In British English, wog is an offensive racial slur usually applied to Middle Eastern and South Asian peoples. In Australian English, wog is a term used in jest or as a racial slur for people from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean region of the Middle East.
The origin of the term is unclear. It was first noted by lexicographer F.C. Bowen in 1929, in his Sea Slang: a dictionary of the old-timers’ expressions and epithets, where he defines wogs as "lower class Babu shipping clerks on the Indian coast." Many dictionaries say "wog" derives from the golliwogg, a blackface minstrel doll character from a children's book published in 1895, or from pollywog, a maritime term for someone who has not crossed the equator.
Duane Clarridge, a former CIA officer who spent considerable time in countries which had been a part of the British Empire, asserts that "wog" originally meant "worthy oriental gentleman", and was not, at first, intended to be derogatory:
In the nineteenth century it was a genteel euphemism for Indians with English manners and a quasi-British social status, but it quickly became derogatory. By the time of Lawrence of Arabia, it was the British way of cursing anything and everything east of the Channel. I believe it was Alec Waugh who said, "The wogs begin in Calais," meaning that inexplicable (and inferior) non-Anglo-Saxon behaviors start to manifest themselves as soon as one crosses the Strait of Dover.
It's possible, however, that suggestions that the word is an acronym for "worthy oriental gentleman", "wily oriental gentleman", "working on government service", or similar, may be examples of false etymology.
Use in British English
"Wog" in the UK is a derogatory and racially offensive slang word referring to a dark-skinned or olive-skinned person, usually from the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, other parts of Asia such as the East Indies, or the Mediterranean area.
The saying "The wogs begin at Calais" (implying that everyone who is not British is a wog) appears to date from the First World War, but was popularised by George Wigg, Labour MP for Dudley, in 1949 when in a parliamentary debate concerning the Burmese, Wigg shouted at the Conservative benches, "The Honourable Gentleman and his friends think they are all 'wogs'. Indeed, the Right Honourable Member for Woodford [i.e. Winston Churchill] thinks that the 'wogs' begin at Calais."
Use in Australian English
In Australia, the term 'wog' refers to residents of Southern European, Eastern European, and Middle Eastern ethnicity or appearance. The slur became widely diffused with an increase in immigration from Europe, mainly Italy, Greece, Malta, Poland, Croatia, and Ukraine, after the Second World War. These new arrivals were perceived by the majority population as contrasting with the larger predominant Anglo Protestant/Anglo-Australian/Anglo-Celtic Australian culture. The term expanded to include not just European peoples in general, but also immigrants from the Mediterranean region of the Middle East.
Today, "wog" is used particularly in places in Australia with substantial Southern European, Eastern European, and Middle Eastern populations, mainly Sydney and Melbourne. As with other slang and prima facie profanity used in contemporary Australian English, the term "wog" may be employed either aggressively or affectionately within differing context.
In Australian English, "wog" can also be used as a slang word for an illness such as a common cold or influenza as in "I'm coming down with a wog". Such usage is not derogatory.
In the media
More recently, Southern European-Australian performing artists have taken ownership of the term "wog", defusing its original pejorative nature—the popular 1980s stage show Wogs Out of Work created by Nick Giannopoulos and Simon Palomares was an early example. The production was followed on television with Acropolis Now, starring Giannopoulos, Palomares, George Kapiniaris and Mary Coustas, and films The Wog Boy and Wog Boy 2: Kings of Mykonos and parodies such as those of Santo Cilauro (Italian), Eric Bana (Croatian-German), Vince Colosimo (Italian), Nick Giannopoulos (Greek), Frank Lotito (Italian), Mary Coustas (Greek) and SBS Television's offbeat Pizza TV series have continued this change in Australian cultural history—with some even classifying a genre of 'wogsploitation' of pop-culture products being created by and for a proudly "wog" market. Recent works of the genre have been used by Australians of non-English speaking backgrounds to assert ethnic identity, rather than succumb to ethnic stereotype. Upon the release of Wog Boy 2, Giannopoulos discussed the contemporary use of the term "wog" in the Australian context:
I think by defusing the word 'wog' we've shown our maturity and our great ability to adapt and just laugh things off, you know... When I first came [to Greece] and I started trying to explain to them why we got called 'wog' they'd get really angry about it, you know. They were, "Why? Why they say this about the Greek people?" You know? But then when they see what we've done with it—and this is the twist—that we've turned it into a term of endearment, they actually really get into that...
Thus, in contemporary Australia, the term "wog" may, in certain contexts, be viewed as a "nickname" rather than a pejorative term—akin to the nicknames ascribed within Australian English to other historically significant cultural groupings such as the English ("Poms"), the Americans ("Yanks") and New Zealanders ("Kiwis").
Use in Canada
In Canadian military slang used by combat arms units (that is, front line fighting forces), it is a derogatory term for any rear echelon personnel and those who are not a member of the combat arms.
Use in the United States
Duane Clarridge, a former CIA officer, explained that the term "wog factor" was used by the CIA "to acknowledge that the motivations that shape decision-making in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent are very different from our own."
The word "wog" is used by Scientologists to refer to non-Scientologists. In her 2013 account of growing up in Scientology, Jenna Miscavige Hill writes,
"[We] had been led to believe the outside world was filled with ignorant people whom we called wogs, short for 'Well and Orderly Gentlemen.' From what we were taught, WOGS were completely unenlightened; after we'd been trained in auditing and Scientology, it would be our job to 'clear' them. Wogs were to be avoided because they were unaware of what was really going on, and their unawareness was reflected in their shallow priorities. Wogs liked to ask a lot of questions. We were led to believe that they would find our lifestyle alarming, so we had to be careful that, when speaking to them, we spoke in terms they could understand."
From a 2004 Church of Scientology magazine: "I arrived at Saint Hill shy, introverted and somewhat out of valence. I had been working at a wog job, and I knew my priorities had to change."
Scientology's founder L. Ron Hubbard defined wog as a "common, everyday garden-variety humanoid ... He 'is' a body. [He] doesn't know he's there, etc. He isn't there as a spirit at all. He is not operating as a thetan."
L. Ron Hubbard employed the term in his lectures and writings. Since wog is not in general use in American English, Hubbard may have picked it up during his period of service as a US naval officer during World War II (1941–1945) or in England, where he lived from 1953 to 1966.
- "'Golliwog' is not connected with 'wog'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 5 February 2009.
- Clarridge, Duane (August 13, 2002). A Spy For All Seasons: My Life in the CIA. Scibner. p. 105. ISBN 978-0743245364.
- David Wilton, Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends, Oxford University Press, 2008
- "Wog" at WordOrigins.org. Retrieved 18 October 2014
- Hansard, House of Commons 5th series, vol. 467 col 2845.
- e.g. bastard and cunt
- Australian National University, "Meanings and origins of Australian words and idioms". Retrieved 22 March 2015
- "Wogsploitation makes its mark in mainstream". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 May 2003.
- Clark, Andrew (2006-10-13). "A bad word made good". The Guardian (London).
- Jessica Miscavige Hill with Lisa Pulitzer, Beyond Belief: My Secret Life Inside Scientology And My Harrowing Escape, William Morrow, New York, 2013, p. 50
- The Auditor UK #318 June 2004 p5
- Saint Hill Briefing Course-82 6611C29
- "We're making a new [society]. So let's skip the approval button from a lot of wogs and settle down to work to make new people and better people." — Hubbard Communications Office Policy Letter 26 May 1961
|Look up wog in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|