Women in warfare and the military (1750–99)

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Active warfare throughout recorded history has predominantly involved male combatants, however women have also contributed to military activities including as combatants. The following list describes women known to have participated in military actions in the latter half of the 18th century.

Please see Timeline of women in war in the United States, Pre-1945 for entries pertaining specifically to the history of the United States.

Timeline of women in warfare from 1750 until 1799 worldwide[edit]

1750s[edit]

  • 1750: Maria Sophia Stording serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[1]
  • 1751: Two unnamed soldiers of the Dutch navy are discovered to be females dressed as males.[2]
  • 1754: An unnamed female serve in the Dutch army dressed as a man.[3]
  • 1755: An unnamed female serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[4]
  • 1756: Soldier Jochem Wiesse of the Dutch army are discovered to be a female dressed as a male.[5]
  • 1757: Sailor "Arthur Douglas" is revealed to be a woman. Her birth-name is unknown.[6]
  • 1757: An unnamed female serve in the Dutch army dressed as a man.[7]
  • 1757-58: Two unnamed females serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a males.[8]
  • 1759-1771: Mary Lacy serves as a Marine carpenter under the name of "William Chandler".[9]

1760s[edit]

  • 1760s: Hannah Witneg serves in the Royal Marines while disguised as a man from 1756 to 1761. She is noted for serving with "fortitude and valor".[citation needed]
  • 1760: Petronella van der Kerkhof serve in the Dutch grenadiers dressed as a male.[10]
  • 1760-1761: A woman serves in the British Marines as "William Prothero".[6]
  • 1762: Rafaela Herrera inspires the outnumbered Spanish defenders to victory during a 1762 British siege of the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception in El Castillo village within El Castillo municipality, Nicaragua.
  • 1763: After the assassination of her husband Diego, Filipina Gabriela Silang decided to continue his rebellion in Ilocos against Spain but was unsuccessful.
  • 1764: The Dutch soldier Tiesheld is discovered to be a female dressed as a male.[11]
  • 1765: A unnamed member of the Dutch navy is discovered to be a female dressed as a male.[12]
  • 1767-1795: Reign of Ahilyabai Holkar, Indian queen of the Malwa kingdom. She personally led troops into battle.
  • 1768: Birth of Mah Laqa Bai. Due to her archery skills, she accompanied the Nizam II (Mir Nizam Ali Khan) in three wars;[13]
  • 1769: Anna Sophia Spiesen serve in the Dutch army dressed as a male under the name Claas Paulusse.[14]

1770s[edit]

  • 1770-1771: Margareta Reymers serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man: she is discovered by her pregnancy. [15]
  • 1772: Mademoiselle de Guignes and Mademoiselle d'Aguillon fight a duel in France.[citation needed]
  • 1777: Mademoiselle Leverriére fights a duel with a man in France.[citation needed]
  • 1778: Baltazara Chuiza leads a rebellion against the Spanish in Ecuador.[citation needed]
  • 1778: Sikh princess Bibi Rajindar Kaur leads 3,000 soldiers to rescue her cousin who was defeated by Hari Singh.

1780s[edit]

  • 1780: Rani Velu Nachiar of Sivagangai Poligar leads a female army against the British in India.
  • 1780: Manuela Beltrán organizes a peasant revolt in Colombia.[citation needed]
  • 1780: Huillac Ñusca of the Kolla tribe rebels against the Spanish in Chile.
  • 1780: Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua recruits and leads both genders in battle during a rebellion against the Spanish rule in Peru.
  • 1780-1781: Maria van Spanje serve in the Dutch navy for eight months dressed as a male: she is discovered while trying to repeat this when enlisting anew in 1782 [16]
  • 1781: Lena Catharina Wasmoet serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man under the name Claas Waal.[17]
  • 1780s: Swedish runaway Carin du Rietz becomes a soldier at the royal guard.
  • 1781: Gregoria Apaza, an Aymara woman, leads an uprising against the Spanish in Bolivia.
  • 1781: Margaret Thompson serves in the British Marines under the name George Thompson.
  • 1781: Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua, leader of an indigenous uprising in Peru, is executed by the Spanish.
  • 1782: Anna Maria Everts serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[18]
  • 1782: Bartolina Sisa, an Aymara woman who led an indigenous uprising against the Spanish in Bolivia, is captured and executed.
  • 1783: Johanna Dorothea Heeght serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man under the name Johannes Hegt.[19]
  • 1785: According to Thai legend, Thao Thep Kasattri and Thao Sri Sunthon, two sisters, help repel a Burmese invasion of Thailand by dressing as male soldiers and rallying the troops.
  • 1787-1807: A woman serves twenty years in the British Marines under the name "Tom Bowling"[6]
  • 1787 : The wife of the German colonel Schutz is reported to have accompanied her spouse dressed as a male in warfare and having been wounded two times in Russian service. [20]
  • 1788-1790 : After the war between Russia and Sweden, several of the soldiers decorated in the Swedish army are discovered to be women in disguise. One of them is Brita Hagberg, who enlisted in search of her husband; she is given a military pension.
  • 1788-1790 : During the Russo-Swedish war, Anna Maria Engsten, after a battle at sea, singlehandedly steers one of the boats back to Sweden after having been left alone onboard after its evacuation; she is decorated for bravery at sea.[21]
  • 1788-1790 : During the Battle of Svensksund, Dorothea Maria Lösch takes command of a Swedish ship and is rewarded with the rank of captain of the Swedish fleet [22]
  • 1789: Female revolutionary Anne Josephe Theroigne de Mericourt leads the storming of the Bastille in Paris at the beginning of the French Revolution. She also leads female troops in 1792-1793.

1790s[edit]

  • 1792: Reine Audu participates in the fight with the Swiss guards in the storming of the Tuileries Palace.
  • 1792: Two hundred and eighty women participate in defense of the city of Frauenbrünn in Switzerland.
  • 1792: The Albanian woman Moscho Tzavela leads several women in defense of their village against the Turks.
  • 1792: Eight thousand women are estimated to have served openly in the French army in informal local defense troops (though not in the battle fields) between 1792 and 1794. Women were forbidden from joining the army 1795 and the female soldiers are encouraged to "return to their homes".
  • 1792: Mary Anne Talbot serves as a drummer boy in the British army for two years.
  • 1792: Lady Braddock and Mrs. Elphinstone fight a duel in England.
  • 1792-1808: Marie-Jeanne Schellinck serve in the Battle of Jemappes: she serves in the French army in 1792-1808.
  • 1792-1799: Angelique Brulon serves in the French army in Corsica. Although she initially disguises her self as a man, she is eventually allowed to remain openly in her service because of her acknowledged military skill.
  • 1793: Suzanne Belair, called Sanité Belair, serves in the armé of Toussaint Louverture in the Haitian Revolution. She was promoted to sergeant, and was executed by the French in 1802. Victoria Montou serves in the army of Jean-Jacques Dessalines during the Haitian Revolution.
  • 1793: Renée Bordereau disguises herself as a man and fights as a Royalist cavalier in the French Revolution.
  • 1793: Francoise Deprés serve as a royalist spy, courier and soldier dressed as a male during the Vendée rebellion.[23]
  • 1793: Céleste Bulkeley serve in the Catholic and Royal Army during the war in the Vendée as one of at least six women known as the amazons in the army of François de Charette.
  • 1793-1800: Therese Figeur serves in the French army.
  • 1793: An unnamed female serve in the Dutch navy dressed as a man.[24]
  • 1796: Sikh princess Bibi Sahib Kaur leads armies into battle against the British. She is the only Indian woman to win battles against a British general.
  • 1796-1798: Wang Cong'er is the leader and commander of the White Lotus rebellion in China.
  • 1797: Margaret Catchpole serves in the British Marines as a man.
  • 1798: Mary Ann Riley and Anne Hopping serve in the British Marines during the Battle of the Nile against the French outside Egypt.[25]
  • 1798: Mary Doyle, an Irish woman, participates in the Irish rebellion against the British.[26]
  • 1798: Betsy Gray fought in the Battle of Ballynahinch against the Yeomanry.
  • 1799: The German Antoinette Berg serve on the side of the English against the French in the Netherlands dressed as a male; during the peace festivities in London after the final defeat of Napoleon in 1814, she was presented to the Tsar of Russia and the King of Prussia.[27]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cook, Bernard, ed. Women and War: Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present (2006).
  • Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War (1995)
  • Elshtain Jean, and Sheila Tobias, eds. Women, Militarism, and War (1990)
  • Mayer, Holly A. Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (University of South Carolina Press, 1996)
  • Jones, David. Women Warriors: A History (Brassey's, 1997)
  • Martino-Trutor, Gina Michelle. "Her Extraordinary Sufferings and Services”: Women and War in New England and New France, 1630-1763" PhD Dissertation, U of Minnesota, 2012. online
  • Pennington, Reina. Amazons to Fighter Pilots: A Biographical Dictionary of Military Women (2003).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  2. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  3. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  4. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  5. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  6. ^ a b c Suzanne J. Stark: Female tars: women aboard ship in the age of sail. Naval Institute Press, 1996
  7. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  8. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  9. ^ The Lady Tars: The Autobiographies of Hannah Snell, Mary Lacy and Mary Anne Talbot
  10. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  11. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  12. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  13. ^ Rajendra, Rajani (19 April 2013). "Glimpse into Mah Laqa’s life". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  15. ^ Reymers, Margareta (ca. 1747-na 1771)
  16. ^ Spanje, Maria van (1759?-na 1782)
  17. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  18. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  19. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  20. ^ Potemkin: Catherine the Great's Imperial Partner, 2005 (Swedish edition), p 445
  21. ^ 130 (Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor)
  22. ^ 250 (Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor)
  23. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  24. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  25. ^ Beth Hill,Cathy Converse: The Remarkable World of Frances Barkley: 1769-1845
  26. ^ Women and War: A Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present. Bernard A. Cook
  27. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)

External links[edit]