Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act
The U.S. Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act, also known as Janet's Law, signed into law on October 21, 1998, contains protections for patients who elect breast reconstruction in connection with a mastectomy.
This law, which is administered by the Departments of Labor and Health and Human Services, states that group health plans, insurance companies and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) must provide coverage for reconstructive surgery after mastectomy for breast cancer and prohibited "drive through" mastectomies, where breast cancer patient's hospital stays were limited by their carriers. The required coverage includes all stages of reconstruction of the breast on which the mastectomy was performed, surgery and reconstruction of the other breast to produce a symmetrical appearance, prostheses and treatment of physical complications of the mastectomy, including lymphedema.
The history of the law is an interesting one. Prior to 1998, although several states had laws requiring health insurance carriers to cover reconstructive surgery, there was no federal legislation and many states did not offer such protection. In addition, self-funded insurance plans, such as those often offered by unions, which fall under federal ERISA guidelines, also did not have such protection. A 32 year-old Long Island woman, Janet Franquet, was diagnosed with an aggressive form of breast cancer in late 1997. She required a mastectomy, after chemotherapy to try to shrink her tumor, and desired reconstructive surgery to restore the breast. Upon contacting her insurance carrier, her reconstructive surgeon, Dr. Todd Wider, learned that her insurance plan, a self-funded plan, refused to cover the reconstructive surgery, and considered it cosmetic. The carrier recommended using a skin graft. Dr. Wider went ahead and performed the surgery for free, but he was outraged by the carrier's decision. Wider decided to begin a crusade to change the law. He contacted a number of politicians, and Senator Alphonse D'Amato became an outspoken supporter of legislation to change this. D'Amato led a nation-wide bipartisan lobbying effort that culminated in legislation that he sponsored with Senator Dianne Feinstein and 21 other senators. Speaking on the floor of the Congress, D'Amato said when he had heard that the insurance carrier had denied Ms. Franquet coverage for her surgery:
Mr. President, I decided that I would give Mrs. Franquet's insurance company a call. When I spoke with the Medical Director, he told me that "replacement of a breast is not medically necessary. This is not a bodily function and therefore cannot and should not be replaced" ... Luckily for her, Dr. Todd Wider agreed to forgo payment of this surgery. ... I ask you, Mr. President, how many other Janet Franquets are out there? Will they be lucky enough to have a Dr. Wider to take care of them? ... Too many women have been denied reconstructive surgery because insurers have deemed the procedure cosmetic and not medically necessary. It is absolutely wrong.
On October 21, 1998, the Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act (WHCRA) was signed into federal law and officially named "Janet’s Law". Since passage of this law, many thousands of women have had reconstructive surgery after mastectomy. However, many women have not had good reconstructive results, and further, had to battle their insurance companies to cover board certified surgeons who are breast specialists, rather than medical generalists frequently rated below national average. While the 1998 Act was hugely significant, implementation has been uneven and frequently of little practical use to women choosing reconstruction after mastectomy. Presently no mandates exist that allow a woman to choose her surgical team, no mandates exist for insurance companies to pay PPO rates to non-PPO providers, and no mandates exist to cover the procedure inpatient at a hospital rather than at an office or surgery center. Currently there is a proposed Amendment to this Act circulating in the State of California, calling for fast track options that address all of this, and give women far greater control over their own treatment.
- Congressional Record, V. 144, Pt. 19, October 19, 1998 to December 19, 1998
- Janet’s Law: The Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act (WHCRA), HealthSmart
- The Gaffe Heard Round N.Y., Washington Post
- Breast cancer conference focused on rights Newsday
- Is It Corrective or Cosmetic? Plastic Surgery Stirs a Debate Wall Street Journal
- Breast Reconstruction Practices in North America: Current Trends and Future Priorities, Seminars in Plastic Surgery
- Fact Sheet - Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act. U.S. Department of Labor
- Your Rights After A Mastectomy... Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998 U.S. Department of Labor
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