Military Information Services (Poland)
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Polish Wikipedia. (March 2011)|
|Wojskowe Służby Informacyjne|
Emblem of the Military Information Services
|Preceding agencies||Second Directorate for Intelligence and Counter-intelligence
Second Directorate of General Staff of the Polish Army
Internal Military Service
|Superseding agency||Military Intelligence Service
Military Counter-intelligence Service
|Jurisdiction||Polish Armed Forces|
|Parent department||Ministry of Defense|
Military Information Services (Wojskowe Służby Informacyjne, or WSI) was a common name for the Polish military intelligence and counter-intelligence agency. The agency was created in 1990 after the Revolutions of 1989 ended the Communist regime as a merger between the former Communist agencies Internal Military Service (Wojskowa Służba Wewnętrzna, or WSW) and the Second Directorate of General Staff of the Polish Army. The combined agency was originally known as the Second Directorate for Intelligence and Counter-intelligence (Zarząd II Wywiadu i Kontrwywiadu); it was renamed to WSI in 1991. At first, all commanding and upper-level officers—and most of the employees—had direct personal and career links with the former Communist regimes of Poland and the Soviet Union.
In 1990, the Second Directorate of General Staff of the Polish Army was joined with military counter-intelligence to form the WSW. That merger combined the intelligence and counter-intelligence agencies under one structure, the Second Directorate for Intelligence and Counter-intelligence. In 1991, the Second Directorate was transformed into the WSI. WSI was responsible for military counter-intelligence and security activities in Poland.
WSI was bound by law to shield vital state information for the newly independent Poland, under the direct control and management of the Ministry of Defense (Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej). WSI was also intended to be Poland's liaison with the intelligence services of other NATO countries.
WSI was to investigate and counteract threats to Poland's defense forces and vital defense information. It also regulated arms, explosives, equipment, licenses, etc.
In 2006, WSI was liquidated and replaced by two independent military intelligence services, the Military Counter-intelligence Service (Służba Kontrwywiadu Wojskowego) and the Military Intelligence Service (Służba Wywiadu Wojskowego). Prime Minister Jarosław Kaczyński appointed conservative politician Antoni Macierewicz as the lead liquidator of WSI.
The Sejm allowed President Lech Kaczyński's administration to publish the Macierewicz Report, a 164-page document detailing the extralegal activities of the WSI that lead to its liquidation. The report contains information about alleged misconduct by WSI soldiers and employees. Many of those were later proven to be false; to date, the Polish Ministry of Defense has paid over million PLN in compensation for Macierewicz's slander.
Although first phase (i.e. lawful frames of liquidation made in 2006/2007) is perceived by most of Polish politicians as successful; however new formation, that was being made by process of "verification" was nothing less than incomplete. Polish media sources inform about ongoing, since 2007 (lawmaking) and 2009 (start of implementation), next phases of reforms towards "professionalization" in Polish army, which, according to politicians, is the biggest need of breakthrough in history of army in Poland also bigger in comparison with the liquidation of WSI and is spread for several years until 2018, but there are many public voices of opposition about problems in those reforms in spite of verification of WSI. Lack of professionals, worse results of new services in 2010 (see for instance: 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash), and other, cause - in Poland - diminishing, of past homeland issues concerning WSI, for instance by new Polish President.
- (Polish) Głosowanie nad przyjęciem w całości projektu ustawy o Służbie Kontrwywiadu Wojskowego oraz Służbie Wywiadu Wojskowego, w brzmieniu proponowanym przez Komisję Nadzwyczajną May 24, 2006
- (Polish) Jerzy Szmajdziński: w likwidacji WSI chodzi o przeszłość, February 23, 2006
- (Polish) Miodowicz: Sojusznicy NATO są zaniepokojeni April 13, 2007
- (Polish) Sejm decided about liquidation of WSI
- Professional skills needed for recruitment were lowered in 2009/2010 in comparison with earlier periods, source: gazeta.pl (Polish)
- (Polish) http://sopoty.salon24.pl/190315,komorowski-ma-glos-dukaczewskiego
- (Polish) Komorowski: I'm going to withdraw the next Lech Kaczyński's motions.