Wolof language

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Wolof
Native to Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania
Ethnicity Wolof, Lebou
Native speakers
4.2 million  (2006)[1]
L2 speakers: ?
Latin (Wolof alphabet)
Arabic (Wolofal)
Official status
Regulated by CLAD (Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 wo
ISO 639-2 wol
ISO 639-3 Either:
wol – Wolof
wof – Gambian Wolof
Glottolog wolo1247[2]
Linguasphere 90-AAA
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Wolof (/ˈwlɒf/[3]) is a language of Senegal, the Gambia, and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people. Like the neighbouring languages Serer and Fula, it belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger–Congo language family. Unlike most other languages of Sub-Saharan Africa, Wolof is not a tonal language.

Wolof originated as the language of the Lebou people.[4][5] It is the most widely spoken language in Senegal, spoken natively by the Wolof people (40% of the population) but also by most other Senegalese as a second language[citation needed]. Wolof dialects vary geographically and between rural and urban areas. "Dakar-Wolof", for instance, is an urban mixture of Wolof, French, and Arabic.

"Wolof" is the standard spelling and may refer to the Wolof people or to Wolof culture. Variants include the older French Ouolof and the principally Gambian "Wollof". "Jolof", "jollof", &c. now typically refers either to the former Wolof state or to a common West African rice dish. Now-archaic forms include "Volof" and "Olof".

Wolof words in English are believed to include yam, from Wolof nyami "to eat food", nyam in Barbadian English [6] meaning to eat (also compare Seychellois nyanmnyanm, also meaning to eat).[7]

Geographical distribution[edit]

States of the Wolof Empire

Wolof is spoken by more than 10 million people and about 40 percent (approximately 5 million people) of Senegal's population speak Wolof as their native language. Increased mobility, and especially the growth of the capital Dakar, created the need for a common language: today, an additional 40 percent of the population speak Wolof as a second or acquired language. In the whole region from Dakar to Saint-Louis, and also west and southwest of Kaolack, Wolof is spoken by the vast majority of the people. Typically when various ethnic groups in Senegal come together in cities and towns, they speak Wolof. It is therefore spoken in almost every regional and departmental capital in Senegal. Nevertheless, the official language of Senegal is French.

In the Gambia, about 20–25 percent of the population speak Wolof as a first language, but Wolof has a disproportionate influence because of its prevalence in Banjul, the Gambian capital, where 75 percent of the population use it as a first language. In Serrekunda, the Gambia's largest town, although only a tiny minority are ethnic Wolofs, approximately 70 percent of the population speaks and/or understands Wolof. The official language of the Gambia is English; Mandinka (40 percent), Wolof (10 percent) and Fula (15 percent) are as yet not used in formal education.

In Mauritania, about seven percent (approximately 185,000 people) of the population speak Wolof. There, the language is used only around the southern coastal regions. Mauritania's official language is Arabic; French is used as a lingua franca in addition to Wolof and Arabic.

Classification[edit]

Wolof is one of the Senegambian languages, which are characterized by consonant mutation. It is often said to be closely related to Fulani, because of a misreading by Wilson (1989) of the data in Sapir (1971) that have long been used to classify the Atlantic languages. However, Segerer (2009, 2010) confirms Sapir's findings that Wolof is not close to Fulani; he finds the closest relatives of Wolof are several obscure languages along the Casamance River.[8]

Orthography and pronunciation[edit]

Note: Phonetic transcriptions are printed between square brackets [] following the rules of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

The Latin orthography of Wolof in Senegal was set by government decrees between 1971 and 1985. The language institute "Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar" (CLAD) is widely acknowledged as an authority when it comes to spelling rules for Wolof.

Wolof is most often written in this orthography, in which phonemes have a clear one-to-one correspondence to graphemes.

(A traditional Arabic-based transcription of Wolof called Wolofal dates back to the pre-colonial period and is still used by many people.)

The first syllable of words is stressed; long vowels are pronounced with more time, but are not automatically stressed, as they are in English.

Vowels[edit]

The vowels are as follows:[citation needed]

Vowels
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i i u u
Close-mid e é o ó
mid ə ë
Open-mid ɛ e ɛː ɔ o ɔː
Open a a

There may be an additional low vowel, or this may be confusion with orthographic à.[citation needed]

All vowels may be long (written double) or short.[9] /aː/ is written à before a long (prenasalized or geminate) consonant.

Vowels fall into two harmonizing sets according to ART: i u é ó ë are +ATR, e o a are the −ATR analogues of é ó ë. For example,[10]

Lekk-oon-ngeen /lɛkːɔːnŋɡɛːn/
[eat-PAST-FIN.2pl]
'Y'all ate.'
Dóór-óón-ngéén /doːroːnŋɡeːn/
[hit-PAST-FIN.2pl]
'Y'all hit.'

There are no −ATR analogues of the high vowels i u. They trigger +ATR harmony in suffixes when they occur in a root, but in a suffix they may be transparent to vowel harmony.

The vowels of some suffixes or enclitics do not harmonize with preceding vowels. In most cases following vowels harmonize with them. That is, they reset the harmony, as if they were a separate word. However, when a suffix/clitic contains a high vowel (+ATR) occurs after a −ATR root, any further suffixes harmonize with the root. That is, the +ATR suffix/clitic is "transparent" to vowel harmony. An example is the negative -u- in,

Door-u-ma-leen-fa /dɔːrumalɛːnfa/
[begin-NEG-1sg-3pl-LOC]
'I did not begin them there'

where harmony would predict *door-u-më-léén-fë. That is, i u behave as if they are their own −ATR analogues.

Authors differ in whether they indicate vowel harmony in writing, as well as whether they write clitics as separate words.

Consonants[edit]

Consonants in word-initial position are as follows:[11]

Wolof consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m m n n ɲ ñ ŋ ŋ[12]
Prenasalized stop mb mb nd nd ɲɟ nj ŋɡ ng
Plosive voiced b b d d ɟ j ɡ g
voiceless p p t t c c k k q ʔ
Fricative f f s s x~χ x
Trill r r
Approximant central w w j y
lateral l l

All simple nasals, oral stops apart from q and glottal, and the sonorants l r y w may be geminated, though geminate r only occurs in ideophones.[13][14] (Geminate consonants are written double.) Q is inherently geminate and may occur in initial position; otherwise geminate consonants and consonant clusters, including nt, nc, nk, nq ([ɴq]), are restricted to word-medial and -final position. Of the consonants in the chart above, p d c k do not occur in medial or final position, being replaced by f r s and zero, though geminate pp dd cc kk are common. Phonetic p c k do occur finally, but only as allophones of b j g due to final devoicing.

Minimal pairs of geminates (glosses in French):[15]

nëb 'pourri' [rotten], nëbb 'cacher' [to hide]; dag 'valet' [a valet], dagg 'couper' [to cut]; dëj 'funérailles' [funerals], dëjj 'vulve (injurieux)' [a cunt]; gal 'or blanc', gall 'régurgiter'; gëm 'croire' [to believe], gëmm 'fermer les yeux' [to close one's eyes] ; fen 'mentir' [to lie], fenn 'quelque, nulle part' [somewhere, nowhere]; woñ 'essorer', woññ 'compter' [to count] ; goŋ 'cynocéphale' [a dog-headed ape], goŋŋ 'sorte de lit' [a kind of bed] ; bët 'oeil' [an eye], bëtt 'trouver, percer' [to find]; Jaw (a family name), jaww 'firmament' [heaven]; boy 'prendre feu' [to catch fire], boyy 'être resplendissant'; also fecc 'danser' [to dance], sedd 'froid' [cold], bakkan 'nez' [nose], dëpp 'renverser'

Tones[edit]

Unlike most sub-Saharan African languages, Wolof has no tone. Other non-tonal languages of Africa include Amharic, Swahili and Fula.

Grammar[edit]

Notable characteristics[edit]

Pronoun conjugation instead of verbal conjugation[edit]

In Wolof, verbs are unchangeable words which cannot be conjugated. To express different tenses or aspects of an action, the personal pronouns are conjugated – not the verbs. Therefore, the term temporal pronoun has become established for this part of speech.

Example: The verb dem means "to go" and cannot be changed; the temporal pronoun maa ngi means "I/me, here and now"; the temporal pronoun dinaa means "I am soon / I will soon / I will be soon". With that, the following sentences can be built now: Maa ngi dem. "I am going (here and now)." – Dinaa dem. "I will go (soon)."

Conjugation with respect to aspect instead of tense[edit]

In Wolof, tenses like present tense, past tense, and future tense are just of secondary importance, they even play almost no role. Of crucial importance is the aspect of an action from the speaker's point of view. The most important distinction is whether an action is perfective, i.e., finished, or imperfective, i.e., still going on, from the speaker's point of view, regardless whether the action itself takes place in the past, present, or future. Other aspects indicate whether an action takes place regularly, whether an action will take place for sure, and whether an action wants to emphasize the role of the subject, predicate, or object of the sentence. As a result, conjugation is not done by tenses, but by aspects. Nevertheless, the term temporal pronoun became usual for these conjugated pronouns, although aspect pronoun might be a better term.

Example: The verb dem means "to go"; the temporal pronoun naa means "I already/definitely", the temporal pronoun dinaa means "I am soon / I will soon / I will be soon"; the temporal pronoun damay means "I (am) regularly/usually". Now the following sentences can be constructed: Dem naa. "I go already / I have already gone." – Dinaa dem. "I will go soon / I am just going to go." – Damay dem. "I usually/regularly/normally go."

If the speaker absolutely wants to express that an action took place in the past, this is not done by conjugation, but by adding the suffix -(w)oon to the verb (in a sentence, the temporal pronoun is still used in a conjugated form along with the past marker).

Example: Demoon naa Ndakaaru. "I already went to Dakar."

Action verbs versus static verbs and adjectives[edit]

Consonant harmony[edit]

Gender[edit]

Wolof lacks gender-specific pronouns: there is one word encompassing the English 'he', 'she', and 'it'. The descriptors bu góor (male / masculine) or bu jigéen (female / feminine) are often added to words like xarit, 'friend', and rakk, 'younger sibling' to indicate the person's sex.

For the most part, Wolof does not have noun concord ("agreement") classes as in Bantu or Romance languages. But the markers of noun definiteness (usually called "definite articles" in grammatical terminology) do agree with the noun they modify. There are at least ten articles in Wolof, some of them indicating a singular noun, others a plural noun. In "City Wolof" (the type of Wolof spoken in big cities like Dakar), the article -bi is often used as a generic article when the actual article is not known.

Any loan noun from French or English uses –bi – butik-bi, xarit-bi, 'the boutique, the friend'

Most Arabic or religious terms use –jijumma-ji, jigéen-ji, 'the mosque, the girl'

Nouns referring to persons typically use -kinit-ki, nit-ñi, 'the person, the people'

Plural nouns use"-yi"-- "jigéen-yi, butik-yi", "the girls,the boutiques"

Miscellaneous articles: "si, gi, wi, mi, li".

Numerals[edit]

Cardinal numbers[edit]

The Wolof numeral system is based on the numbers "5" and "10". It is extremely regular in formation, comparable to Chinese. Example: benn "one", juróom "five", juróom-benn "six" (literally, "five-one"), fukk "ten", fukk ak juróom benn "sixteen" (literally, "ten and five one"), ñett-fukk "thirty" (literally, "three-ten"). Alternatively, "thirty" is fanweer, which is roughly the number of days in a lunar month (literally "fan" is day and "weer" is moon.)

0 tus / neen / zéro [French] / sero / dara ["nothing"]
1 benn
2 ñaar / yaar
3 ñett / ñatt / yett / yatt
4 ñeent / ñenent
5 juróom
6 juróom-benn
7 juróom-ñaar
8 juróom-ñett
9 juróom-ñeent
10 fukk
11 fukk ak benn
12 fukk ak ñaar
13 fukk ak ñett
14 fukk ak ñeent
15 fukk ak juróom
16 fukk ak juróom-benn
17 fukk ak juróom-ñaar
18 fukk ak juróom-ñett
19 fukk ak juróom-ñeent
20 ñaar-fukk
26 ñaar-fukk ak juróom-benn
30 ñett-fukk / fanweer
40 ñeent-fukk
50 juróom-fukk
60 juróom-benn-fukk
66 juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-benn
70 juróom-ñaar-fukk
80 juróom-ñett-fukk
90 juróom-ñeent-fukk
100 téeméer
101 téeméer ak benn
106 téeméer ak juróom-benn
110 téeméer ak fukk
200 ñaari téeméer
300 ñetti téeméer
400 ñeenti téeméer
500 juróomi téeméer
600 juróom-benni téeméer
700 juróom-ñaari téeméer
800 juróom-ñetti téeméer
900 juróom-ñeenti téeméer
1000 junni / junne
1100 junni ak téeméer
1600 junni ak juróom-benni téeméer
1945 junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak ñeent-fukk ak juróom
1969 junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-ñeent
2000 ñaari junni
3000 ñetti junni
4000 ñeenti junni
5000 juróomi junni
6000 juróom-benni junni
7000 juróom-ñaari junni
8000 juróom-ñetti junni
9000 juróom-ñeenti junni
10000 fukki junni
100000 téeméeri junni
1000000 tamndareet / million

Ordinal numbers[edit]

Ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) are formed by adding the ending –éélu (pronounced ay-lu) to the cardinal number.

For example two is ñaar and second is ñaaréélu

The one exception to this system is "first", which is bu njëk (or the adapted French word premier: përëmye)

1st bu njëk
2nd ñaaréélu
3rd ñettéélu
4th ñeentéélu
5th juróoméélu
6th juróom-bennéélu
7th juróom-ñaaréélu
8th juróom-ñettéélu
9th juróom-ñeentéélu
10th fukkéélu

Personal pronouns[edit]

Temporal pronouns[edit]

Conjugation of the temporal pronouns[edit]

Situative (Presentative)

(Present Continuous)

Terminative

(Past tense for action verbs or present tense for static verbs)

Objective

(Emphasis on Object)

Processive (Explicative and/or Descriptive)

(Emphasis on Verb)

Subjective

(Emphasis on Subject)

Neutral
Perfect Imperfect Perfect Future Perfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect
1st Person singular "I" maa ngi

(I am+ Verb+ -ing)

maa ngiy naa

(I + past tense action verbs or present tense static verbs)

dinaa

(I will ... / future)

laa

(Puts the emphasis on the Object of the sentence)

laay

(Indicates a habitual or future action)

dama

(Puts the emphasis on the Verb or the state 'condition' of the sentence)

damay

(Indicates a habitual or future action)

maa

(Puts the emphasis on the Subject of the sentence)

maay

(Indicates a habitual or future action)

ma may
2nd Person singular "you" yaa ngi yaa ngiy nga dinga nga ngay danga dangay yaa yaay nga ngay
3rd Person singular "he/she/it" mu ngi mu ngiy na dina la lay dafa dafay moo mooy mu muy
1st Person plural "we" nu ngi nu ngiy nanu dinanu lanu lanuy danu danuy noo nooy nu nuy
2nd Person plural "you" yéena ngi yéena ngiy ngeen dingeen ngeen ngeen di dangeen dangeen di yéena yéenay ngeen ngeen di
3rd Person plural "they" ñu ngi ñu ngiy nañu dinañu lañu lañuy dañu dañuy ñoo ñooy ñu ñuy

In urban Wolof it is common to use the forms of the 3rd person plural also for the 1st person plural.

It is also important to note that the verb follows certain temporal pronouns and precedes others.

Literature[edit]

The New Testament was translated into Wolof and published in 1987, second edition 2004, and in 2008 with some minor typographical corrections.[16]

The 1994 song '7 seconds' by Youssou N'Dour and Neneh Cherry is partially sung in Wolof.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wolof at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Gambian Wolof at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Wolof". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ "Wolof, n. and adj." in the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1986.
  4. ^ Falola, Toyin; Salm, Steven J. Urbanization and African cultures. Carolina Academic Press, 2005. ISBN 0-89089-558-9. p 280
  5. ^ Ngom, Fallou. Wolof. Lincom, 2003. ISBN 3-89586-845-0. p 2
  6. ^ Frank A. Collymore, Notes for a Glossary of Words and Phrases of Barbadian Dialect, Advocate Company, Bridgetown, 1970.
  7. ^ Danielle D'Offay & Guy Lionet, Diksyonner Kreol-Franse / Dictionnaire Créole Seychellois – Français, Helmut Buske Verlag, Hamburg, 1982. In all fairness, the word might as easily be from Fula: nyaamde, "to eat".
  8. ^ Such as Kobiana and Banyum. Guillaume Segerer & Florian Lionnet 2010. "Isolates in Atlantic". Language Isolates in Africa workshop. 25images.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr. December 4, 2010. 
  9. ^ Long ëë is rare (Torrence 2013:10).
  10. ^ Torrence 2013:11
  11. ^ Omar Ka, 1994, Wolof Phonology and Morphology
  12. ^ Or in some texts.
  13. ^ Pape Amadou Gaye, Practical Cours in / Cours Practique en Wolof: An Audio–Aural Approach.
  14. ^ Some are restricted or rare, and sources disagree about this. Torrence (2013) claims that all consonants but prenasalized stops may be geminate, while Diouf (2009) does not list the fricatives, q, or r y w, and does not recognize glottal stop in the inventor. The differences may be dialectical or because some sounds are rare.
  15. ^ Diouf (2009)
  16. ^ "Biblewolof.com". Biblewolof.com. Retrieved 2013-04-15. 

Bibliography[edit]

Linguistics
  • Omar Ka: Wolof Phonology and Morphology. University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, 1994, ISBN 0-8191-9288-0.
  • Mamadou Cissé: « Graphical borrowing and African realities » in Revue du Musée National d'Ethnologie d'Osaka, Japan, June 2000.
  • Mamadou Cissé: "Revisiter "La grammaire de la langue wolof" d'A. Kobes (1869), ou étude critique d'un pan de l'histoire de la grammaire du wolof.", in Sudlangues Sudlangues.sn, February 2005
  • Leigh Swigart: Two codes or one? The insiders' view and the description of codeswitching in Dakar, in Carol M. Eastman, Codeswitching. Clevedon/Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, ISBN 1-85359-167-X.
  • Fiona McLaughlin: Dakar Wolof and the configuration of an urban identity, Journal of African Cultural Studies 14/2, 2001, p. 153–172
  • Gabriele Aïscha Bichler: Bejo, Curay und Bin-bim? Die Sprache und Kultur der Wolof im Senegal (mit angeschlossenem Lehrbuch Wolof), Europäische Hochschulschriften Band 90, Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe, Frankfurt am Main, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-631-39815-8.
Grammar
  • Pathé Diagne: Grammaire de Wolof Moderne. Présence Africaine, Paris, France, 1971.
  • Pape Amadou Gaye: Wolof – An Audio-Aural Approach. United States Peace Corps, 1980.
  • Amar Samb: Initiation a la Grammaire Wolof. Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Université de Dakar, Ifan-Dakar, Sénegal, 1983.
  • Michael Franke: Kauderwelsch, Wolof für den Senegal – Wort für Wort. Reise Know-How Verlag, Bielefeld, Germany 2002, ISBN 3-89416-280-5.
  • Michael Franke, Jean Léopold Diouf, Konstantin Pozdniakov: Le wolof de poche – Kit de conversation (Phrasebook/grammar with 1 CD). Assimil, Chennevières-sur-Marne, France, 2004 ISBN 978-2-7005-4020-8.
  • Jean-Léopold Diouf, Marina Yaguello: J'apprends le Wolof – Damay jàng wolof (1 textbook with 4 audio cassettes). Karthala, Paris, France 1991, ISBN 2-86537-287-1.
  • Michel Malherbe, Cheikh Sall: Parlons Wolof – Langue et culture. L'Harmattan, Paris, France 1989, ISBN 2-7384-0383-2 (this book uses a simplified orthography which is not compliant with the CLAD standards; a CD is available).
  • Jean-Léopold Diouf: Grammaire du wolof contemporain. Karthala, Paris, France 2003, ISBN 2-84586-267-9.
  • Fallou Ngom: Wolof. Verlag LINCOM, Munich, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-89586-616-4.
  • Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
Dictionary
  • Diouf, Jean-Leopold:Dictionaire wolof-français et français-wolof,Karthala,2003
  • Mamadou Cissé: Dictionnaire Français-Wolof, L’Asiathèque, Paris, 1998, ISBN 2-911053-43-5
  • Arame Fal, Rosine Santos, Jean Léonce Doneux: Dictionnaire wolof-français (suivi d'un index français-wolof). Karthala, Paris, France 1990, ISBN 2-86537-233-2.
  • Pamela Munro, Dieynaba Gaye: Ay Baati Wolof – A Wolof Dictionary. UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics, No. 19, Los Angeles, California, 1997.
  • Peace Corps Gambia: Wollof-English Dictionary, PO Box 582, Banjul, the Gambia, 1995 (no ISBN, available as PDF file via the internet; this book refers solely to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
  • Nyima Kantorek: Wolof Dictionary & Phrasebook, Hippocrene Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7818-1086-8 (this book refers predominantly to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
  • Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
Official documents
  • Government of Senegal, Décret n° 71-566 du 21 mai 1971 relatif à la transcription des langues nationales, modifié par décret n° 72-702 du 16 juin 1972.
  • Government of Senegal, Décrets n° 75-1026 du 10 octobre 1975 et n° 85-1232 du 20 novembre 1985 relatifs à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.
  • Government of Senegal, Décret n° 2005-992 du 21 octobre 2005 relatif à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.

External links[edit]