Cover of the first edition
|Author||Jiang Rong (pseudonym)|
|Original title||狼图腾 (Láng Túténg)|
|Language||Chinese and has been translated into more than 30 languages|
|Publisher||Changjiang Literature and Arts Publishing House|
|Media type||Print (Paperback)|
|LC Class||PL2942.3.A44 L36 2004|
Wolf Totem is a 2004 Chinese semi-autobiographical novel about the experiences of a young student from Beijing who finds himself sent down to the countryside of Inner Mongolia in 1967, at the height of China's Cultural Revolution. The author, Lü Jiamin, wrote the book under the pseudonym Jiang Rong; his true identity did not become publicly known until several years after the book's publication.
Wolf Totem is narrated by the main character named Chen Zhen, a young Chinese man in his late twenties who, like the author, left his native home country Beijing, China, to work in Inner Mongolia during the Cultural Revolution. Through descriptions of folk traditions, rituals, and life on the steppe, Wolf Totem compares the culture of the ethnic Mongolian nomads and the Han Chinese farmers in the area, praising the "freedom, independence, respect, unyielding before hardship, teamwork and competition" of the former and criticizing the "Confucian-inspired culture" of the latter, which the author referred to as "sheep-like". The book condemns the agricultural collectivisation imposed on the nomads by the settlers, and the ecological disasters it caused, and ends with a 60-page "call to action" disconnected from the main thread of the novel.
The author states that he was inspired to begin writing Wolf Totem by an accident: he ignored the advice of the clan chief of the group of nomads with whom he was staying, and accidentally stumbled across a pack of wolves. Terrified, he watched as the wolves chased a herd of sheep off a cliff, then dragged their corpses into a cave. From then on, fascinated by the wolves, he began to study them and their relationship with the nomads more closely, and even attempted to domesticate one.
Wolf Totem exhibited strong sales almost immediately after its release, selling 50,000 copies in two weeks; pirated editions began to appear just five days after the book first appeared on shelves. As of March 2006, it had sold over four million copies in China, and had also been broadcast in audiobook format in twelve parts during prime time on China Radio International. Jiang also released a children's edition of the book in July 2005, cut down from the 650 pages (540,000 characters) of the original (including a 60-page, 50,000 character "call to action" at the end) to roughly one-third the length.
Despite the author's refusal to participate in any marketing activities, deals for adaptations of the novel into other media and translations into other languages have set various financial records. Overseas, Penguin Books paid US$100,000 for the worldwide English rights, setting a record for the highest amount ever paid for the translation rights to a Chinese book; an unspecified Tokyo publisher paid US$300,000 for the rights to publish a manga adaptation, and Bertelsmann bought the German-language rights for €20,000. The author himself is looking forward to the translations; in his own words, he believes that "in the West they may understand [my book] more fully" than in China.
A number of other writers took advantage of the author's anonymity to write fake sequels to Wolf Totem, including two books both entitled Wolf Totem 2, as well as the 250,000-character long Great Wolf of the Plains all with the imprint of the Changjiang Arts Publishing House. As a result, in April 2007, he issued a statement which denounced all such "sequels" as fraudulent; he indicated that he was doing research for another book, but would not be publishing anything new in the short term.
Awards and critical reaction
Despite Jiang's stated refusal to attend any awards ceremonies or participate in any publicity activities, Wolf Totem has received more than 10 literary prizes, as well as other recognitions, including:
- Named as one of the "Ten Best Chinese-language Books of 2004" by international newsweekly Yazhou Zhoukan
- Nominee for the 2nd "21st Century Ding Jun Semiannual Literary Prize" in 2005
- Recipient of the first Man Asian Literary Prize, November 2007
However, Wolf Totem has also been the subject of several criticisms. German sinologist Wolfgang Kubin described the book as "fascist" for its depiction and treatment of the farmers. Later, Pankaj Mishra, reviewing the English translation for The New York Times, described Jiang's writing as "full of set-piece didacticism."
Editions and translations
- First edition: Jiang, Rong (April 2004), 《狼图腾》, Wuchang, Hubei: Changjiang Arts Publishing House, ISBN 7-5354-2730-8
- Traditional Chinese editions:
- Children's editions:
- Simplified Chinese: Jiang, Rong (July 2005), An Boshun (editor), ed., 《小狼小狼》 [Little Wolfie], Wuchang, Hubei: Changjiang Literature and Arts Publishing House, ISBN 7-5354-3067-8
- Traditional Chinese: Jiang, Rong (December 2005), An, Boshun, ed., 《小狼小狼》 [Little Wolfie], Taipei: Feng Yun Publishing, ISBN 986-146-240-6
- Mongolian editions:
- Korean edition (in 3 parts):
- Jiang, Rong; Song, Hajin (June 2006), 《랑 1: 초원의 바람》 [Wolf 1: Wind on the Plains], Seoul: Dongbang Media, ISBN 89-90488-53-2
- Jiang, Rong; Song, Hajin (June 2006), 《랑 2: 푸른 늑대》 [Wolf 2: The Blue Wolf], Seoul: Dongbang Media, ISBN 89-90488-54-0
- Jiang, Rong; Song, Hajin (June 2006), 《랑 3: 영혼의 부름》 [Wolf 3: The Cry of the Soul], Seoul: Dongbang Media, ISBN 89-90488-55-9
- Japanese edition (in 2 parts):
- Vietnamese edition: Jiang, Rong; Trần, Đình Hiến (translator) (January 2007), Tôtem sói, Công An Nhân Dân, OCLC 225310072
- French edition: Jiang, Rong (31 January 2008), Le totem du loup, Bourin Editeur, ISBN 2-84941-081-0
- English edition: Jiang, Rong; Goldblatt, Howard (translator) (2008-03-27), Wolf Totem, Penguin, ISBN 1-59420-156-0
- Hungarian edition: Jiang, Rong (2008-04-07), Farkastotem, Magvető, ISBN 978-963-142-626-7
- Greek edition: Jiang, Rong; Μπανιά, Χρύσα (translator) (1 June 2008), Το τοτέμ του λύκου, Psichogios, ISBN 978-960-453-080-9
- German edition: Jiang, Rong; Hasselblatt, Karin (translator) (15 December 2008), Der Zorn der Wölfe, Goldmann, ISBN 978-3-442-31108-8
- Serbian edition: Jiang, Rong (2008), Vuciji totem, Alnari, ISBN 978-86-7710-246-3
- Portuguese edition: Casa das Letras (2009), ISBN 978-972-46-1842-5
- Dutch edition: Prometheus, forthcoming.
- Italian edition: Mondadori, forthcoming.
- Hebrew edition: Kinneret, forthcoming.
- Turkish edition: Dogan Kitapcilik, forthcoming.
- Spanish edition: Alfaguara, forthcoming.
- Catalan edition: RBA Libros, forthcoming.
- Russian edition: Mir Knigi, forthcoming.
- Romanian edition: Curtea Veche, forthcoming.
- Slovene edition: Založba Mladinska Knjiga, Volčji totem (October 2009).
- Tamil edition:C Mohan, Onai Kulachinnam (December 2012).
Wolf Totem is a 2015 Chinese-language drama film based on the novel. Directed by French director Jean-Jacques Annaud, the Chinese-French co-production features a Chinese student who is sent to Inner Mongolia to teach shepherds and instead learns about the wolf population, which is under threat by a government apparatchik.
The Beijing Forbidden City Film Corporation initially sought to hire a Chinese director, but filming humans with real wolves was considered too difficult. New Zealand director Peter Jackson was approached, but production did not take place. Annaud, whose 1997 film Seven Years in Tibet is banned in China, was hired despite the history. The film was produced under China Film Group and French-based Reperage. The French director, who had worked with animals on other films, acquired a dozen wolf pups in China and had them trained for several years by a Canadian animal trainer. With a production budget of US$40 million, Annaud filmed Wolf Totem in Inner Mongolia, where the book is set, for over a year.
The film premiered at the European Film Market on February 7, 2015. It is scheduled to be released in China on February 19, 2015, for the start of the Chinese New Year, and in France on February 25, 2015.
- Zhang Chengzhi, a senior of Jiang's at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences who was also sent down to Ujimqin Banner during the Cultural Revolution and rose to fame through his writings about Inner Mongolia
- Tengger, the Mongolian sky-god discussed in the novel
- French, Howard (2005-11-03), "A Novel, by Someone, Takes China by Storm", The New York Times, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Bougon, Francois (2008-03-11), "Chinese ex-prisoner now global literary star", The China Post, retrieved 2008-03-14
- Jiang 2004
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- Spencer, Richard (2005-10-29), "Best-seller urges Chinese to release their inner wolf", The Daily Telegraph, retrieved 2006-04-20
- "姜戎将出《狼图腾》少儿版《小狼小狼》 (Jiang Rong to release Wolf Totem children's version Little Wolfie)", Sina News, 2005-08-10, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Cheng, Ye (2005-06-07), "《指环王》班底助阵特中国电影《狼图腾》 ("Lord of the Rings" team to assist with special effects for Chinese movie Wolf Totem)", Beijing Youth Daily, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Chinese title: 草原狼王. ISBN 7-80701-337-0
- Jiang, Rong (2007-04-12), "姜戎发表郑重声明揭露《狼图腾》伪书 (Jiang Rong issues serious statement denouncing Wolf Totem fakes)", Xinhua News, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Zhang, Hailing (2005-01-16), "2004亞洲週刊十大好書揭曉 (Announcement of Yazhou Zhoukan's 10 Best Chinese Books of 2004", Yazhou Zhoukan, retrieved 2007-04-20
- "第二届"21世纪鼎钧双年文学奖"揭晓 (Announcement of the 2nd '21st Century Ding Jun Semiannual Literary Prize')", Sina News, 2005-04-05, retrieved 2007-04-20
- "Chinese author scoops book prize", BBC News, 2007-11-11, retrieved 2008-03-14
- "德国汉学权威另一只眼看现当代中国文学 (Authoritative German sinologist looks at contemporary Chinese literature with a different eye)", Deutsche Welle, 2006-11-26, retrieved 2007-04-21
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