Women in Church history
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Women in Church history have played a variety of roles in the life of Christianity - notably as contemplatives, health care givers, educationalists and missionaries. Until recent times, women were generally excluded from episcopal and clerical positions within the Christian churches, however great numbers of women have been influential in the life of the church - from contemporaries of Jesus, to subsequent saints, theologians, doctors of the church, missionaries, abbesses, nuns, mystics, founders of religious institutes, military leaders, monarchs and martyrs.
Christianity emerged from patriarchal societies that placed men in positions of authority in marriage, society and government, and, whilst the religion restricted membership of the priesthood to males only, in its early centuries it offered women an enhanced social status and quickly found a wide following among women. Later, as religious sisters and nuns, women came to play an important role in Christianity through convents and abbeys and have continued through history to be active - particularly in the establishment of schools, hospitals, nursing homes and monastic settlements. Women constitute the great majority of members of the consecrated life within the Catholic Church, the largest of the Christian churches. In recent decades, ordination of women has become increasingly common in some Protestant churches. Laywomen have also been highly active in the wider life of churches, supporting the community work of parishes.
Within Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, a particular place of veneration has been reserved for Mary, the Mother of Jesus, which has kept a model of maternal virtue central to their vision of Christianity. Marian devotion is however, generally not a feature of Protestantism.
- 1 Apostolic age
- 2 Patristic age
- 3 Middle ages
- 4 Monarchs from the Middle Ages to Post-Reformation
- 5 Reformation and Baroque period
- 6 Modern times
- 7 References
The New Testament of the Bible refers to a number of women in Jesus' inner circle (notably his mother Mary, for whom the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodoxy hold a special place of honour, and St. Mary Magdalene, who discovered the empty tomb of Christ), although the Catholic Church teaches that Christ appointed only male Apostles (from the Greek apostello "to send forth").
Among the most famous accounts of Jesus directly dealing with an issue of morality and women is provided by the story Jesus and the woman taken in adultery, from verses 7:53-8:11 of the Gospel of John. The passage describes a confrontation between Jesus and the scribes and Pharisees over whether a woman, caught in an act of adultery, ought to be stoned. Jesus shames the crowd into dispersing, and averts the execution with the famous words: "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her". According to the passage, "they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last", leaving Jesus to turn to the woman and say "go, and sin no more". This passage has been immensely influential in Christian philosophy.
Another story contained in the Gospels concerning Jesus' attitude to women is the story of Jesus at the house of Martha and Mary. In this story Mary sits at Jesus' feet as he preaches, while Martha toils in the kitchen preparing a meal. When Martha complains to Mary that she should instead be helping in the kitchen, Jesus says that, on the contrary, "Mary has chosen what is better" (Luke 10:38-42, New International Version).
From the very beginning of the early Christian church, women were important members of the movement, although much of the information in the New Testament on the work of women has been overlooked. Since sources of information stemming from the New Testament church was written and interpreted by men, many assumed that it had been a "man's church". Recently, scholars have begun looking in mosaics, frescoes, and inscriptions of that period for information about women's roles in the early church.
The historian Geoffrey Blainey wrote that women were more influential during the period of Jesus' brief ministry than they were in the next thousand years of Christianity. Blainey points to several Gospel accounts of Jesus imparting important teachings to women: his meeting with the Samaritan woman at the well, his anointing by Mary of Bethany, his many healings of sick women, his public admiration for a poor widow who donated some copper coins to the Temple in Jerusalem, his stepping to the aid of the woman accused of adultery, and the presence of Mary Magdalene at his side as he was crucified. Blainey concludes that "as the standing of women was not high in Palestine, Jesus' kindnesses towards them were not always approved by those who strictly upheld tradition."
Assemblies in the homes of believers
As time went on, groups of Christians organized within the homes of believers. Those who could offer their home for meetings were considered important within the movement and assumed leadership roles. The New Testament Gospels acknowledge that women were among Jesus' earliest followers. Jewish women disciples, including Mary Magdalene, Saint Joanna, and Susanna, had accompanied Jesus during his ministry and supported him out of their private means.[Lk. 8:1-3]
Although the details of these gospel stories may be questioned, in general they reflect the prominent historical roles women played in Jesus' ministry as disciples. There were women disciples present at Jesus' crucifixion. Women were reported to be the first witnesses to the resurrection, chief among them again Mary Magdalene. She was not only "witness," but also called a "messenger" of the risen Christ.
Early spread of Christianity
Historians generally agree that women had a major role in the creation of the church. In the first generation of Christianity they had a more decisive and prominent role than they did in later centuries. The historian Geoffrey Blainey writes that women probably comprised the majority in early Christian congregations.
This large female membership likely stemmed in part from the early church's informal and flexible organization offering significant roles to women. Another factor is that there appeared to be no division between clergy and laity. Leadership was shared among male and female members according to their "gifts" and talents. "But even more important than church organization was the way in which the Gospel tradition and the Gospels themselves, along with the writing of Paul, could be interpreted as moving women beyond silence and subordination.":p.4
Whereas neither the Jewish, nor the Roman family would warm the hearts of a modern feminist, the early Christians were sympathetic to women. Paul himself insisted in his early writings that men and women were equal. His letter to the Galatians was emphatic in defying the prevailing culture, and his words must have been astonishing to women encountering Christian ideas for the first time: 'there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Jesus Christ'. Women shared equally in what is called the Lord's Supper or Eucharist, a high affirmation of equality.
Blainey goes on to note that "the debate about Paul's attitude to women will go on and on", for in later letters ascribed to Paul, it is written "let your women keep silence in the churches", although elsewhere Paul lays down rules for women for prayer and prophesying during religious services.
The early Christian texts refer to various women activists in the early church. One such woman was St. Priscilla, a Jewish missionary from Rome, who may have helped found the Christian community at Corinth. She traveled as a missionary with her husband and St Paul, and tutored the Jewish intellectual Apollos. Others include the four daughters of Philip the Evangelist, from Caesarea, Palestine, who were said to be prophets and to have hosted St Paul in their home.
During the early centuries of Christianity, there is evidence of a great deal of activity by women in the life of congregations. Women served as deacons and ladies of means like Lydia of Philippi acted as financiers. Women probably constituted the majority of Christians. The historian Geoffrey Blainey notes that by around AD 300, women had become so influential in the affairs of the church that the pagan philosopher Porphyry "complained that Christianity had suffered because of them". Nevertheless, by the close of the Patristic era, a male hierarchy had established itself over church affairs, with priests and bishops running the congregations.
Ministry restricted to men
Church Fathers on the role of women
Origen (AD 185-254) stated that,
Even if it is granted to a woman to show the sign of prophecy, she is nevertheless not permitted to speak in an assembly. When Miriam the prophetess spoke, she was leading a choir of women ... For [as Paul declares] "I do not permit a woman to teach," and even less "to tell a man what to do." 
Christian historian Philip Schaff records early church fathers of the 3rd and 4th centuries as teaching, regarding 1 Cor. 14: 34,35,
From the early patristic age, the offices of teacher and sacramental minister were reserved for men throughout most of the church in the East and West. Tertullian, the second-century Latin father, wrote that "It is not permitted to a woman to speak in church. Neither may she teach, baptize, offer, nor claim for herself any function proper to a man, least of all the sacerdotal office" ("On the Veiling of Virgins").
Women commemorated as saints from these early centuries include several martyrs who suffered under the Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, such as Agnes of Rome, Saint Cecilia, Agatha of Sicily and Blandina. In late Antiquity, Saint Helena was a Christian and consort of Emperor Constantius, and the mother of Emperor Constantine I. As such her role in history is of great significance as her son Constantine legalised Christianity across the Roman Empire, and became a convert himself - ending centuries of mistreatment of Christians and altering the course of world history. Similarly, Saint Monica was a pious Christian and mother of Saint Augustine of Hippo, who after a wayward youth, converted to Christianity and became one of the most influential Christian Theologians of all history.
Other women contributed to the development of early Christian monasticism, seeking redemption in the wilderness, as with the hermit Saint Mary of Egypt (c.AD 344-421) who is venerated in Western, Eastern, Oriental and African Christianity, for entering a life of penitence and prayer in the deserts beyond the Jordan River, after arriving from Egypt as a prostitute.
As Western Europe transitioned from the Classical to Medieval Age, the male hierarchy with the Pope as its summit became a central player in European politics, however many women leaders also emerged at various levels within the Church. In the East, a similar male hierarchy prevailed around the Patriarch ay Constantinople. However, women rose to play an active role in religion after the Fall of Rome: mysticism flourished and monastic convents and communities of women became powerful institutions within Europe. Marian devotion blossomed, setting a model of maternal virtue at the heart of Western civilization.
In the West, the Roman Catholic Church was the major unifying cultural influence in Europe during the Middle Ages with its selection from Latin learning, preservation of the art of writing, and a centralized administration through its network of bishops. In the East, that role fell to the Orthodox Church and Byzantine Empire (the churches split in 1054). In the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church, the priesthood and the ministries dependent upon it such as Bishop, Patriarch and Pope, were restricted to men. The first Council of Orange (441) forbade the ordination of women to the diaconate.
With the establishment of Christian monasticism, other influential roles became available to women. From the 5th century onward, Christian convents provided an alternative for some women to the path of marriage and child-rearing and allowed them to acquire literacy and learning, and play a more active religious role. While non-aristocratic women were in many respects excluded from political and mercantile life in the Middle Ages, leading churchwomen were an exception. Medieval abbesses and female superiors of monastic houses were powerful figures whose influence could rival that of male bishops and abbots: "They treated with kings, bishops, and the greatest lords on terms of perfect equality;. . . they were present at all great religious and national solemnities, at the dedication of churches, and even, like the queens, took part in the deliberation of the national assemblies...".
A major spokesman for the Church in the High Middle Ages (11th through 13th centuries) was Thomas Aquinas, one of the 33 Doctors of the Roman Catholic Church and renowned 13th-century theologian. Writings of Thomas Aquinas about women were an opposing influence upon church and philosophical attitudes towards women for centuries.[vague]
Virgin Mary and female saints
The historian Geoffrey Blainey, writes that women were more prominent in the life of the Church during the Middle Ages than at any previous time in its history, with a number of church reforms initiated by women. In the 13th Century, authors even began to write of a mythical female pope - Pope Joan - who managed to disguise her gender until giving birth during a procession in Rome. Blainey cites the ever growing veneration of the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene as evidence of a high standing for female Christians at that time.
Irish hagiography holds that, as Europe was entering the Medieval Age, the abbess St. Brigit of Kildare was founding monasteries across Ireland. The Celtic Church played an important role in restoring Christianity to Western Europe following the Fall of Rome, thus the work of nuns like Brigid is significant in Christian history.
The Virgin Mary became increasingly important to Christian worship through the Middle Ages. She was conferred such titles as Mother of God and Queen of Heaven and, in 863, her feast day, the "Feast of Our Lady", was declared equal in importance to those of Easter and Christmas. Mary Magdalene's Feast Day was celebrated in earnest from the 8th century on and composite portraits of her were built up from Gospel references to other women Jesus met.
The art historian Kenneth Clarke wrote that, if art is taken as a guide, then only from the 12th century did the cult of the Virgin come to appeal to the popular imagination in the West. The great Cathedrals of France were dedicated to her: Notre Dame de Paris, Amiens, Laon, Rouen and Rheims. Chartres Cathedral in particular honoured Mary with the elaborate splendour of its architecture. St Bernard of Clairvaux preached of her as an ideal of beauty and mediator between humanity and God.
Contemporary Christian women were also important in Christianity through the period. In the Franciscan movement of the thirteenth century, a significant part was played by religious women. St. Clare of Assisi was one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a contemplative monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, and wrote their Rule of Life—the first monastic rule known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, commonly referred to today as the Poor Clares.
St. Catherine of Sienna (1347–1380) was a Dominican tertiary and mystic of considerable influence who was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church in 1970. Considered by her contemporaries to have high levels of spiritual insight, she worked with the sick and poor, experienced "visions", gathered disciples and participated in the highest levels of public life through letters to the princes of Italy, consultations with papal legates and by acting as a diplomat negotiating between the city states of Italy. She counseled for reform of the clergy and was influential in convincing Pope Gregory XI to leave Avignon and restore the Holy See to Rome.
Arguably the most famous female Catholic Saint of the period is St. Joan of Arc. Considered a national heroine of France, she began life as a pious peasant girl. As with other saints of the period, Joan is said to have experienced supernatural dialogues which gave her spiritual insight and directed her actions - but unlike typical heroins of the period, she donned male attire and, claiming divine guidance, sought out the King Charles VII of France to offer help in a military campaign against the English. Taking up a sword, she achieved military victories, before being captured. Her English captors and their Burgundian allies then arranged for her to be tried as a "witch and heretic", after which she was burned at the stake. A papal inquiry later declared the trial illegal. A hero to the French, sympathy grew for Joan even in England and in 1909 she was canonised a saint. She remains an important figure in Western culture.
Monarchs from the Middle Ages to Post-Reformation
A network of European monarchies established power throughout Western Europe through the Medieval period. Men were generally given precedence to reign as monarch, however aristocratic women could achieve influence. A number of such women were singled out as model Christians by Pope John Paul II in his Mulieris Dignitatem letter on the dignity and vocation of women: Olga of Kiev, Matilda of Tuscanny, Hewig of Silesia, Jadwiga of Poland and Elizabeth of Hungary.
The first Russian ruler to convert to Christianity was Olga of Kiev around 950AD. She is an important figure in the spread of Christianity to Russia and remembered as a saint by the Catholic and Orthodox churches alike. Italian noblewoman Matilda of Tuscany (1046–1115) is remembered for her military accomplishments and for being the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy. Saint Hedwig of Silesia (1174–1243) supported the poor and the church in Eastern Europe and Jadwiga of Poland reigned as monarch of Poland and, within the Catholic Church, is honoured as the patron saint of queens and of a "united Europe". Saint Elisabeth of Hungary (1207–1231) was a symbol of Christian charity who used her wealth to establish hospitals and care for the poor.
As sponsor of Christopher Columbus' 1492 mission to cross the Atlantic, the Spanish Queen Isabella I of Castille (known as Isabella the Catholic), was an important figure in the growth of Catholicism as a global religion, for Spain and Portugal followed Columbus' route to establish vast Empires in the Americas. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon had ensured the unity of the Spanish Kingdom and the royal couple agreed to hold equal authority. Spanish Pope Alexander VI conferred on them the title "Catholic". As part of legal reforms to consolidate their authority, Isabella and Ferdinand instigated the Spanish Inquisition. The Catholic Monarchs then conquered the last Moorish bastion in Spain at Granada in January 1492 and seven months later, Columbus sailed for the Americas. The Catholic encyclopedia, credits Isabella as an extremely able ruler and one who "fostered learning not only in the universities and among the nobles, but also among women". Of Isabella and Ferdinand, it says: "The good government of the Catholic sovereigns brought the prosperity of Spain to its apogee, and inaugurated that country's Golden Age".
The Reformation swept through Europe during the 16th Century, ending centuries of unity among Western Christendom and bringing Protestantism into being as both a political and religious opponent of Catholicism. For the first time in centuries, the religion of an heir to the throne became an intensely important political issue. The refusal of Pope Clement VI to grant an annulment in the marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon saw Henry establish himself as supreme governor of the church in England. Rivalry between Catholic and Protestant heirs ensued. Mary I of England, was his eldest daughter and succeeded the throne after the death of her Protestant younger half brother Edward VI. Later nicknamed "Bloody Mary" for her actions against Protestants, she was the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, and thus remained loyal to Rome and sought to restore the Roman Church in England. Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed after her death in 1558 by her successor and younger half-sister, Elizabeth I. Rivalry emerged between Elizabeth and the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots, finally settled with the execution of Mary in 1587. The religion of an heir or monarch's spouse complicated intermarriage between royal houses through coming centuries.
Consorts of the Holy Roman Emperors were given the title of Holy Roman Empress. The throne was reserved for males, thus there was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria, controlled the power of rule and served as de facto Empresses regnant. The powerful Maria Theresa acquired her right to the throne of the Habsburg Monarchy by means of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, allowing for female succession - but had to fight the War of the Austrian Succession to secure her right to reign. Following victories, her husband, Francis Stephen, was chosen as Holy Roman Emperor in 1745, confirming Maria Theresa's status as a European leader. A liberal-minded autocrat, she was a patron of sciences and education and sought to alleviate the suffering of the serfs. On religion she pursued a policy of cujus regio, ejus religio, keeping Catholic observance at court and frowning on Judaism and Protestantism - but the ascent of her son as co-regnant Emperor saw restrictions placed on the power of the Church in the Empire. She reigned for 40 years, and mothered 16 children including Marie-Antoinette, the ill-fated Queen of France. With her husband she founded the Catholic Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty who remained central players in European politics into the 20th century.
Reformation and Baroque period
The Protestant Reformation, by shutting down female convents within the movement, effectively closed off the option of a full-time religious role for Protestant women. Martin Luther himself taught that "the wife should stay at home and look after the affairs of the household as one who has been deprived of the ability of administering those affairs that are outside and concern the state…." John Calvin agreed that "the woman's place is in the home."
By shutting down female convents within the movement, Protestantism effectively closed off the option of a full-time religious role for Protestant women, as well as one which had provided some women a life in academic study. Among the many nuns who abandoned the monastic life was the wife of Martin Luther, Katherine von Bora.
The majority of Protestant churches upheld the traditional position, and restricted ruling and preaching roles within the Church to men until the 20th century, although there were early exceptions among some groups such as the Quakers and within some Pentecostal holiness movements.
John Knox (1510–1572) also denied women the right to rule in the civic sphere, as he asserted in his famous First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women.
In Gen_3:16, "thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee". By this the apostle would signify, that the reason why women are not to speak in the church, or to preach and teach publicly, or be concerned in the ministerial function, is, because this is an act of power, and authority; of rule and government, and so contrary to that subjection which God in his law requires of women unto men. The extraordinary instances of Deborah, Huldah, and Anna, must not be drawn into a rule or example in such cases.
Methodist founder John Wesley (1703–1791) and Methodist theologian Adam Clarke (1762–1832) both upheld male headship, but allowed that spiritual Christian women could publicly speak in church meetings if they "are under an extraordinary impulse of the Spirit" (Wesley), and that such were to obey that influence, and that "the apostle lays down directions in chap. 11 for regulating her personal appearance when thus employed.” (Clarke) Puritan theologian Matthew Poole (1624–1679) concurred with Wesley, adding,
But setting aside that extraordinary case of a special afflatus, [strong Divine influence] it was, doubtless, unlawful for a woman to speak in the church.
In his A Very Short History of the World, the historian Geoffrey Blainey wrote that, in removing the institution of the convent, the Reformation at first indirectly reduced the power of women, for convents had been places where women could achieve power and influence, as in Zurich where the Benedictine abbesses had helped administer the town. However, the Protestant belief that all people should be able to read the Bible, wrote Blainey, led to an increase in female literacy, as a result of the opening of new schools, and the introduction of compulsory education for boys and girls in places like Lutheran Prussia beginning in 1717.
A general tenet of the Protestant reformers was that Marian devotion and the 'cult of Mary" and the "cult of saints" should be rejected. Thus, in the communities of Europe and North America that adopted Protestantism, the centuries old rituals and theology associated with Mary and formal sainthood that had been built up by the Catholic tradition were largely expunged in the aftermath of the Reformation. Apart from convents being closed, images of Mary were in many cases torn down or decapitated.
The Catholic Church meanwhile, responded to the Protestant Reformation with the Counter Reformation, in which exuberant baroque architecture and art was embraced as an affirmation of the faith and new seminaries and orders were established to lead missions to far off lands The importance of Marian devotion within Catholic life was kept firmly in place. Thus a new divide had arisen in Christianity: on the one hand Catholicism and Orthodoxy maintained Mary's place in Christian art and ritual; while on the other side, the new Protestant churches greatly reduced her significance. A great divergence arose between the Catholic Church and the Protestant Reformers of the north regarding the content and style of art work.
Renaissance and Baroque art produced new depictions of women in Christian art. According to art historian Kenneth Clarke, while Mary had been in the Middle Ages "the supreme protectress of civilization" who had "taught a race of tough and ruthless barbarians the virtues of tenderness and compassion", during the Renaissance, Mary "became also the human mother in whom everyone could recognise qualities of warmth and love and approachability". These human qualities were presented by Catholic artists like Raphael, in his Madonna and Child portraits representing Mary with the infant Jesus, and Michelangelo in his pieta statue, depicting Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus following his crucifixion. During the Baroque period, religious depictions of women in Catholic Europe became not only exuberant, but often highly sensual, as with the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
Amidst the backdrop of Industrial Revolution and expanding European Empires, a number of notable educational and nursing religious institutes were established by or for Catholic women during the 17th-19th centuries, and Christian women played a central role in the developing or running of many the modern world's education and health care systems. Out of other Christian traditions arose women like Florence Nightingale, who assisted with the development of modern nursing. By the 21st century, several Protestant churches were ordaining women, but Christianity's heartlands were shifting away from Europe, and while vocations to the religious life were in decline in the West, conversions to Christianity and religious vocations were expanding rapidly in Africa and Asia.
Within Catholicism, the Sisters of Mercy was founded by Catherine McAuley in Dublin, Ireland in 1831, and her nuns went on to establish hospitals and schools across the world. The Little Sisters of the Poor was founded in the mid-19th century by Saint Jeanne Jugan near Rennes, France, to care for the many impoverished elderly who lined the streets of French towns and cities. In Britain's Australian colonies, Australia's first canonised Saint, Mary MacKillop, co-founded the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart as educative religious institute for the poor in 1866 and by the time of her death her religious institute had established a 117 schools and had opened orphanages and refuges for the needy.
Many Christian women were instrumental in the movement for women's suffrage which achieved its first successes in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century and spread across the democratic world. In the United States, the Quaker Grimké sisters were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights. In Australia, Unitarian preacher Catherine Helen Spence led calls for women's suffrage, and ran for political office after the South Australian Parliament became the first modern jurisdiction to allow women to do so. In North America, organizations like the Woman's Christian Temperance Union agitated for the same reforms.
For much of the early twentieth century, Catholic women continued to join religious institutes in large numbers, where their influence and control was particularly strong in the running of primary education for children, high schooling for girls, and in nursing, hospitals, orphanages and aged care facilities. The Second Vatican Council of the 1960s liberalised the strictures of Catholic religious life, particularly for women religious; however, in the latter half of the 20th century, vocations for women in the West entered a steep decline. The Catholic Church conducted a large number of beatifications and canonisations of Catholic women however, of women from all over the world: St. Josephine Bakhita was a Sudanese slave girl who became a Canossian nun; St. Katharine Drexel (1858–1955) worked for Native and African Americans; Polish mystic St. Maria Faustina Kowalska (1905–1938) wrote her influential spiritual diary; and German nun Edith Stein was murdered by the Nazis at Auschwitz.
A number of Christian women are recalled as martyrs of the Second World War struggle against Nazism. Catholic Poland suffered miserably under Nazi occupation, and a number of women are recognised for their heroism during the period: including 8 religious sisters and several laywomen of Poland's 108 Martyrs of World War II and the 11 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth murdered by the Gestapo in 1943 and known as the Blessed Martyrs of Nowogródek. Swedish born Elisabeth Hesselblad was listed among the “righteous among the nations” by Yad Vashem for her religious institute's work assisting Jews escape The Holocaust. She and two British women, Mother Riccarda Beauchamp Hambrough and Sister Katherine Flanagan have been beatified for reviving the Swedish Bridgettine Order of nuns and hiding scores of Jewish families in their convent during Rome's period of occupation under the Nazis.
In modern times, after the Second Vatican Council, four Catholic women have been declared Doctors of the Church, indicating a re-appraisal of the role of women within the life of that Church: the 16th-century Spanish mystic St. Teresa of Ávila, the 14th Century Italian mystic St. Catherine of Siena, the 19th-century French nun St. Thérèse de Lisieux (called Doctor Amoris or Doctor of Love), and the 12th-century German nun St. Hildegard of Bingen.
While Catholicism and Orthodoxy adhered to traditional gender restrictions on ordination to the priesthood, ordination of women in Protestant churches has in recent decades become increasingly common. As of 1996, over half of all American Protestant denominations ordain women, though some restrict the official positions a woman can hold. For instance, some ordain women for the military or hospital chaplaincy but prohibit them from serving in congregational roles. However, one-third of all seminary students (and in some seminaries nearly half) are female.
The Salvation Army elected Evangeline Booth as its first female General (worldwide leader) in 1934. Army founder William Booth insisted on gender equality, writing in 1908 that "Every officer and soldier should insist upon the truth that woman is as important, as valuable, as capable and as necessary to the progress and happiness of the world as man" and women have been prominent in leadership positions in the history of the organisation.
New Zealander Penny Jamieson became the first woman in the world to be ordained a bishop of the Anglican Church in 1990, although the queens of England have for centuries inherited the position of the Supreme Governor of the Church of England upon their ascensions to the throne. Queen Elizabeth II currently holds this office.
In the developing world, people continued to convert to Christianity in large numbers. Among the most famous women missionaries of the period was Mother Teresa of Calcutta, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her work in "bringing help to suffering humanity". Much admired by Pope John Paul II, she was beatified in 2003, just six years after her death.
Many Christian women and religious have been prominent advocates in social policy debates - as with American nun Helen Prejean, a Sister of Saint Joseph of Medaille, who is a prominent campaigner against the death penalty and was the inspiration for the Hollywood film Dead Man Walking.
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