Women in warfare and the military (1750–99)

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Active warfare throughout recorded history has predominantly involved male combatants; however, women have also contributed to military activities including as combatants. The following list describes women known to have participated in military actions in the latter half of the 18th century.

Please see Timeline of women in war in the United States, Pre-1945 for entries pertaining specifically to the history of the United States.

Timeline of women in warfare from 1750 until 1799 worldwide[edit]

1750s[edit]

  • 1750: Maria Sophia Stording serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[1]
  • 1751: Two unnamed soldiers of the Dutch navy are discovered to be females dressed as males.[2]
  • 1754: An unnamed female serve in the Dutch army dressed as a man.[3]
  • 1755: An unnamed female serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[4]
  • 1756: Soldier Jochem Wiesse of the Dutch army are discovered to be a female dressed as a male.[5]
  • 1757: Sailor "Arthur Douglas" is revealed to be a woman. Her birth-name is unknown.[6]
  • 1757: An unnamed female serve in the Dutch army dressed as a man.[7]
  • 1757-58: Two unnamed females serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a males.[8]
  • 1759-1771: Mary Lacy serves as a Marine carpenter under the name of "William Chandler".[9]

1760s[edit]

1770s[edit]

  • 1770-1771: Margareta Reymers serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man: she is discovered by her pregnancy. [15]
  • 1772: Mademoiselle de Guignes and Mademoiselle d'Aguillon fight a duel in France.[citation needed]
  • 1777: Mademoiselle Leverriére fights a duel with a man in France.[citation needed]
  • 1778: Baltazara Chuiza leads a rebellion against the Spanish in Ecuador.[16]
  • 1778: Sikh princess Bibi Rajindar Kaur leads 3,000 soldiers to rescue her cousin who was defeated by Hari Singh.[citation needed]

1780s[edit]

  • 1780: Rani Velu Nachiar of Sivagangai Poligar leads a female army against the British in India.[citation needed]
  • 1780: Manuela Beltrán organizes a peasant revolt in Colombia.[citation needed]
  • 1780: Ñusta Huillac of the Kolla tribe rebels against the Spanish in Chile.[citation needed]
  • 1780-1781: Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua recruits and leads men and women in battle during a rebellion against the Spanish rule in Peru. She is eventually captured and executed by the Spanish.[citation needed]
  • 1780-1781: Maria van Spanje serve in the Dutch navy for eight months dressed as a male: she is discovered while trying to repeat this when enlisting anew in 1782 [17]
  • 1781: Lena Catharina Wasmoet serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man under the name Claas Waal.[18]
  • 1780s: Swedish runaway Carin du Rietz becomes a soldier at the royal guard.[citation needed]
  • 1781: Gregoria Apaza, an Aymara woman, leads an uprising against the Spanish in Bolivia.[citation needed]
  • 1781: Margaret Thompson serves in the British Marines under the name George Thompson.[citation needed]
  • 1782: Anna Maria Everts serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[19]
  • 1782: Bartolina Sisa, an Aymara woman who led an indigenous uprising against the Spanish in Bolivia, is captured and executed.[citation needed]
  • 1783: Johanna Dorothea Heeght serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man under the name Johannes Hegt.[20]
  • 1785: According to Thai legend, Thao Thep Kasattri and Thao Sri Sunthon, two sisters, help repel a Burmese invasion of Thailand by dressing as male soldiers and rallying the troops.[citation needed]
  • 1787-1807: A woman serves twenty years in the British Marines under the name "Tom Bowling"[6]
  • 1787 : The wife of the German colonel Schutz is reported to have accompanied her spouse dressed as a male in warfare and having been wounded two times in Russian service. [21]
  • 1788-1790 : After the war between Russia and Sweden, several of the soldiers decorated in the Swedish army are discovered to be women in disguise. One of them is Brita Hagberg, who enlisted in search of her husband; she is given a military pension.[citation needed]
  • 1788-1790 : During the Russo-Swedish war, Anna Maria Engsten, after a battle at sea, singlehandedly steers one of the boats back to Sweden after having been left alone onboard after its evacuation; she is decorated for bravery at sea.[22]
  • 1788-1790 : During the Battle of Svensksund, Dorothea Maria Lösch takes command of a Swedish ship and is rewarded with the rank of captain of the Swedish fleet [23]
  • 1789: Female revolutionary Anne Josephe Theroigne de Mericourt leads the storming of the Bastille in Paris at the beginning of the French Revolution. She also leads female troops in 1792-1793.[citation needed]

1790s[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cook, Bernard, ed. Women and War: Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present (2006).
  • Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War (1995)
  • Elshtain Jean, and Sheila Tobias, eds. Women, Militarism, and War (1990)
  • Mayer, Holly A. Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (University of South Carolina Press, 1996)
  • Jones, David. Women Warriors: A History (Brassey's, 1997)
  • Martino-Trutor, Gina Michelle. "Her Extraordinary Sufferings and Services”: Women and War in New England and New France, 1630-1763" PhD Dissertation, U of Minnesota, 2012. online
  • Pennington, Reina. Amazons to Fighter Pilots: A Biographical Dictionary of Military Women (2003).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  2. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  3. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  4. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  5. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  6. ^ a b c Suzanne J. Stark: Female tars: women aboard ship in the age of sail. Naval Institute Press, 1996
  7. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  8. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  9. ^ "The Lady Tars: The Autobiographies of Hannah Snell, Mary Lacy and Mary Anne Talbot". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  10. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  11. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  12. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  13. ^ Rajendra, Rajani (19 April 2013). "Glimpse into Mah Laqa’s life". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  15. ^ Reymers, Margareta (ca. 1747-na 1771)
  16. ^ Uglow, Jennifer; Maggy Hendry (1999). Frances Hinton, ed. The Northeastern Dictionary of Women's Biography. UPNE. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-55553-421-9. 
  17. ^ Spanje, Maria van (1759?-na 1782)
  18. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  19. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  20. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  21. ^ Potemkin: Catherine the Great's Imperial Partner, 2005 (Swedish edition), p 445
  22. ^ 130 (Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor)
  23. ^ 250 (Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor)
  24. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  25. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  26. ^ Beth Hill,Cathy Converse: The Remarkable World of Frances Barkley: 1769-1845
  27. ^ "Women and War: A Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present. Bernard A. Cook". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  28. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)

External links[edit]