Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace
Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace is a peace movement started by women in Liberia, Africa that brought an end to the Second Liberian Civil War in 2003. Organized by social worker Leymah Gbowee, the movement started with thousands of local women praying and singing in a fish market daily for months. Thousands of women mobilized their efforts, staged silent nonviolence protests that included a sex strike and the threat of a curse.
In 2003 during the Second Liberian Civil War, Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace forced a meeting with President Charles Taylor and extracted a promise from him to attend peace talks in Ghana to negotiate with the rebels from Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy and Movement for Democracy in Liberia. A delegation of Liberian women went to Ghana to continue to apply pressure on the warring factions during the peace process. They staged a sit in outside of the Presidential Palace, blocking all the doors and windows and preventing anyone from leaving the peace talks without a resolution. The women of Liberia became a political force against violence and against their government. Their actions brought about an agreement during the stalled peace talks. As a result, the women were able to achieve peace in Liberia after a 14-year civil war and later helped bring to power the country's first female head of state, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.
Leymah Gbowee and Comfort Freeman, presidents of two different Lutheran churches, organized the Women in Peacebuilding Network (WIPNET), and issued a statement of intent: "In the past we were silent, but after being killed, raped, dehumanized, and infected with diseases, and watching our children and families destroyed, war has taught us that the future lies in saying NO to violence and YES to peace! We will not relent until peace prevails." 
Asatu Bah Kenneth, Assistant Minister for Administration and Public Safety of the Liberian Ministry of Justice, was president of the Liberia Female Law Enforcement Association at the time. Inspired by the work of the Christian women's peace initiative, she formed the Liberian Muslim Women's Organization to work for peace.
Together, Gbowee and Kenneth brought both groups together to form the Mass Action, a rare thing to happen in Liberia. Since they were brought together, relations have been less tense and more open between Christians and Muslims in Liberia, specifically Monrovia.
The Christian and Muslim women joined forces to create Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace. They wore white, to symbolize peace.
Lasting legacy of WIPSEN
Since the adoption of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2000, women have been engaged in rebuilding war-torn societies, restoring relationships and promoting social cohesion. Women Peace and Security Network — Africa (WIPSEN-Africa), is a women-focused, women-led Pan-African Non-Governmental Organization based in Ghana. It was established on May 8, 2006 to promote women's strategic participation and leadership in peace and security governance in Africa. Leymah Gbowee is the Executive Director and founding member. The organization has a presence in Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Liberia and Sierra Leone.
- In Ivory Coast, Aya Virginie Toure organized over 40,000 women in numerous peaceful protests in a revolution against Laurent Gbagbo in the Second Ivorian Civil War. Some were dressed in black, some were wearing leaves, and some were naked, all signs of an African curse directed toward Laurent Gbagbo.
- On March 23, at the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Summit in Nigeria, a "One Thousand Women March" was organized by peace activists in West Africa. They wore white t-shirts and represented countries across West Africa including Ivory Coast, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo. They issued a press release and presented a position statement to the ECOWAS Heads of State.
Pray the Devil Back to Hell
Pray the Devil Back to Hell is a documentary film directed by Gini Reticker and produced by Abigail Disney. The film premiered at the 2008 Tribeca Film Festival, where it won the award for Best Documentary. The film documents the efforts of Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace. The film has been used as an advocacy tool in post-conflict zones like Sudan and Zimbabwe, mobilizing African women to petition for peace and security.
- United States Institute of Peace
- Women in White
- Pray The Devil Back to Hell - video
- Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
- Pray the Devil Back to Hell
- Comfort Freeman
- Second Liberian Civil War
- Siege of Monrovia
- List of women who sparked a revolution
- Bio of Gbowee Leymah
- Liberian women pray as the nation heads to the polls
- WOMENS PEACE MOVEMENT OF LIBERIA
- United Nations Radio
- Bill Moyers Journal, June 19, 2009
- "WIPSEN EMPOWERS WOMEN...To fight for their rights" (article). Ghana Media Group. December 11, 2010.
- "Ivory Coast women defiant after being targeted by Gbagbo's guns" (article). The Guardian. March 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- "A plea for help from an Ivorian women's leader amid the violent power struggle" (radio broadcast). BBC Radio. March 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
- "Ivory Coast: women shot dead at anti-Gbagbo rally" (article). Euronews. March 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- "Ivory Coast's well-armed rebels making quick work of revolution" (article). The Guardian. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- "Women in Ivory Coast lead the revolution against Gbagbo" (article). Newscast Media. March 9, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
- "The Ivory Coast Effect" (article). The New Yorker. March 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- "ECOWAS Summit: West African women protest Ivorian situation" (article). Afrique en ligne. March 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- ""Thousand Women Protest March" in Solidarity with the Women of Cote d’Ivoire" (article). WIPSEN. March 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
- Tribeca Film Festival
- November 2009 MEDIAGLOBAL