Women's Reservation Bill
Women's Reservation Bill or the The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, is a pending bill in India which proposes to amend the Constitution of India to reserve 33 per cent of all seats in the Lower house of Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha, and in all state legislative assemblies for women. The seats to be reserved in rotation will be determined by draw of lots in such a way that a seat shall be reserved only once in three consecutive general elections.
The Upper House Rajya Sabha passed the bill on 9 Mar 2010. As of February 2014, the Lower House Lok Sabha has not yet voted on the bill. If the Lok Sabha were to approve the bill, it would then have to be passed by half of India's state legislatures and signed by the President.
In 1993, a constitutional amendment was passed in India that called for a random one third of village council leader, or pradhan, positions in gram panchayat to be reserved for women. The village council is responsible for the provision of village infrastructure – such as public buildings, water, and roads – and for identifying government program beneficiaries. Although all decisions in the village council are made by majority, the pradhan is the only full-time member and exercises significant control over the final council decisions. Recent research on the quota system has revealed that it has changed perceptions of women’s abilities, improved women’s electoral chances, and raised aspirations and educational attainment for adolescent girls.
There is a long-term plan to extend this reservation to parliament and legislative assemblies. In addition, women in India get reservation or preferential treatments in education and jobs. Its opposers consider this preferential treatment of women in India as discrimination against them in admissions to schools, colleges, and universities. For instance, several law schools in India have a 30% reservation for females. A segment of feminists in India are strongly in favor of providing preferential precedence to women in order to create a level playing field for all of its citizens.
- there will be more women participation in politics and society.
- Reservation for women is expected to increase opportunity for women.
Women will avail 33% reservation thus after this bill is passed political, social and economical condition of women is expected to improve drastically as a result.
- Sexism in India
- Women in India
- The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013
- "Rajya Sabha passes Women's Reservation Bill". The Times Of India. 9 March 2010.
- "Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar calls for women’s empowerment — Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Uproar in India Over Female Lawmaker Quota". The New York Times. 9 March 2010.
- Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, and Esther Duflo. 2004. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India." Econometrica 72(5): 1409-43.
- Beaman, Lori, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Esther Duflo, Rohini Pande, and Petia Topalova. 2009. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?" The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(4): 1497-1540. http://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/perceptions-female-leaders-india
- "Raising Female Leaders" J-PAL Policy Briefcase April 2012. http://www.povertyactionlab.org/publication/raising-female-leaders
- Women are seeking 33% reservation in jobs, promotions
- Women's Bill: What's the fuss about? Rediff 24 August 2005.
- The reservations business Indian Express, 11 August 1998.
- Law schools set aside 30% quota for girls Times of India