Women in Estonia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Women in Estonia
Ellen Niit Kiskőrös.JPG
The 1954 bust of Ellen Niit, a female Estonian literary writer born in 1928. The bust was sculpted by Erna Viitol (1920–2001).
Gender Inequality Index[1]
Value 0.154 (2013)
Rank 29th out of 152
Maternal mortality (per 100,000) 2 (2010)
Women in parliament 20.8% (2013)
Females over 25 with secondary education 100% (2012)
Women in labour force 56.0% (2012)
Global Gender Gap Index[2]
Value 0.6997(2013)
Rank 59th out of 136
Two modern-day Estonian women at work while wearing traditional costume.

Women in Estonia are women who were born in, who live in, or are from Estonia in Europe.


Between 1970 and 1990, the total fertility rate (TFR - the average number of children a woman bears[3]) of Estonian women was little over 2 children born per woman.[4] A fast decrease of the TFR occurred after independence. In 1998 the lowest rate was recorded: 1.28 children born per women. In 2001, the United Nations reported through its annual world-population report that "Estonia was one of the fastest-shrinking nations on earth, at risk of losing nearly half its 1.4 million people by mid-century". To prevent this drop in TFR, one of the steps the Estonian government took since 2004 was to start "paying" women by providing them with subsidies "to have babies" known as "mother's salary"). After giving birth and during maternity leave, working Estonian women received full monthly income for up to 15 months (equivalent to US$1,560.00); non-working women who gave birth received a monthly subsidy equivalent to US$200.00.[3] The TFR slightly recovered in the subsequent years. The TFR was 1.66 in 2008 and 1.52 in 2011.


In the past, according to Estonian mythology, the ancient women of Estonia believed in the female deity and protector of pregnant women in labor known as Rõugutaja.


  1. ^ "Table 4: Gender Inequality Index". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  2. ^ "The Global Gender Gap Report 2013" (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13. 
  3. ^ a b Walker, Marcus. "In Estonia, Paying Women To Have Babies Is Paying Off". As Low Birthrates Threaten Growth, Developed Nations Watch Incentive Effort. The Wall Street Journal (New York). Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  4. ^ "Main demographic indicators". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 

External links[edit]