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Wolf Biermann, 2008
|Birth name||Karl Wolf Biermann|
15 November 1936 |
|Genres||Folk music, political ballads|
|Occupations||singer-songwriter, poet, and dissident|
Early life 
Biermann was born in Hamburg, Germany. His mother, Emma (née Dietrich), was a Communist Party activist, and his father, Dagobert Biermann, worked on the Hamburg docks. Biermann's father was Jewish and a member of the German Resistance.
Biermann was one of the few children of workers who attended the Heinrich-Hertz-Gymnasium (high school) in Hamburg. After the Second World War, he became a member of the Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend, FDJ) and in 1950, he represented the Federal Republic of Germany at the FDJ's first national meeting.
East Germany 
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On finishing school at the age of 17, Biermann decided to emigrate from West to East Germany where he believed he could live out his Communist ideals. Until 1955 he lived at a boarding school near Schwerin. Then he began studying political economics at the Humboldt University of Berlin. From 1957 to 1959 he was an assistant director at the Berliner Ensemble. At university he changed courses to study philosophy and mathematics.
In 1960 Biermann met composer Hanns Eisler, who adopted the young artist as a protégé. Eisler used his influence with the East German cultural elite to promote the songwriter's career, but his death in 1962 deprived Biermann of his mentor and protector. In 1961 Biermann formed the Arbeiter- und Studententheater (Workers' and Students' Theater). It produced a show called Berliner Brautgang documenting the building of the Berlin wall that was shut down by the authorities in 1963. Although a committed communist, Biermann's nonconformist views soon alarmed the East German establishment. In 1963 he was refused membership in the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED). Two years later, publicly denounced as a 'class traitor', he was forbidden to publish his music or perform in public. To break this isolation, artists like Joan Baez and many others visited him at his home during the World Youth Festival in 1973. Karsten D. Voigt, chairman of the West German Socialdemocratic Youth (Juso) protested against the suppression of the freedom of opinion and information by the state security.
Deprivation of citizenship 
In 1976 the SED Politbüro decided to strip Biermann of his citizenship while he was on an officially authorized tour in West Germany. It later turned out that the Politbüro had decided to do so before the first concert in Cologne, even though this concert was used as the official justification afterwards. Biermann's exile provoked protests by leading East German intellectuals, including actor Armin Mueller-Stahl and novelist Christa Wolf. In 1977 he was joined in West Germany by his wife at the time, actress Eva-Maria Hagen and her daughter Catharina (Nina Hagen).
Return to the west 
Now living in the West, Biermann continued his musical career, criticizing East Germany's Stalinist policies. He was able to perform publicly again in East Germany in late 1989 during the Wende that eventually toppled the Communist government. In 1998 he received a German national prize. He supported the 1999 NATO Kosovo War and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Selected works 
- Wolf Biermann zu Gast bei Wolfgang Neuss (LP, 1965)
- Wolf Biermann: "Chauseestraße 131" (LP, 1969): recorded in his home in East Berlin, published in the West. Possessing home-recording charm, one can hear the noises from the streets. The German texts are very sarcastic, ironic and to the point. This LP was recorded with a recorder smuggled in from West Germany and the title of the album was his address at the time, letting the political police know exactly who and where he was at the time.
- Wolf Biermann: "aah-ja!" (LP, 1974)
- Article in "Der Spiegel": Brachiale Friedensliebe
- Some of this article is translated from the German article of 21 January 2006.
- Official Website
- Wolf Biermann: Bio, excerpts, interviews and articles in the archives of the Prague Writers' Festival
- Biermann Interview
- Biography in German
- Wolf Biermann singing Hasta Siempre
- The ghosts are leaving the shadows on "The Life of the others", a film about the Stasi, the East German Secret Police. Biermann comments on its closeness to reality.