, and the one that was walking around was about the size of a ten-year-old child, and it didn't have any hair...it had very small ears and rather large dark eyes. They had on a one-piece suit that covered the whole body." [71] Afterwards she claimed the military threatened to kill the whole family if they talked. (See accounts of threats below)

In interviews with Tony Bragalia and Kevin Randle, the last surviving Roswell fireman (with only the surname of "Smith" given) stated that the fire department knew of the crash and were warned by an intimidating colonel from the base not to go out to the site, that "everything was being handled by the military." It was the base fire department that was heavily involved, giving rise to confusion. Nevertheless, several town firemen did go out to the site on their own volition, including Dan Dwyer, but not in an official capacity. The fireman added that the colonel told them that an "unknown object from someplace else" had crashed in the desert outside Roswell. The fireman referred to the object as a "UFO" or an "unidentified--a flying saucer," clarifying they were told that it was a craft not from Earth, the military didn't know where it was from and were greatly concerned. They were never to talk about it again. The sheriff's department and the city manager were also involved in covering it up.[72]

Barbara Dugger, granddaughter of Sheriff George Wilcox, said her grandmother, Inez Wilcox once told her what happened: “there was a spacecraft--a flying saucer--that crashed outside Roswell.” After Brazel reported the incident to the Sheriff, he had gone out to the site in the evening. "There was a big burned area, and he saw debris. He also saw four 'space beings.' One of the little men was moving. Their heads were large. They wore suits like silk." The military threatened the entire family with death if he ever talked about it.[73]

Miriam Bush was the secretary of the hospital administrator Lt. Col. Harold Warne. According to siblings Jean and George, she came home after work in a highly stressed state. She claimed that Warne took her to an examination room and she saw several small childlike bodies. One was moving. Their skin was greyish to brown in tone and they were covered in something like white linens. Their heads and eyes were large. The next day she came home and said nobody was to ever talk about it. The family thought she had received heavy-handed threats.[74]

Mortician Glenn Dennis said the Roswell base called him asking for small caskets for three corpses that had been recovered. Soon after, after transporting an injured airman to the base hospital, Dennis said he saw strange metallic objects in an ambulance, ran into a worried nurse friend inside the hospital who warned him to leave, and was then threatened by an officer, who had him thrown out. The next day, he went to the base to meet the nurse. She described an alien autopsy and drew pictures for Dennis of alien corpses she had seen. "She said the head was disproportionately large for the body… There were three bodies; two were very mangled and dismembered, as if destroyed by predators; one was fairly intact. They were three-and-a-half to four feet tall." They had four long fingers. They had to move the operation to an aircraft hangar because of the horrible stench.[75]


Several people claimed, or knew people who claimed, that they were threatened by military or government personnel into keeping silent about what they saw or knew. In some cases, these threats included death threats.

Mortician Glenn Dennis said he received a death threat at the base hospital from a redheaded captain, who warned him if he talked “somebody will be picking your bones out of the sand.” The following day, Sheriff Wilcox talked to his father, a personal friend, and said, “…tell your son that he doesn’t know anything and hasn’t seen anything at the base. They want you and your wife’s name, and they want your and your children’s addresses.” His father told him about the conversation with the Sheriff, so Dennis related the events of the previous day to him. Dennis also claimed that the nurse who confided in him about alien corpses subsequently was shipped off base and attempts to contact her via mail resulted in letters returned with "deceased" marked on the envelopes.[76]

Frankie Rowe, claims her father was a firefighter who on a fire run outside of town encountered a wrecked craft and alien bodies. Later, after seeing a state trooper with a piece of dull gray metallic foil from the downed craft that “would unfold itself”, she and her family were threatened into silence by military personnel who visited her house. She said they told them: "They could take us out in the desert, and no one would ever find us again." In her affidavit she wrote, “I was told that if I ever talked about it, I could be taken out into the desert never to return, or that my mother and father would be taken to ‘Orchard Park’, a former POW camp.” [77] Rowe's older sister Helen Cahill said her parents told her a similar story.[78]

Barbara Dugger, granddaughter of Sheriff George Wilcox, said her grandmother, Inez Wilcox, told her the Sheriff had gone to the ranch and seen four alien bodies. "My grandmother said 'Don't tell anybody. When the incident happened, the military police came to the jail house and told George and I that if we ever told anything about the incident, not only would we be killed, but our entire family would be killed.'" [79] Others said that Inez Wilcox told them similar stories.[80][81]

The Anaya family (see above) told the story of picking up Lt. Governor Joseph Montoya at the base, and a shaken Montoya relating the story of a crashed craft and seeing alien bodies in a hangar. Montoya then warned them, and in future visits, not to talk about it because somebody in the government might come after them. They said they also received a warning from Sheriff George Wilcox and N.M. Senator Dennis Chavez.

George "Jud" Roberts was manager of radio station KGFL in Roswell. He signed an affidavit where he claimed to have been threatened if he ran an interview his station had done with Brazel. "I got a call from someone in Washington, D.C. It may have been someone in the office of [New Mexico Senators] Clinton Anderson or Dennis Chavez. This person said, 'We understand that you have some information, and we want to assure you that if you release it, it's very possible that your station's license will be in jeopardy, so we suggest that you not to do it.' The person indicated that we might lose our license in as quickly as three days. I made the decision not to release the story." [82]

Walt Whitmore Jr., son of the KGFL station owner, also recalled how his father had hidden Brazel at their home and done a recorded interview. Whitmore Sr. was unable to get the story through on the Mutual wire and instead began broadcasting a preliminary release locally over KGFL. At this point, a long distance phone call came to the station from a man named Slowie, saying he was with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in Washington. Slowie informed Whitmore that the story involved national security and that if he valued his station license he should cease transmitting it and forget about it. Immediately afterwards, another call from Washington came from Senator Dennis Chavez, who suggested he had better do what Slowie advised.[83]

Frank Joyce, news announcer and disc jockey at KGFL, said he spoke to Brazel by telephone when he first came to town and Brazel described finding nonhuman bodies. (see above) Later, Joyce received the base press release announcing the recovery of a “flying disk” and put it on the United Press teletype. When the first UP bulletins came in on the station teletype, Joyce said the phones went crazy. He received an irate call from a Colonel Johnson at the Pentagon, demanding to know who had told him to issue the press release. Joyce said he was a civilian and couldn’t be ordered around like that, to which the colonel responded, “I’ll show you what I can do to you.” Joyce said he decided to collect and hide the press release copy and the various teletypes so he could later prove to his boss Whitmore that he hadn’t made anything up. Later, somebody came through the station, found some of the hidden material, and removed it. However, some of the original teletypes were not found, and Joyce still has them. Jud Dixon, of United Press in Santa Fe, New Mexico, said the same thing happened in his office.[84] However, Karl Pflock said Dixon told him he had no memory at all about the Roswell incident, much less any confiscation.[85]

Mac Brazel was seen escorted by military personnel and spent some time in military custody, where he said he was intimidated into not talking about what he saw, according to several witnesses. For example, base Provost Marshal Lt. Col. Edwin Easley admitted to researcher Kevin Randle that they held Brazel at the base for several days.[86] Frank Joyce said the story Brazel told him after the news conference Brazel appeared at was different from the original story he had told Joyce when Brazel first reported to Sheriff Wilcox. “I remember him changing the story. …I told him, what you’re saying is not what you were saying the other night. [He admitted] that he had been told to come in or else. …He told me what they were going to do to us. …He was really scared. …[Brazel said] ‘You’re not going to tell them anything, are you?’” Joyce promised he wouldn’t. Brazel said he had to tell the new story or “it would go hard on him.” [87] Brazel's son Bill and various neighbors said Brazel also complained bitterly about his treatment by the military afterwards.


Lydia Sleppy (see above) was one of the first witnesses to claim the government tried to conceal what happened. She was a Teletype operator working at an Albuquerque radio station in 1947. She said that when she tried to transmit a phoned-in reporter's story of the crashed flying saucer and seeing an object like a smashed dishpan at the Brazel ranch, the FBI cut it off and ordered that they cease transmission.[88]

Lt. Walter Haut, Roswell public information officer, in his 2002 affidavit claimed an elaborate coverup was carried out: "On Tuesday morning, July 8, I would attend the regularly scheduled staff meeting at 7:30 a.m. Besides Blanchard, Marcel, CIC Capt. Sheridan Cavitt [names other senior officers], and from Carswell AAF in Fort Worth, Texas, Blanchard's boss, Brig. Gen. Roger Ramey and his chief of staff, Col. Thomas J. Dubose were also in attendance. The main topic of discussion was reported by Marcel and Cavitt regarding an extensive debris field in Lincoln County... A preliminary briefing was provided by Blanchard about the second site approx. 40 miles (64 km) north of town. ...One of the main concerns discussed at the meeting was whether we should go public or not with the discovery. Gen. Ramey proposed a plan, which I believe originated with his bosses at the Pentagon. Attention needed to be diverted from the more important site north of town by acknowledging the other location. Too many civilians were already involved and the press already was informed. I was not completely informed how this would be accomplished. At approximately 9:30 a.m. Col. Blanchard phoned my office and dictated the press release of having in our possession a flying disc, coming from a ranch northwest of Roswell, and Marcel flying the material to higher headquarters..." In addition, Haut stated that he "was aware two separate teams would return to each site months later for periodic searches for any remaining evidence." [89]

Major Jesse Marcel, Roswell intelligence officer, was ordered to Fort Worth to show Gen. Roger Ramey recovered crash materials. In one interview, he said a photo was taken of him with the real debris, but then everything was removed and other material substituted for subsequent press photos. He then claimed that the original debris was in the photos, but covered by paper to shield it from the press.

"The stuff in that one photo was pieces of the actual stuff we had found. It was not a staged photo. Later, they cleared out our wreckage and substituted some of their own. They then allowed more photos. Those photos were taken while the actual wreckage was on its way to Wright Field." [90]
"[referring to photo of Ramey with weather balloon] "That's a fake. ...What you see there is nothing but a piece of brown paper that I put over [the real debris] so that the news media couldn't get a picture of what I had. [I covered the real stuff, including in the photo of me you are showing. Ramey told me] 'Just don't say anything. Don't show anything.' ...[Ramey] claimed that it was fragments of a weather balloon. ...I knew it wasn't a weather balloon, and Ramey knew it wasn't a weather balloon. They had the picture made strictly for the press..." [91]
"To get them [the press] off my back, I told them we were recovering a downed weather balloon. I was told later that a military team from my base was sent to rake the entire area." [92]

Brigadier General Thomas Dubose, chief of staff to Gen. Ramey (and both of whom appear in press photos with weather balloon in Ramey's office), said in an affidavit: "The material shown in the photographs taken in Maj. Gen. Ramey's office was a weather balloon. The weather balloon explanation for the material was a cover story to divert the attention of the press." In several interviews, like Marcel, he indicated they substituted material they had brought in from elsewhere for the real debris, which he said even he was never allowed to see because of all the secrecy. He said Deputy Chief of the Strategic Air Command, General Clements McMullen ordered him by phone to start a coverup. Several days before the press photos were taken, Dubose said McMullen also ordered a shipment of debris from Roswell to Washington by "colonel courier," and subsequently was flown on to Wright Field for analysis. McMullen ordered absolute secrecy, said Dubose, and said it was so secret it was "beyond top secret." Dubose was not to discuss this with anybody. [1]

"[Gen.] McMullen said, Look, why don't you come up with something, anything you can use to get the press off our back? So we came up with this weather balloon story. Somebody got one and we ran it up a couple of hundred feet and dropped it to make it look like it crashed, and that's what we used." [93]
"Actually, it was a cover story, the balloon part of it... Somebody cooked up the idea as a cover story ...we'll use this weather balloon. ...We were told this is the story that is to be given to the press, and that is it, and anything else, forget it. …McMullen told me, ‘You are not to discuss this… this is more than top secret… it’s beyond that. It’s within my priority as deputy to George Kenney, and he in turn responsible to the President, this is the highest priority you can exhibit. And you will say nothing.’”[94]

Brigadier General Arthur Exon, former commanding officer at Wright-Patterson AFB, stated, "I know that at the time the sightings happened, it was to General Ramey [...] and he, along with the people at Roswell, decided to change the story while they got their act together and got the information into the Pentagon and into the president." Also, he said, "all these guys at the top of government" (such as Air Force Chief of Staff Carl Spaatz and Secretary of the Air Force Stuart Symington) ...They were the ones who knew the most about Roswell, New Mexico. They were involved in what to do about the residue from that." [95]

Moon-walker and Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell has made various public statements about the reality of Roswell: "Make no mistake, Roswell happened. I've seen secret files which show the government knew about it—but decided not to tell the public. I wasn't convinced about the existence of aliens until I started talking to the military old-timers who were there at the time of Roswell. The more government documentation on aliens I was told about, the more convinced I became."[96] Mitchell has also spoken about bodies: "A few insiders know the truth [...] and are studying the bodies that have been discovered." Mitchell added a cabal of insiders stopped briefing Presidents after Kennedy.[97]


  1. ^ a b "RAAF Captures Flying Saucer on Ranch in Roswell Region". Roswell Daily Record. July 8, 1947. p. 1. Retrieved February 9, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d Booth, Billy. "1947—Roswell UFO Crash". About.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  3. ^ Jaroff, Leon (June 23, 1997). "Did Aliens Really Land?". Time. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Roswell UFO Part 1 of 1". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Berliner & Friedman 2010, p. xiv
  6. ^ "Roswell UFO Part 1 of 1". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved February 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Interview with W.W. 'Mac' Brazel". The Roswell Files. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  8. ^ Saler & Moore 1997, p. 6
  9. ^ Berlitz & Moore 1988, p. 96
  10. ^ Pflock 1995, p. 169
  11. ^ Randle & Schmitt 1991, p. 52
  12. ^ Berlitz & Moore 1988, pp. 72–74
  13. ^ Pflock 1995, p. 162
  14. ^ Weaver & McAndrew 1995, Appendices 17–18
  15. ^ Pflock 1995, p. 165
  16. ^ Shirkey 1999, pp. 72–73
  17. ^ "Affidavit of Robert Smith". Roswell Proof. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  18. ^ Randle & Schmitt 1991, p. 72
  19. ^ Berlitz & Moore 1980, p. 36
  20. ^ Weaver & McAndrew 1995, Appendix 30
  21. ^ "Look Magazine 1967 Roswell". Roswell Proof. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  22. ^ Pflock 2000, pp. 73–4
  23. ^ Friedman & Berliner 1992, pp. 90–96
  24. ^ Randle & Schmitt (1994) p. 13; Randle (1995), pp. 38–39.
  25. ^ Carey & Schmitt 2007, pp. 136–139
  26. ^ Carey & Schmitt 2007, pp. 130–132
  27. ^ Friedman & Berliner 1992, pp. 103–105
  28. ^ Randle & Scmitt 1994, pp. 7–8
  29. ^ a b c "Roswell Theory Revived by Deathbed Confession". The Sunday Telegraph. July 1, 2007. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  30. ^ Berlitz & Moore 1980, p. 72
  31. ^ a b Booth, Billy. "Affidavit of Walter G. Haut". About.com. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  32. ^ a b "Dead Airman's Affidavit: Roswell Aliens Were Real". Fox News. July 3, 2007. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  33. ^ Houran & Randle 2002, p. 47
  34. ^ Houran & Randle 2002, p. 49
  35. ^ Rudiak, David (January 23, 2011). "Descriptions of Roswell Crash Debris by Civilian and Military Witnesses". Roswell Proof. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  36. ^ Randle 1995, pp. 142–149
  37. ^ Madson interview report by Anthony Bragalia; second site
  38. ^ June Crain interview and documents of Wright-Patterson employment
  39. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 129
  40. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 130
  41. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 199
  42. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 100-101
  43. ^ San Diego Union-Tribune, Oct. 26, 2007, North County Times, Sept. 30, 2007
  44. ^ Henderson
  45. ^ Kevin Randle, “The Roswell Encyclopedia,” 2000, pp. 102–104.
  46. ^ Randle (1997), p. 29.
  47. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 198
  48. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 203
  49. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 148-165
  50. ^ Lovekin’s testimony at http://www.roswellproof.com/Lovekin.html
  51. ^ Randle & Schmitt (1994), p. 142, 212.
  52. ^ Randle and Schmitt (1994), p. 174; cited at http://members.aol.com/TPrinty/milmen.html
  53. ^ a b Speigel, Lee (July 11, 2012). "Roswell UFO Was Not of This Earth and There Were ET Cadavers: Ex-CIA Agent Says". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  54. ^ a b Cox, Billy (February 5, 2013). "Brandon's Roswell Claims New to Gates". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  55. ^ Hastings 2008, pp. 52–55
  56. ^ Hastings 2008, pp. 510–512
  57. ^ Randle, Kevin (August 30, 2008). "Blanchard, Lytle and Roswell". Blogspot. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  58. ^ Dennis
  59. ^ Randle & Schmitt (1994), 22-24; Carey & Schmitt, 86-90
  60. ^ Tim Shawcross, The Roswell File, 1997, 41-45
  61. ^ Shirkey affidavit at http://www.roswellproof.com/Shirkey.html
  62. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 203-207; UFO Magazine
  63. ^ Friedman & Berliner, pp. 87–88
  64. ^ Randle 1995, pp. 29–38
  65. ^ Sleppy affidavit at http://www.roswellproof.com/sleppy.html
  66. ^ Randle & Schmitt (1994), p. 173; http://members.aol.com/TPrinty/crash.html
  67. ^ Friedman & Berliner, "Crash at Corona," 1992, 76-77
  68. ^ Pflock (2001), 122. Pflock explains that Joyce said nothing about any bodies during the recorded interview, and only mentioned the Brazel "little green men" conversation to Moore as he was leaving. Moore wrote this up in his notes afterward, but erroneously attributed the conversation to Whitmore on his deathbed.
  69. ^ Pflock (2001), pp. 122–123
  70. ^ Carey & Schmitt, pp. 46–47, 53
  71. ^ Pflock, 46
  72. ^ Bragalia report on fireman interview;second site
  73. ^ Dugger affidavit at http://www.roswellproof.com/Dugger.html
  74. ^ Carey & Schmitt, 119-122
  75. ^ Dennis affidavit and drawing at http://www.roswellproof.com/dennis.html; http://members.aol.com/TPrinty/Dennis.html
  76. ^ Dennis affidavit at http://www.roswellproof.com/Dennis.html; http://members.aol.com/TPrinty/Dennis.html
  77. ^ affidavit in Randle (1995), p. 182 ; Randle & Schmitt (1994) p.89, , cited at http://members.aol.com/TPrinty/RagRowe.html
  78. ^ Cahill affidavit in Randle (1995), p. 175
  79. ^ Dugger affidavit at http://www.roswellproof.com/Dugger.html; http://www.qsl.net/w5www/roswell.html
  80. ^ Letter to Robert Shirkey, in Shirkey, p. 96.
  81. ^ Tulk affidavit in Pflock (2001), p. 287
  82. ^ Roberts’ affidavit at http://roswellproof.homestead.com/Roberts.html
  83. ^ Berlitz & Moore (1980), p. 98
  84. ^ Randle & Schmitt (1994), pp. 65–66; Pflock (2001) pp. 245–248
  85. ^ Pflock (2001), p. 97
  86. ^ A Different Perspective: Edwin Easley and Roswell
  87. ^ ibid, pp. 69–70.
  88. ^ Sleppy affidavit at http://www.roswellproof.com/sleppy.html; http://members.aol.com/TPrinty/crash.html
  89. ^ Carey & Schmitt, pp. 215–217
  90. ^ Berlitz & Moore, p. 75
  91. ^ From transcript of Linda Corley interview with Marcel, May 5, 1981
  92. ^ 1979 interviews by Leonard Stringfield
  93. ^ Reporter Billy Cox interview, Florida Today, 11/24/91, requoted in "Beyond Top Secret" by Timothy Good, p. 465
  94. ^ Randle and Schmitt (1991), p. 166; recorded interview, portions of recorded quotes at http://www.roswellproof.com/dubose.html#anchor_14
  95. ^ Randle & Schmitt (1991 & 1994), (Based on phone and personal interviews from July 1989 - July 1990), cited at http://www.roswellproof.com/exon.html
  96. ^ Earls, John (October 10, 1998). "Scientist-Astronaut Edgar Mitchell Reaffirms ET Visits To Earth Are Real". The People. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  97. ^ Moore, Waveney (February 18, 2004). "Astronaut: We've had visitors". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 


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