Women in Hong Kong
A modern-day woman from Hong Kong: politician, barrister, and writer Dr Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee.
|Gender Inequality Index|
|Rank||NR out of 148|
|Maternal mortality (per 100,000)||NA (2010)|
|Women in parliament||NA (2012)|
|Females over 25 with secondary education||68.7% (2010)|
|Women in labour force||51.0% (2011)|
|Global Gender Gap Index|
|Rank||NR out of 136|
|Women in society|
Native women in Hong Kong were used to be situated within the context of Chinese family and society, in which they were treated the same as Mainland women or Taiwanese women. Under the traditional Chinese patriarchy structure, the society was male-dominated, and women had a relatively subordinate familial role. However, there is a cultural change in Hong Kong during the British colonial period with an emergence of Western culture (i.e. "Westernization"). A mix of traditional Chinese culture and Western values creates a unique culture of Hong Kong. Along with the rapid economic and social development of Hong Kong since the end of the Second World War, a significant improvement in the role of women has been witnessed, while male dominance society structure is still taking in place. Hence, women studies in Hong Kong are slightly differ from China's.
Women in Hong Kong are generally more independent, monetarily autonomous, assertive, and career-focused; which makes them seem to be more prominent when comparing with women in some other Southeast Asian countries. With the increase number of women in professional and managerial positions in recent decades, the terms of "female strong person" or "superwomen" are being used to describe women in Hong Kong.
(See also Demographics of Hong Kong)
The statistical data from the Hong Kong national census in 2006 shows that the number of women in Hong Kong are increasing, while the number of men in Hong Kong are declining. The figure of single Hong Kong women living alone increased to 43.8 percent comparing with 2001. The numbers were as follows: 103,938 in 1996, 127,001 in 2001, and 182,648, in 2006. The gender ratio between men and women as of 2006 was at 1,000 females for every 912 males, and is expected to deteriorate further by 2036 (1,000 females for every 763 males). The imbalance in the ratio between Hong Kong women and Hong Kong men was already evident in 2003 when there were 1,000 females for every 998 males.
Education and career attainment
The implementation of compulsory universal education in 1971, following with an extension to nine years in 1978, give rises to an increased amount of women elites. According to the report of Hong Kong Annual Digest of Statistics by Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong, a trend of universalism for boys and girls could be observed since the 1970s; and girls' enrolment rate in general was higher than the boys' since the 1980s. Yet, the gap between male and female enrolment in post-secondary education has not changed much. Women are still appeared to have a lower level of educational attainment by 2011.
With the shift of Hong Kong's economy from manufacturing industry to services industry since the 1980s, there is a growing demand for white collar workers. Abundant job opportunities are hence available for both men and women.
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Notes: Several chapters are dedicated to the historical status of women in Hong Kong.
- Wong, Odalia M. H. (December 2005). "The Socioeconomic Determinants of the Age at First Marriage among Women in Hong Kong". Journal of Family and Economic Issues 26 (4): 529–550. doi:10.1007/s10834-005-7848-3.
- Ho, Petula Sik-ying (August 2007). "Eternal Mothers or Flexible Housewives? Middle-aged Chinese Married Women in Hong Kong". Sex Roles 57 (3): 249–265. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9255-8.
- Ngo, Hang-Yue (Autumn 1992). "Employment Status of Married Women in Hong Kong". Sociological Perspectives. 3 35: 475–488. doi:10.2307/1389330.
- Hung, Suet Lin (January 2012). "Empowerment Groups for Women Migrating from China to Hong Kong". Social Work With Groups 35 (1): 4–17. doi:10.1080/01609513.2011.580265.
- Ko Ling Chan; Douglas Brownridge; Agnes Tiwari; Daniel Y. T. Fong; Wing-Cheong Leung (November 2008). "Understanding Violence Against Chinese Women in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Risk Factors With a Special Emphasis on the Role of In-Law Conflict". Violence Against Women 14 (11): 1295–1312. doi:10.1177/1077801208325088.
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