Women's History Sites (U.S. National Park Service)

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Washington office staff: (l to r) Asst. Dir. C.L. Wirth; Associate Dir. Arno B. Cammerer; Chief Clerk R.H. Holmes; Dir. Horace M. Albright; Asst. Dir. Dr. H.C. Bryant; Senior Asst. Dir. A.E. Demarary; Asst. Dir. G.T. Moskey; Ed. Miss I.H. Story.

The National Park System is well endowed to commemorate women’s contributions to American society. A half-dozen national parklands represent America's women’s heritage as a primary theme. Numerous other sites preserve important contributions by women to American society in their programs and preservation activities. Some sites remotely display women’s contributions to American culture. The National Park System not only preserves the history and contributions of women, it is also a part of the nation's history. Over the years, the National Park Service has reflected the nation's social history. Among the women who influenced the course of the National Parks were:

Early superintendents (not fully inclusive)[1]

  • Gertrude S. Cooper, Supt. Vanderbilt Mansion NHS, 7/16/40 to 5/31/45;
  • Margaret J. Patterson, Supt. Andrew Johnson NHS, Acting Supt. 10/7/42 to 3/3/43; Custodian 3/4/43 to 4/24/43;
  • Wilhelmina S. Harris, Supt. Adams National Historic Site, Supt. 11/27/50 to 1/10/70 (retired);
  • Carol A. Martin, Supt. Tuzigoot National Monument, 4/26/71 to 8/17/74;
  • Kathleen L. Dilonardo, Supt. Fort Caroline N. Memorial, 11/14/71 to 11/23/75;
  • Elizabeth Disrude, Supt. Perry's Victory & Interna. Peace Memorial Natl. Monument, 3/1/72 to 4/8/75;
  • Doris I. Omundson, Supt. John Muir NHS, 1/21/73 to 5/31/80;
  • L. Lorraine Mintzmyer, Supt. Herbert Hoover NHS, 7/8/73 to 8/16/75;
  • Marjorie M. Hackett, Supt. Fort Point NHS, 4/14/74 to 3/12/77;
  • Ellen Lang, Supt. Sitka NHP, 5/12/74 to 4/30/78;
  • Janet Wolf, Supt. Fort Frederica NM, 9/18/74 to 1/25/80;
  • Georgia Ellard, Rock Creek Park (1977–1988);

Deputy regional directors[1]

  • Lorraine Mintzmyer, Southwest Region, appointed by John Cook;
  • Mary Bradford, Southwest Region, appointed by John Cook, 1992-post 1993;
  • Sandy Walters, National Capital Region, 6/92-post 1993.

Regional directors[1]

  • Lorraine Mintzmyer, Southwest Region. Aug. 12, 1979, Rocky Mountain Region, April 6, 1980, and Mid-Atlantic Region, Oct. 6, 1991, appointed by Director William Whalen in both cases;
  • Marie Rust, North Atlantic Region, 1/92 to present, appointed by Director Ridenour;
  • B.J. Griffin, Mid-Atlantic Region, 8/8/93 to present, appointed by Director Kennedy.
  • Karen Wade, Intermountain Region,

Secretary to the Director (not fully inclusive)

  • Isabelle Story (1888–1970) was secretary to Director Steve Mather.

Director[1]

Park units[edit]

  • Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site (New York) - A few days after Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April 1945, a reporter hailed his widow outside her home and asked for a statement. "The story is over," she replied. True, Eleanor Roosevelt's many years as the most influential First Lady ended suddenly with the death of her husband, but her own story continued for nearly two more decades. Vigorously promoting the humanitarian causes so close to her heart, this unassuming woman earned the title - in the words of President Harry S. Truman - "First Lady of the World."
  • Everglades National Park (Florida) - These opening words from Marjory Stoneman Douglas' immortal book "Everglades: River of Grass" crystallize the uniqueness of the Everglades. These words could also be used to describe Marjory herself, who is as rare and unique as the Everglades she has worked so hard to protect. Her book, The Everglades: River of Grass, published in 1947—the year Everglades National Park was established—has become the definitive description of the natural treasure she fought so hard to protect. After several reprints, the revised edition was published in 1987, to draw attention to the continuing threats—unresolved—to "her river."
  • Johnstown Flood National Memorial (Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Clara Barton, the most recognized women of the fledgling American Red Cross, is one of the interpretive themes for Johnstown Flood National Memorial. Ms. Barton and Red Cross played a role in the relief effort but there were so many people and organizations involved in the successful efforts in rebuild Johnstown. There are so many individual men and women whose lives were impacted by the flood and who also had the strength and courage to rebuild their lives and city. The "Johnstown Flood" story consist of many "untold stories".
  • Lowell National Historical Park (Lowell, Massachusetts) - Posters asking for “young women between the ages of 15 and 35” represent the catalyst for a tremendous social change in 19th century New England. Seen in many small towns, they enticed women to make the choice to come to Lowell, and later Chicopee, Fall River, and others. Job options for a woman in the early 19th century were limited. Young women traveled from as far away as Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont - by horse, carriage, even by foot - leaving home, family, or village for a chance to try something new.
  • Maggie L. Walker NHS (Richmond, Virginia) - The national historic site commemorates the life of a progressive and talented African American woman. Despite many adversities, she achieved success in the world of business and finance as the first woman in the United States to found and serve as president of a bank.
  • Main Interior (Washington, D.C.) – Isabelle Story (1888–1970), Secretary to Director Mather, Acting Director, “editor in Chief”,
  • Women's Rights National Historical Park (Seneca Falls, New York) - The Park commemorates the Seneca Falls Convention, an early and influential women's rights convention, and the early leaders of the women's rights movement in the United States. The park consists of the site of the Seneca Falls Convention, the Wesleyan Chapel, and three of the five organizer's homes - Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Jane Hunt, and Mary Ann M'Clintock. The other two organizers, sisters Lucretia Coffin Mott and Martha Coffin Wright, lived in Philadelphia, PA and Auburn, NY respectively and their homes are no longer standing.
  • Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho) – Herma Albertson Baggley (1896–1981), Park Ranger, naturalist and author.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Prepared by Harold Danz, author of Historical Listing of NPS Officials. Danz prepared this list 2/1/90.

Sources[edit]

  • The First 75 Years, National Park Service, Preserving Our Past for the Future; Eastern National Parks and Monument Association, 1990.