Women in warfare and the military in the 19th century

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Active warfare throughout history has mainly been a matter for men, but women have also played a role, often a leading one. While women rulers conducting warfare was common, women who participated in active warfare was rare. The following list of women in war and their exploits from about 1800 up to about 1899 can only indicate the involvement of women, some of them due to the circumstances of their birth or family connection, others by force of circumstance from humble origins.

Only women active in direct warfare, such as warriors, spies, and women who actively led armies are included in this list.

For entries pertaining specifically to the United States, please see: Timeline of women in war in the United States, Pre-1945

Timeline of women in warfare in the 19th century worldwide[edit]





  • 1831: Countess Emilia Plater creates her own group to fight in the Polish November Uprising. She becomes commanding officer of a company of infantry in the rank of captain. She dies from illness contracted during a forced march in December 1832. Several other women served openly as soldiers during this Polish rebellion against Russia, although not many are named; Soltyk reported that a beautiful girl of eighteen fought at the Russian crossfier at the Vola trenches in Warsaw the 4th September 1831, and he added that "there where not one troop of our army, where not one or more of these heroines fought."[citation needed]
  • 1838-1839: Johanna Martens serve in the Dutch army dressed as a man to be near to her lover, a soldier.[9]
  • January 20, 1839: Sergeant Candelaria Perez fights in the Battle of Yungay.[citation needed]







See also[edit]


  1. ^ Heuvel, Geertruida Sara Catharina van den (1783-1838)
  2. ^ Turner, Karen (2008). "Bui Thi Xuan". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-19-514890-9. 
  3. ^ Femmes d'Haiti : Marie-Jeanne
  4. ^ "Lincoln P. Paine: Warships of the World To 1900". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  5. ^ Gunningh Sloet, Francina (ca. 1792-na 1814)
  6. ^ Rudolf Dekker en Lotte van de Pol, Vrouwen in mannenkleren. De geschiedenis van een tegendraadse traditie. Europa 1500-1800 (Amsterdam 1989)
  7. ^ "Isabelle Bauino,Jacques Carré,Cécile Révauger: The Invisible Woman: Aspects Of Women's Work In Eighteenth-century Britain". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Brazilian biographical annual, Volume 2 By Joaquim Manoel de Macedo, p.493-496
  9. ^ Martens, Johanna (ca. 1818-na 1839)
  10. ^ Sarala, Srikrishna (1999). Indian revolutionaries: a comprehensive study, 1757–1961 I. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-87100-16-4. 
  11. ^ Women and War: A Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present, By Bernard A. Cook, p.199
  12. ^ Rethinking Islam and Liberal Democracy: Islamist Women in Turkish Politics By Yesim Arat, p.76
  13. ^ Johnson, Chris; Jolyon Leslie (2004). Afghanistan: the mirage of peace. Zed Books. p. 171. ISBN 1-84277-377-1. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  14. ^ Abdullah Qazi. "Afghan Women's History". Afghanistan Online. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  15. ^ "Women in the Canadian military". CBC News. May 30, 2006. 
  16. ^ The History of Ethiopia, By Saheed A. Adejumobi p.166
  17. ^ "Chronology of women's history". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "Language Arts for the Filipino Learners: An Integrated Language and Reading WorkText for Grade Four, p. 106". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 

External links[edit]