Women in computing
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
|Part of a series on|
|Women in Society|
Global concerns about current and future roles of women in computing occupations gained more importance with the emerging information age. These concerns motivated public policy debates addressing gender equality as computer applications exerted increasing influence in society. This dialog helped to expand information technology innovations and to reduce the unintended consequences of perceived sexism.
The gender gap
Statistics in education
In the United States, the number of women represented in undergraduate computer science education and the white-collar information technology workforce peaked in the mid-1980s, and has declined ever since. In 1984, 37.1% of Computer Science degrees were awarded to women; the percentage dropped to 29.9% in 1989-1990, and 26.7% in 1997-1998. Figures from the Computing Research Association Taulbee Survey indicate that less than 12% of Computer Science degrees were awarded to women in 2010-11.
Although teenage girls are now using computers and the Internet at rates similar to their male peers, they are five times less likely to consider a technology-related career or plan on taking post-secondary technology classes. The National Center for Women & Information Technology reports that of the SAT takers who intend to major in computer and information sciences, the proportion of girls has steadily decreased relative to the proportion of boys, from 20 percent in 2001 to 12 percent in 2006. The total number of these students (boys and girls) has also been decreasing since 2001, when it peaked at 73,466.
According to a College Board report, slightly more girls than boys among SAT takers in 2006 reported to having "course work or experience" in computer literacy, word processing, internet activity, and creating spreadsheets/databases. More boys than girls (59% vs 41%) reported course work or experience with computer programming. Of the 146,437 students (13%) who reported having no course work or experience, 61% were girls and 39% were boys.
Many more boys than girls take Advanced Placement (AP) Computer Science exams. According to the College Board in 2006, 2,594 girls and 12,068 boys took the AP Computer Science A exam, and 517 girls and 4,422 boys took the more advanced AP Computer Science AB exam. From 1996 to 2004, girls made up 16–17% of those taking the AP Computer Science A exam and around 10% of those taking AP Computer Science AB exam.
Statistics in the workforce
Women’s representation in the computing and information technology workforce has been falling from a peak of 38% in the mid-1980s. From 1993 through 1999, NSF’s SESTAT reported that the percentage of women working as computer/information scientists (including those who hold a bachelor’s degree or higher in an S&E field or have a bachelor’s degree or higher and are working in an S&E field) declined slightly from 33.1% to 29.6% percent while the absolute numbers increased from 170,500 to 185,000. Numbers from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Catalyst in 2006 indicated that women comprise 27-29% of the computing workforce. A National Public Radio report in 2013 stated that about 20% of all US computer programmers are female.
Benefits of gender diversity
It can be argued from an economical standpoint that for a country's IT industry to withstand competition from abroad, underrepresented groups like women must play a greater role.
It has also been claimed that there is a growing demand for IT workers with leadership, interpersonal, and communication skills to combat the general drop in worker retention and ineffective training. In particular, the cost of replacing a skilled technical employee has been estimated to be as high as 120% of the yearly salary of the position. Furthermore, over 50% of 900 IT leaders in the US who were surveyed in 2006 cited retention of skilled professionals as a primary concern. In addition, leaders with business and soft skills are sought after. Qualitative studies shows that many women in technology are interested in this combination of technical and non-technical work, hence they are potentially a good fit in these roles.
On a similar note, it has been argued that the inclusion of women in computing will mitigate innovation-hindering effects such as groupthink by preventing the group from becoming too homogenized. Gender diversity has been suggested to give benefits such as better decision making, increased creativity, and enhanced, innovative performances. Additionally, a gender diverse workforce will help businesses to better cater to their clients since their product and service offerings will reflect the varied interests of those who pay for these items.
The book Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide claims that the lack of participation of females in computing excludes them from the "new economy", which calls for sophisticated computer skills in exchange for high salary positions. A consequence from such exclusion will likely result in further social and gender inequality.
Factors contributing to lack of female participation
A study of over 7000 high school students in Vancouver, Canada showed that the degree of interest in the field of computer science for teenage girls is comparably lower than that of teenage boys. The same effect is seen in higher education; for instance, only 4% of female college freshmen expressed intention to major in computer science in the US. Research has shown that some aspects about computing may discourage women. One of the biggest turn-offs is the "geek factor". High school girls often envisage a career in computing as a lifetime in an isolated cubicle writing code. The "geek factor" affects both male and female high school students, but it seems to have more of a negative effect on the female students. In addition, computer programmers depicted in popular media are overwhelmingly male, contributing to an absence of role models for would-be female computer programmers.
In part to qualify for federal education funding distributed through the states, most U.S. states and districts now focus on ensuring that all students are at least "proficient" in mathematics and reading, making it difficult for teachers to focus on teaching concepts beyond the test. According to a Rand Corporation study, such a concentration on testing can cause administrators to focus resources on tested subjects at the expense of other subjects (e.g., science) or distract their attention from other needs. Thus, computational thinking is unlikely to be taught either standalone or as integrated into other areas of study (e.g., mathematics, biology) anytime in the near future. The National Center for Women & IT distributes free resources for increasing awareness of the need for teaching computer science in schools, including the "Talking Points" card, "Moving Beyond Computer Literacy: Why Schools Should Teach Computer Science".
Male and female perspectives
According to a 1998–2000 ethnographic study by Jane Margolis and Allan Fisher at Carnegie Mellon University, men and women viewed computers very differently. Women interviewees were more likely to state that they saw the computer as a tool for use within a larger societal and/or interdisciplinary context than did the men interviewed. On the other hand, men were more likely to express an interest in the computer as a machine. Moreover, women interviewed in this study perceived that many of their male peers were "geeks," with limited social skills. Females often disliked the idea that computers "become their life." The students observed and interviewed in that study were probably not representative of students in general, since at that time, in order to be admitted to CMU Computer Science a student needed to have some programming experience. More research is needed to understand the generalizability of Margolis' and Fisher's findings.
From a two year research initiative published in 2000 by AAUW, young girls in focus groups reported that "lack of interest" was not the reason for steering away from a computing career, but rather, their male peers were treating computers as toys. They expressed distaste in boys' behavior. Still, the National Assessment of Educational Progress showed as far back as 2000 that boys and girls use computers at about the same rates, albeit for somewhat different purposes.
Nearly 1000 students in University of Akron were surveyed, and it was discovered that females hold a more negative attitude towards computers than males. Another study assessed the computer-related attitude of over 300 students in University of Winnipeg and obtained similar results.
This is thought to contribute to the gender disparity phenomenon in computing, in particular the females' early lack of interest in the field.
Barriers to advancement
Research on the barriers that women face in undergraduate computing has highlighted such factors as:
- Undergraduate classroom teaching in which the “weedout” practices and policies privileging competition over cooperation tend to advantage men.
- Laboratory climates in which women are seen as foreign and not belonging at best, and experience blatant hostility and sexism at worst.
- Well-meaning people who unwittingly create stereotype threat by reminding students that "women can do computing as well as men".
- Strong resistance to changing the system in which these and other subtle practices are continuously reproduced.
Like the pre-college situation, solutions are most often implemented outside of the mainstream (e.g., providing role models, mentoring, and women’s groups), which can also create the perception among women, their male peers, and their professors that to be successful, women need "extra help" to graduate. Most people do not realize that the "extra help" is not academic, but instead access to the kind of peer networks more readily available to male students. Many women decline to participate in these extracurricular support groups because they do not want to appear deficient. In short, the conditions under which women (and underrepresented minority students) study computing are not the same as those experienced by men.
Lack of acknowledgement and promotion of skills
Women in technical roles often feel that the skills and feedback they bring to their jobs are not valued. According to a Catalyst report called "Women in Technology: Maximizing Talent, Minimizing Barriers", 65% of females in technical roles felt that those they reported to were receptive and responsive to their suggestions, as compared to 75% of women in non-technical roles. This also speaks directly to the retention of females in the industry as females will commonly leave a company when they feel that what they are offering a company is not valued. The report shows the concerns felt about this by sharing the following quote from an interviewee: "I would like to be involved with more projects than I am currently involved in; I feel that I am being underutilized. I would prefer my supervisor give me an opportunity to expand my skillsets and my responsibility at work".
However, it is not enough to just acknowledge skills. Women also lack the support and advocacy needed to promote these skills. Women feel alone and at a loss because they lack role models, networks, and mentors. These support systems not only help women develop talent and opportunities for career advancement, but they are also needed to promote women to more senior roles. It can be understood that advocacy is a major player in the advancement of females into senior tech roles.
Attracting women into computer science
The majority of data collected about women in IT has been qualitative analysis such as interviews and case studies. This data has been used to create effective programs addressing the underrepresentation of women in IT. Suggestions for incorporating more women in IT careers include formal mentoring, ongoing training opportunities, employee referral bonuses, multicultural training for all IT employees, as well as educational programs targeting women.
The number of female college entrants expressing interest in majoring in computer science has only worsened in the past decade to pre-1980's levels,. A research study was initialized by Allan Fisher, then Associate Dean for Undergraduate Computer Science Education at Carnegie Mellon University, and Jane Margolis, a social scientist and expert in gender equity in education, into the nature of this problem. The main issues discovered in interesting and retaining women in computer science were feelings of an experience gap, confidence doubts, interest in curriculum and pedagogy, and peer culture. Universities across North America are changing their computer science programs to make them more appealing to women. Proactive and positive exposures to early computer experiences, such as The Alice Project, founded by the late Randy Pausch at Carnegie Mellon University, are thought to be effective in terms of retention and creation of enthusiasm for women who may later consider entering the field.
Another strategy for addressing this issue has been early outreach to elementary and high-school girls. Programs like all-girl computer camps, girls’ after-school computer clubs, and support groups for girls have been instilled to create more interest at a younger age. A specific example of this kind of program is the Canadian Information Processing Society outreach program, in which a representative is sent to schools in Canada, speaking specifically to grade nine girls about the benefits of Information Technology careers. The purpose is to inform girls about the benefits and opportunities within the field of information technology. Companies like IBM also encourage young women to become interested in engineering, technology and science. IBM offers EX.I.T.E. (EXploring Interests in Technology and Engineering) camps for young women from the ages of 11 to 13.
Additionally, attempts are being made to make the efforts of female computer scientists more visible through events such as the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women conference series which allows women in the field to meet, collaborate and present their work. In the USA, the Association for Women in Computing was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1978. Its purpose is to provide opportunities for the professional growth of women in computing through networking, and through programs on technical and career-oriented topics. In the United Kingdom, the British Computer Society (BCS) and other organisations have groups which promote the cause of women in computing, such as BCSWomen, founded by Sue Black, and the BCS Women's Forum. In Ontario, Canada, the Gr8 Designs for Gr8 Girls program was founded to develop grade 8 girls' interest in computer science.
Gender theory and women in computing
A 2008 book titled Gender and Information Technology: Moving Beyond Access to Co-Create Global Partnership uses Riane Eisler's cultural transformation theory to offer an interdisciplinary, social systems perspective on issues of access to technology. The book explores how shifting from dominator towards partnership systems — as reflected in four primary social institutions (communication, media, education, and business) - might help society move beyond the simplistic notion of access to co-create a real digital revolution worldwide.
A 2000 book titled Athena Unbound provides a life-course analysis (based on interviews and surveys) of women in the sciences from an early childhood interest, through university, to graduate school and finally into the academic workplace. The thesis of this book is that "women face a special series of gender related barriers to entry and success in scientific careers that persist, despite recent advances".
The western countries seem to have a consensus regarding women in computing and exhibit very similar numbers.
A survey, conducted by SWIFT ("Supporting Women in Information Technology") based in Vancouver, Canada, asked 7,411 participants questions about their career choices. The survey found that females tend to believe that they lack the skill set needed to be successful in the field of computing. This provides a strong base for a positive correlation between perceived ability and career choice. For more information about Canada in particular, see Women in computing in Canada.
A project based in Edinburgh, Scotland, "Strategies of Inclusion: Gender and the Information Society" (SIGIS) released its findings based on research conducted in 48 separate case studies all over Europe. The findings focus on recruiting as well as retention techniques for women already studying in the field. These techniques range from the introduction of role models, advertisement campaigns, and the allocation of quotas, in order to make the computing field appear more gender neutral. Educating reforms, which will increase the quality of the educating body and technological facilities, are also suggested.
The situation in Asian countries differs greatly. Research suggests that Malaysia has a much more equal split that varies around the half-way mark. It is suggested that this may be due to the fact that Malaysian women view careers in information technology as a means of employment rather than a status symbol. A job in the computing industry also implies a safe work environment. Strong belief by the previous generation that IT would be a flourishing sector with many job opportunities caused parents to encourage their children to take a computing career, no matter the gender.
In India, a growing number of women are studying and taking careers in technical fields. The percentage of women engineers graduating from IIT Bombay grew from 1.8% in 1972 to 8% in 2005. Computer science is a popular subject among female students, as it utilises mental rather than physical strength, and allows them to work indoors. Women with a good education and employment prospects are becoming more desirable as marriage partners. However, women remain underrepresented in information technology fields, possibly due to social constraints which allow women less freedom to study, and less access to resources and opportunities.
Timeline of women in computing
- 1842: Ada Lovelace (1815–1852) was an analyst of Charles Babbage's analytical engine and considered the "first computer programmer."
- 1893: Henrietta Swan Leavitt joined the Harvard "computers", a group of women engaged in the production of astronomical data at Harvard. She was instrumental in discovery of the cepheid variable stars, which are evidence for the expansion of the universe.
- 1926: Grete Hermann published the foundational paper for computerized algebra. It was her doctoral thesis, titled "The Question of Finitely Many Steps in Polynomial Ideal Theory", and published in Mathematische Annalen.
- 1940s: American women were recruited to do ballistics calculations and program computers during WWII. Around 1943-1945, these women "computers" used a Differential Analyzer in the basement of the Moore School of Electrical Engineering to speed up their calculations, though the machine required a mechanic to be totally accurate and the women often rechecked the calculations by hand.
- 1942: Hedy Lamarr (1913–2000), was an actress and the co-inventor of an early form of spread-spectrum broadcasting.
- 1943: Women worked as WREN Colossus operators during WW2 at Bletchley Park.
- 1943: The wives of scientists at Los Alamos were first organized as "computers" on the Manhattan Project.
- 1946: Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Fran Bilas, Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff, and Ruth Lichterman were the original programmers of the ENIAC.
- 1949: Grace Hopper (1906–1992), was a United States Navy officer and the first programmer of the Harvard Mark I, known as the "Mother of COBOL". She developed the first-ever compiler for an electronic computer, known as A-0. She also invented the term "debugging" --a reference to a moth she extracted from her computer.
- 1949: Evelyn Boyd Granville was the second African-American woman in the U.S. to receive a PhD in mathematics. From 1956 to 1960, she worked for IBM on the Project Vanguard and Project Mercury space programs, analyzing orbits and developing computer procedures.
- 1950: Ida Rhodes was a pioneer in the analysis of systems of programming. She designed the C-10 language in the early 1950s for the UNIVAC I-- a computer system that was used to calculate the census. She also designed the original computer used for the Social Security Administration.
- 1958: Orbital calculations for the United States' Explorer 1 satellite were solved by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's all-female "computers", many of whom were recruited out of high school.
Mechanical calculators were supplemented with logarithmic calculations performed by hand.
- 1961: Dana Ulery (1938–), was the first female engineer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developing real-time tracking systems using a North American Aviation Recomp II, a 40-bit word size computer.
- 1962: Jean E. Sammet (1928–), developed the FORMAC programming language. She was also the first to write extensively about the history and categorisation of programming languages in 1969,
and became the first female president of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1974.
- 1962: Dame Stephanie "Steve" Shirley (1933–), founded the UK software company F.I. She was concerned with creating work opportunities for women with dependants, and predominantly employed women, only 3 out of 300-odd programmers were male, until that became illegal. She adopted the name "Steve" to help her in the male-dominated business world. From 1989 to 1990, she was President of the British Computer Society. In 1985, she was awarded a Recognition of Information Technology Award.
- 1965: Mary Allen Wilkes was the first person to use a computer in a private home (in 1965) and the first developer of an operating system (LAP) for the first minicomputer (LINC).
- 1965: Sister Mary Kenneth Keller (1914?–1985) became the first American woman to earn a PhD in Computer Science in 1965. Her thesis was titled "Inductive Inference on Computer Generated Patterns."
- 1966: Margaret R.Fox was appointed Chief of the Office of Computer Information in 1966, part of the Institute for Computer Science and Technology of NBS. She held the post until 1975. She was also actively involved in the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and served as the first Secretary for the American Federation for Information Processing Societies (AFIPS).
- 1970?: Susan Nycum did early computer security and computer law/intellectual property for Datamation.
- 1971: Erna Schneider Hoover is an American mathematician notable for inventing a computerized telephone switching method which "revolutionized modern communication" according to several reports. At Bell Laboratories, where she worked for over 32 years, Hoover was described as an important pioneer for women in the field of computer technology. She was awarded one of the first patents for computer software.
- 1972: Adele Goldberg (1945-), was one of the designers and developers of the Smalltalk language.
- 1972: Karen Spärck Jones (1935–2007), was a pioneer of information retrieval and natural language processing.
- 1972: Sandy Kurtzig founded ASK Computer Systems, an early Silicon Valley startup.
- 1973: Lynn Conway (1938–), led the "LSI Systems" group, and co-authored Introduction to VLSI Systems.
- 1975?: Phyllis Fox worked on the PORT portable mathematical/numerical library.
- 1978: Sophie Wilson (?), designed the Acorn Microcomputer.
- 1978: The Association for Women in Computing was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1978.
- 1979: Carol Shaw (?), was a game designer and programmer for Atari Corp. and Activision.
- 1980: Carla Meninsky (?), was the game designer and programmer for Atari 2600 games Dodge 'Em and Warlords.
- 1982?: Lorinda Cherry worked on the Writers WorkBench (wwb) for Bell Labs.
- 1983: Janese Swanson (with others) developed the first of the Carmen Sandiego games. She went on to found Girl Tech.
- 1984: Roberta Williams (1953–), did pioneering work in graphical adventure games for personal computers, particularly the King's Quest series.
- 1984: Susan Kare (1954–), created the icons and many of the interface elements for the original Apple Macintosh in the 1980s, and was an original employee of NeXT, working as the Creative Director.
- 1985: Radia Perlman (1951–), invented the Spanning Tree Protocol. She has done extensive and innovative research, particularly on encryption and networking. She received the USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award in 2007, among numerous others.
- 1985: Irma Wyman (~1927–), was the first Honeywell CIO.
- 1986: Hannah Smith was the "Girlie tipster" for CRASH (magazine).
- 1988: Éva Tardos (1957–), was the recipient of the Fulkerson Prize for her research on design and analysis of algorithms.
- 1989: Frances E. Allen (1932–), became the first female IBM Fellow in 1989. In 2006 she became the first female recipient of the ACM's Turing Award.
- 1992: A photograph of the all-female parody pop group Les Horribles Cernettes appears on the recently created World Wide Web, the first photo there according to media reports.
- 1992–: Donna Dubinsky (1955–), CEO and co-founder of Palm, Inc., co-founder of Handspring, co-founder of Numenta, Harvard Business School's Alumni Achievement Award winner for “introducing the first successful personal digital assistant (PDA) and who is now developing a computer memory system modeled after the human brain.”
- 1993: Shafi Goldwasser (1958–), a theoretical computer scientist, is a two-time recipient of the Gödel Prize for research on complexity theory, cryptography and computational number theory, and the invention of zero-knowledge proofs.
- 1993: Barbara Liskov, together with Jeannette Wing, developed the Liskov substitution principle. Liskov was also the winner of the Turing Prize in 2008.
- 1994: Sally Floyd (~1953–), is most renowned for her work on Transmission Control Protocol.
- 1996: Xiaoyuan Tu (1967–), was the first female recipient of the ACM's Doctoral Dissertation Award.
- 1997: Anita Borg (1949–2003), was the founding director of the Institute for Women and Technology (IWT).
- 1998: LinuxChix an international organisation for women who use Linux and women and men who want to support women in computing is founded by Deb Richardson.
- 1999: Marissa Mayer (1975–), was the first female engineer hired at Google, and was later named Vice President of Search Product and User Experience. She is currently the CEO of Yahoo!.
- 2003: Ellen Spertus earned a PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT in 1998 with the notable thesis "ParaSite: Mining the structural information on the World-Wide Web."
- 2004: Jeri Ellsworth (1974–), was a self-taught computer chip designer and creator of the C64 Direct-to-TV.
- 2005: Audrey Tang (1981–), was the initiator and leader of the Pugs project.
- 2005: Mary Lou Jepsen (1965–), was the founder and chief technology officer of One Laptop Per Child (OLPC), and the founder of Pixel Qi.
- 2005: Ruchi Sanghvi became the first female engineer at Facebook.
- 2006: Maria Klawe (1951–), was the first woman to become President of Harvey Mudd College since its founding in 1955 and was ACM president from 2002 until 2004.
- 2013: Mehvish Mushtaq Hakak became the first Kashmiri to develop an Android application. The Android application, named "Dial Kashmir," contains over 500 contacts of government and private departments.
Organizations for women in computing
- Ada Initiative
- Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology, group for support of women, runs the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing yearly conference
- Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Committee on Women
- BCSWomen, a women-only Specialist Group of the British Computer Society
- Computing Research Association, Committee on the Status of Women in Computing research
- Girl Geek Dinners, an International group for women of all ages
- LinuxChix, a women-oriented community in the open source movement
- Web Start Women, an organization devoted to bringing more women into web programming.
- List of female mathematicians
- List of female scientists
- List of organizations for women in science
- List of prizes, medals, and awards for women in science
- Women in engineering
- Women in science
- Women in the workforce
- Camp, Tracy (2001). "Women in Computer Science: Reversing the Trend". Colorado School of Mines.
- "Computing Degree and Enrollment Trends", 2010-2011 CRA Taulbee Survey. The Computing Research Association.
- Melkymuka, Kathleen (8 January 2001). "If Girls Don't Get IT, IT Won't Get Girls", Computer World.
- 2006 College-Bound Seniors - Total Group Profile Report, CollegeBoard SAT.
- "Characteristics of Scientists and Engineers in the US", National Science Foundation.
- Thomas J. Misa, ed. (2010). Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing. Wiley/IEEE Computer Society Press. pp. 32-34.
- Foust-Cummings, Heather; Sabattini, Laura; Carter, Nancy (2008). "Women in Technology: Maximizing Talent, Minimizing Barriers". Catalyst.
- Laura Sydell (Director) (2013-04-29). "Blazing The Trail For Female Programmers". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2013/04/29/178810467/blazing-the-trail-for-female-programmers. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
- Ramsey, N.; McCorduck, P. (2005). "Where are the women in Information Technology?". Anita Borg Institute.
- Simard, C. (2007). "Barriers to the advancement of technical women". Anita Borg Institute.
- Cooper, J.; Weaver, K. (2003). Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-4427-9
- Handcock, Mark S. et al. (2004). "Focus on Women in Computer Science", University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- Dean, Cornelia (17 April 2007). "Computer Science Takes Steps to Bring Women to the Fold". New York Times.
- Stecher, B. M. (2002). "Consequences of large-scale, high-stakes testing on school and classroom practice". In: Hamilton, L. S., B. M. Stecher, and S. P. Klein (Eds.). Making sense of test-based accountability in education. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
- Moving Beyond Computer Literacy: Why Schools Should Teach Computer Science, National Center for Women & Information Technology.
- Margolis, J. et al. (1999). Unlocking the Clubhouse. The MIT Press. p.4.
- AAUW Educational Foundation Commission on Technology, Gender, and Teacher Education (2000). "Tech Savvy: Educating Girls in the New Computer Age", p.8.
- Cohoon, J. McGrath; Aspray, William (2006). Women and Information Technology: Research on Underrepresentation, Chapter 5. The MIT Press.
- (2003). "Bit by Bit: Catalyst's Guide to Advancing Women in High Tech Companies". Catalyst.
- Moody, J W; Beise, C M; Woszczynski, A B; Myers, M E. (2003). "Diversity and the information technology workforce: Barriers and opportunities", p.3. The Journal of Computer Information Systems.
- Eggers, Andy (17 November 2008). "Interest in computer science is volatile". The Institute of Quantitative Social Science. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- Blum, Lenore (2001). "Women in Computer Science: The Carnegie Mellon Experience", Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science.
- The Alice Project, Carnegie Mellon University.
- "Women in IT", Canada's Association of IT Professionals.
- "Association for Women in Computing"
- Kirk, Mary (2008). Gender and Information Technology: Moving Beyond Access to Co-Create Global Partnership. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. ISBN 978-1-59904-786-7
- Etzkowitz, Henry; Kemelgor, Carol; Uzzi, Brian (2000). Athena Unbound - The advancement of women in science and technology, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-511-03833-X
- Chan, Vania; Stafford, Katie; Klawe, Maria; Chen, Grace (2000). "Gender Differences in Vancouver Secondary Students’ Interests Related to Information Technology Careers". Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia.
- Faulkner, Wendy (2004). "Strategies of Inclusion: Gender and the Information Society - Final Report", SIGIS, University of Edinburgh.
- Prof Robin Williams. "Getting More Women in Computer Science and Engineering". University of Edinburgh.
- Prof. Vivian Anette Lagesen. "A Cyberfeminist Utopia?: Perceptions of Gender and Computer Science among Malaysian Women Computer Science Students and Faculty". Sage Publications.
- Simard, Caroline. "The state of women and technology fields around the world". Anita Borg Institute.
- Varma, Roli (2010). "Computing self-efficiency among women in India". Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 16. pp. 257-274.
- Fuegi, J.; Francis, J. (2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". Annals of the History of Computing 25 (4). pp. 18–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
- Gumbrecht, Jamie (8 February 2011). "Rediscovering WWII's female 'computers'". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- "JPL Computers". NASA JPL.
- Conway, Erik (27 March 2007). "Women Made Early Inroads at JPL". NASA/JPL. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- Steel, Martha Vickers (2001). "Women in Computing: Experiences and Contributions Within the Emerging Computing Industry". Computing History Museum.
- "UW-Madison Computer Science Ph.D.s Awarded, May 1965 - August 1970". UW-Madison Computer Sciences Department. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- How the first photo was posted on the Web 20 years ago - Telegraph
- LHC: The First Band on the Web
- ACM Awards 1996, ACM.
- BBC News - Ruchi Sanghvi: Facebook's pioneer woman
- Ganai, Naseer (22 April 2013). "J&K woman develops Valley's first android app". Daily Mail.
- "23-year-old girl becomes first Kashmiri to develop Android app". NDTV. 17 April 2013.
- Thomas J. Misa, ed. Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing (Wiley/IEEE Computer Society Press, 2010). ISBN 978-0-470-59719-4
- Light, Jennifer S. "When Computers Were Women." Technology and Culture 40.3 (1999) pp. 455–483.
- Cooper, J. and Weaver, K. (2003), Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide, Philadelphia : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, ISBN 0-8058-4427-9
- Newitz, Annalee and Anders, Charlie. "She's Such a Geek!"; 2006.
- Galpin, Vashti (2002). "Women in computing around the world". ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 34 (2): 94–100. doi:10.1145/543812.543839.
- Girl Geek Dinners
- National Center for Women & Information Technology
- Resources related to Women in Computing
- Carnegie Mellon Project on Gender and Computer Science
- Institute for Women in Trades, Technology and Science
- Doing IT Around the World - Profiles of 36 women across the globe with a shared passion for information technology.