Wolvercote shown within Oxfordshire
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|UK Parliament||Oxford West and Abingdon|
Wolvercote (Oxfordshire, England) is a village that is part of the City of Oxford, England, though still retaining its own identity. It is about 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest of the centre of Oxford, on the northern edge of Wolvercote Common, which is itself north of Port Meadow and adjoins the Thames.
The village is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Ulfgarcote (Cottage of Woolgar; or Woolgar's place); the name had mutated to Wolvercote by 1185.
Wolvercote housing faced onto its extensive commons, which provided much of the community's livelihood. Some residents still have ancient rights on the commons. Geese rearing was once an important local activity, and a goose is still one of the village symbols. Horses and cattle are still grazed on Wolvercote Common and Port Meadow.
In 1789 the Oxford Canal divided the village into two parts, and in 1846 the Oxford and Rugby Railway was built beside the canal through the village. In 1850 the Buckinghamshire Railway was completed through a tunnel and cutting along the eastern edge of Upper Wolvercote. The western edge of Upper Wolvercote parallels the canal at Wolvercote Green and fades into North Oxford suburbia to the east. Lower Wolvercote borders the River Thames at Godstow to the west, and Port Meadow and the canal to the east.
The paper mill in Lower Wolvercote, former supplier of paper to the Oxford University Press, was once a major local employer. It was in existence by 1720, when it was bought by the 1st Duke of Marlborough. From 1782 the mill was leased to Oxford printer and publisher William Jackson, proprietor of the local newspaper Jackson's Oxford Journal which was published until 1928. The mill was entirely water-powered until 1811, when a steam engine was installed to power the paper-making process. The engine consumed 100 tons of coal per week, which was brought by narrowboat down the Oxford Canal, along Duke's Cut, and then down the mill stream which at the time was navigable as far as a wharf at the mill. Two of the narrowboats belonged to the mill, having been bought in 1856 and plying between there and the Midlands for 60 years until the mill sold them in 1916. Narrowboats continued to serve Wolvercote until at least the 1950s, by which time the mill used mechanical equipment to unload them. The mill was rebuilt in 1955, ceased paper-making in 1998 and was demolished in 2004. Oxford University plans to develop the site as housing for its staff, but rising cost estimates and local objections have led the University to reduce the scale of its plans significantly.
The mill stream takes its water from the nearby River Thames, and is crossed in Wolvercote at a former toll-bridge. The bridge bears a plaque in memory of two airmen of the Royal Flying Corps who were killed nearby in a flying accident in 1912. Part of Port Meadow was used as a military airfield in the First World War; the Royal Artillery also had a base there. In 1940, a camp was set up on the meadow for evacuees from Dunkirk.
The Church of England parish church of Saint Peter is in Upper Wolvercote. It has a fourteenth-century west tower and fifteenth-century window and doorway. It was rebuilt in 1860 in the Early English style, retaining the Norman tub font and 14th century south chancel window.
Wolvercote Cemetery is in the parish on Five Mile Drive between the Banbury Road and Woodstock Road, just north of the Oxford Ring Road. The graves include those of J.R.R. Tolkien and Sir Thomas Chapman, father of T.E. Lawrence. A paper sign in the parish church warns people that Tolkien is not buried in the churchyard, and provides directions to the cemetery. The writer and poet John Wain moved to Wolvercote in 1960.
A National School was founded in 1817 in the Glebe house; it moved to land to the west of the church in 1856. Wolvercote Infants' School (Upper Wolvercote) was built in 1897, on land given by the Duke of Marlborough, and was opened in 11 May 1898. Under Oxfordshire County Council it became a "first school" in 1974, taking children from 5 to 9 years old, but following a re-organisation of Oxford's schools in 2002, it was extended to become Wolvercote Primary School with an attached nursery school, taking children from 4 to 11 years. A school was opened at Wolvercote Paper Mill and still stands (though converted to housing).
Wolvercote has three public houses: the White Hart and the Jacob's Inn, by the central small green in Lower Wolvercote, and the Plough Inn, near the canal in Upper Wolvercote.
The Great Western Railway had a halt, Wolvercot Platform, just north of the railway bridge on Godstow Road. It closed in 1916. The London and North Western Railway opened Wolvercote Halt on the Varsity Line just south of the railway bridge on First Turn in 1905. The London, Midland and Scottish Railway closed Wolvercote Halt in 1926.
Wolvercote was featured in a 1987 episode of Inspector Morse, a detective drama popular in Britain and the United States, in which a wealthy American tourist is found dead in her hotel room shortly upon arriving in Oxford to return a valuable artifact, the Wolvercote Tongue, one-half of an ancient belt buckle, to an Oxford archaeological museum.
- Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1988). "Wolvercote". The Encyclopaedia of Oxford. Macmillan. pp. 498–499. ISBN 0-333-39917-X.
- Compton, 1976, page 51
- Compton, 1976, page 62
- Compton, 1976, page 129
- Compton, 1976, page 90
- Pevsner & Sherwood, 1974, page 851
- "Rising costs delay Wolvercote homes", The Oxford Times 25 May 2007
- "Homes scheme cut back", The Oxford Times 18 September 2008
- Pevsner & Sherwood, 1974, page 851
- > Google Map
- ODNB: Bernard Richards, "Wain, John Barrington (1925–1994)" Retrieved 3 May 2014, pay-walled.
- Wolvercote with Godstow Conservation Area Appraisal, Oxford City Council, 2007. p.10.
- Wolvercote with Godstow Conservation Area (Oxford City Council)
- Anne Spokes Symonds (1997)
Sources and further reading
- Carter, Harry (1957). Wolvercote Mill. A study in Paper-making at Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Compton, Hugh J (1976). The Oxford Canal. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7238-6.
- Crossley, Alan; Elrington, C.R. (eds.); Baggs, A.P.; Blair, W.J.; Chance, Eleanor; Colvin, Christina; Cooper, Janet; Day, C.J.; Selwyn, Nesta; Townley, Simon C. (1990). A History of the County of Oxford, Volume 12: Wootton Hundred (South) including Woodstock. Victoria County History. pp. 304–325. ISBN 0-19-722774-0.
- Sherwood, Jennifer; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1974). Oxfordshire. The Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. pp. 851–852. ISBN 0-14-071045-0.
- Symonds, Anne Spokes (1997). Changing Faces of Wolvercote. Oxford: Alden Press. ISBN 1-899536-13-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wolvercote.|
- Wolvercote Commoners Committee
- Wolvercote Music and Arts
- St Peter's Church, Wolvercote
- Wolvercote Primary School
- Wolvercote, from the Victoria History of the Counties of England: Oxfordshire.