Cover of the first edition
|Author(s)||Jiang Rong (pseudonym)|
|Original title||狼图腾 (Láng Túténg)|
|Language||Chinese and has been translated into more than 30 languages|
|Publisher||Changjiang Literature and Arts Publishing House|
|Publication date||April 2004|
|Media type||Print (Paperback)|
|LC Classification||PL2942.3.A44 L36 2004|
Wolf Totem is a semi-autobiographical novel about the experiences of a young student from Beijing who finds himself sent down to the countryside of Inner Mongolia in 1967, at the height of China's Cultural Revolution. The author, Lü Jiamin, wrote the book under the pseudonym Jiang Rong; his true identity did not become publicly known until several years after the book's publication.
Wolf Totem is narrated by protagonist Chen Zhen, a young man in his 20s who, like the author, left his native Beijing to work in Inner Mongolia during the Cultural Revolution. Through descriptions of folk traditions, rituals, and life on the steppe, Wolf Totem compares the culture of the ethnic Mongolian nomads and the Han Chinese farmers in the area, praising the "freedom, independence, respect, unyielding before hardship, teamwork and competition" of the former and criticising the "Confucian-inspired culture" of the latter, which the author referred to as "sheeplike". The book condemns the agricultural collectivisation imposed on the nomads by the settlers, and the ecological disasters it caused, and ends with a 60-page "call to action" disconnected from the main thread of the novel.
The author states that he was inspired to begin writing Wolf Totem by an accident: he ignored the advice of the clan chief of the group of nomads with whom he was staying, and accidentally stumbled across a pack of wolves. Terrified, he watched as the wolves chased a herd of sheep off a cliff, then dragged their corpses into a cave. From then on, fascinated by the wolves, he began to study them and their relationship with the nomads more closely, and even attempted to domesticate one.
Wolf Totem exhibited strong sales almost immediately after its release, selling 50,000 copies in two weeks; pirated editions began to appear just five days after the book first appeared on shelves. As of March 2006, it had sold over four million copies in China, and had also been broadcast in audiobook format in twelve parts during prime time on China Radio International. Jiang also released a children's edition of the book in July 2005, cut down from the 650 pages (540,000 characters) of the original (including a 60-page, 50,000 character "call to action" at the end) to roughly one-third the length.
Despite the author's refusal to participate in any marketing activities, deals for adaptations of the novel into other media and translations into other languages have set various financial records. Overseas, Penguin Books paid US$100,000 for the worldwide English rights, setting a record for the highest amount ever paid for the translation rights to a Chinese book; an unspecified Tokyo publisher paid US$300,000 for the rights to publish a manga adaptation, and Bertelsmann bought the German-language rights for €20,000. The author himself is looking forward to the translations; in his own words, he believes that "in the West they may understand [my book] more fully" than in China.
A number of other writers took advantage of the author's anonymity to write fake sequels to Wolf Totem, including two books both entitled Wolf Totem 2, as well as the 250,000-character long Great Wolf of the Plains all with the imprint of the Changjiang Arts Publishing House. As a result, in April 2007, he issued a statement which denounced all such "sequels" as fraudulent; he indicated that he was doing research for another book, but would not be publishing anything new in the short term.
Film adaptation 
In August 2004, the Beijing Forbidden City Film Company (BFCFC) purchased the movie rights to the novel for one million RMB; the Beijing Youth Daily described the movie version as China's highest-budget film as of 2005, and noted that the same special effects team which worked on The Lord of the Rings film trilogy had been contracted to work on the special effects for Wolf Totem. The production team initially had plans to complete the film in time for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. However, BFCFC struggled to find a director to work on the project. BFCFC renewed its rights in 2009, after the English and French editions of Wolf Totem had been published, and eventually settled on French director Jean-Jacques Annaud. Annaud's personal history mirrors that of author Lü and his character Chen: as a young man, he also left his home city to serve his country in a rural area, in his case for military service in Africa. He also has experience filming large wild animals such as tigers and bears, making him well-suited for the project. The scriptwriter Lü Wei previously worked on such major domestic films as Farewell My Concubine, To Live, and the Mongolian-themed Tuya's Marriage.
Awards and critical reaction 
Despite Jiang's stated refusal to attend any awards ceremonies or participate in any publicity activities, Wolf Totem has received more than 10 literary prizes, as well as other recognitions, including:
- Named as one of the "Ten Best Chinese-language Books of 2004" by international newsweekly Yazhou Zhoukan
- Nominee for the 2nd "21st Century Ding Jun Semiannual Literary Prize" in 2005
- Recipient of the first Man Asian Literary Prize, November 2007
However, Wolf Totem has also been the subject of several criticisms. German sinologist Wolfgang Kubin described the book as "fascist" for its depiction and treatment of the farmers. Later, Pankaj Mishra, reviewing the English translation for The New York Times, described Jiang's writing as "full of set-piece didacticism."
Editions and translations 
- First edition: Jiang, Rong (April 2004), 《狼图腾》, Wuchang, Hubei: Changjiang Arts Publishing House, ISBN 7-5354-2730-8
- Traditional Chinese editions:
- Children's editions:
- Simplified Chinese: Jiang, Rong (July 2005), in An Boshun (editor), 《小狼小狼》 [Little Wolfie], Wuchang, Hubei: Changjiang Literature and Arts Publishing House, ISBN 7-5354-3067-8
- Traditional Chinese: Jiang, Rong (December 2005), in An, Boshun, 《小狼小狼》 [Little Wolfie], Taipei: Feng Yun Publishing, ISBN 986-146-240-6
- Mongolian editions:
- Korean edition (in 3 parts):
- Jiang, Rong; Song, Hajin (June 2006), 《랑 1: 초원의 바람》 [Wolf 1: Wind on the Plains], Seoul: Dongbang Media, ISBN 89-90488-53-2
- Jiang, Rong; Song, Hajin (June 2006), 《랑 2: 푸른 늑대》 [Wolf 2: The Blue Wolf], Seoul: Dongbang Media, ISBN 89-90488-54-0
- Jiang, Rong; Song, Hajin (June 2006), 《랑 3: 영혼의 부름》 [Wolf 3: The Cry of the Soul], Seoul: Dongbang Media, ISBN 89-90488-55-9
- Japanese edition (in 2 parts):
- Vietnamese edition: Jiang, Rong; Trần, Đình Hiến (translator) (January 2007), Tôtem sói, Công An Nhân Dân, OCLC 225310072
- French edition: Jiang, Rong (31 January 2008), Le totem du loup, Bourin Editeur, ISBN 2-84941-081-0
- English edition: Jiang, Rong; Goldblatt, Howard (translator) (2008-03-27), Wolf Totem, Penguin, ISBN 1-59420-156-0
- Hungarian edition: Jiang, Rong (2008-04-07), Farkastotem, Magvető, ISBN 978-963-142-626-7
- Greek edition: Jiang, Rong; Μπανιά, Χρύσα (translator) (1 June 2008), Το τοτέμ του λύκου, Psichogios, ISBN 978-960-453-080-9
- German edition: Jiang, Rong; Hasselblatt, Karin (translator) (15 December 2008), Der Zorn der Wölfe, Goldmann, ISBN 978-3-442-31108-8
- Serbian edition: Jiang, Rong (2008), Vuciji totem, Alnari, ISBN 978-86-7710-246-3
- Portuguese edition: Editora Sextante, forthcoming.
- Dutch edition: Prometheus, forthcoming.
- Italian edition: Mondadori, forthcoming.
- Hebrew edition: Kinneret, forthcoming.
- Turkish edition: Dogan Kitapcilik, forthcoming.
- Spanish edition: Alfaguara, forthcoming.
- Catalan edition: RBA Libros, forthcoming.
- Russian edition: Mir Knigi, forthcoming.
- Romanian edition: Curtea Veche, forthcoming.
- Slovene edition: Založba Mladinska Knjiga, Volčji totem (October 2009).
See also 
- Zhang Chengzhi, a senior of Jiang's at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences who was also sent down to Ujimqin Banner during the Cultural Revolution and rose to fame through his writings about Inner Mongolia
- Tengger, the Mongolian sky-god discussed in the novel
- French, Howard (2005-11-03), "A Novel, by Someone, Takes China by Storm", The New York Times, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Bougon, Francois (2008-03-11), "Chinese ex-prisoner now global literary star", The China Post, retrieved 2008-03-14
- Jiang 2004
- Kremb, Jürgen (2006-03-21), "A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Beijing's Unwanted Best Seller", Der Spiegel, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Wu, Fei (2004-05-26), "姜戎：用半条命著《狼图腾》 (Jiang Rong: "I spent half my life writing Wolf Totem")", Xinhua News, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Spencer, Richard (2005-10-29), "Best-seller urges Chinese to release their inner wolf", The Daily Telegraph, retrieved 2006-04-20
- "姜戎将出《狼图腾》少儿版《小狼小狼》 (Jiang Rong to release Wolf Totem children's version Little Wolfie)", Sina News, 2005-08-10, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Cheng, Ye (2005-06-07), "《指环王》班底助阵特中国电影《狼图腾》 ("Lord of the Rings" team to assist with special effects for Chinese movie Wolf Totem)", Beijing Youth Daily, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Chinese title: 草原狼王. ISBN 7-80701-337-0
- Jiang, Rong (2007-04-12), "姜戎发表郑重声明揭露《狼图腾》伪书 (Jiang Rong issues serious statement denouncing Wolf Totem fakes)", Xinhua News, retrieved 2007-04-20
- Liao, Danlin (2012-07-19), "A book in film's clothing", Global Times, retrieved 2012-07-20
- Zhang, Hailing (2005-01-16), "2004亞洲週刊十大好書揭曉 (Announcement of Yazhou Zhoukan's 10 Best Chinese Books of 2004", Yazhou Zhoukan, retrieved 2007-04-20
- "第二届"21世纪鼎钧双年文学奖"揭晓 (Announcement of the 2nd '21st Century Ding Jun Semiannual Literary Prize')", Sina News, 2005-04-05, retrieved 2007-04-20
- "Chinese author scoops book prize", BBC News, 2007-11-11, retrieved 2008-03-14
- "德国汉学权威另一只眼看现当代中国文学 (Authoritative German sinologist looks at contemporary Chinese literature with a different eye)", Deutsche Welle, 2006-11-26, retrieved 2007-04-21
- Mishra, Pankaj (2008-05-04), "Call of the Wild (Wolf Totem - Jiang Rong - Book Review)", The New York Times, retrieved 2008-05-04
- Lan, Anh (2007-01-11), "Tôtem Sói", VnExpress.net, retrieved 2009-08-25
- New and forthcoming titles and highlights from the backlist, Australia: Penguin Books, 2007, retrieved 2007-06-14
- "Farkastotem a könyvfesztiválon", Stop, 2008-04-17, retrieved 2008-04-28